Yesterday I was informed Pres. Park Chung Hee of Korea placed South Korea under martial law since 6:00 PM.
Ex-Foreign Minister Kiichi Aichi, personal representative of Prime Minister Tanaka of Japan arrived yesterday and conferred with me on the Japan-People’s Republic of China normalization of diplomatic relations, this morning.
I emphasized the security aspect more than the economic aspect. Since the agreement is similar to the U.S.-Red China communique in that it considers the question of Taiwan internal to China to be decided between Red China and Nationalist China, Taiwan would probably become a part of Red China and be our next door neighbor. Red China like Nationalist China would then claim the Spratley Islands and further raise a source of quarrel with the Philippines.
I asked Japan to support our position that the Spratley Islands are Trust Territories and that Taiwan should be defended by American Forces in force is used by Red China to settle the question.
I attach my notes.
Interviewed by Hayward of the Christian Science Monitor. Then met the sugar planters and millers who were up in arms against Ex-Sec. Alfredo Montelibano for illegal exactions of two pesos allegedly for lobby in the US and ConCon.
I created the Sugar Commission.
Met the Cotabato leaders, Datu Kudanding, Abdullah Sangki brough by Datu Akulan, mayor of Maginog.
The Cotobato (North) leaders, Moslem Tururays and Christian alike, have pledged to keep the peace and support me in the proclamation of martial law and the reformation.
But since fighting has broken out in the Magsanoy, Ampatuan, Pikit area I have called them to Manila — (all the provincial and municipal officials). I personally asked Cong. Salipada Pendatun to come over the telephone when I told talked to him after my opening appeal wherein I told the leaders that Mindanao is Moslem land and we, the Christians, are there because of their tolerance and their invitation; that the Christians should therefore help their brother Moslems and other minorities who are less prepared for an exacting modern world; that the policies I have established favor the Moslem areas; most of the money we have borrowed from abroad go to Mindanao, the seaports and airports being developed are in Mindanao; the “Investments below the typhoon belt policy” means investments will pour in for Mindanao and Sulu, and the oil exploration program will favor Mindanao and Sulu, the number of schools being constructed now in these islands are double that of the Luzon and Visayas areas.
So I concluded “I am ready to wipe out all past records and start out with the slate
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
clean provided that there will be no repetition of the past offenses.” And pointed out to how I had personally gone to Buldon to stop the Armed Forces of the Philippines from decimating that Moslem town under Mayor Aratuc (his son Tonatic had been sent by the father who was taken ill campaigning for the people’s support of martial law) with artillery fire notwithstanding the seven casualties suffered by the government troops.
We ended up with Cong. Salipada Pendatun reiterating support for my program and agreeing to head a mission to contact Ex-Gov. Udtog Matalam whose MIM forces have started the fighting to come to see me in Manila. But we have to stop the operations of the AFP against his band in the meantime.
And Datu Akilan Ampatuan will contact the two Sanki brohers, Abdullah and Balacat and son A to also come and see me. So too with the old man Datu Kadanding who have apparently joined Datu Udtog Matalam.
The Disumimba band which threatens Dinaig is composed of outlaws and will have to be destroyed.
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
Met Congs. Armi Gustilo of Negros and Eduardo Cojuangco of Tarlac. They report 105 armed men have gone up the mountains in Negros and their transit point to Panay where they have contact with some other subversives is through Guimaras through a certain Jayme.
We will mount a special intelligence and search and destroy operations.
They also showed a telegram of Sugar Administrator Jose Unson for all sugar people on planters and millers to pass their sugar through the Producers Cooperative controlled by Ex Sec. Alfredo Montelibano by a voting trust agreement who is apparently trying to corner the sugar market.
I have called all planters and millers next Wednesday at 10:30 AM so I can organize a government sugar commission to handle exports and domestic sales.
I met with Justice Fred Ruiz Castro. He has told the Chief Justice of my request that there be no direct confrontation between me and the Supreme Court. Justice Castro called attention to the fact that in all the cases they have studied, the U.S. Supreme Court decided the cases after martial law was over. I believe they will do this.
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
I have asked the Justices to help in preparing a list of CFI and CAR judges whose resignations should be accepted.
And reforms in the judiciary –or for that matter the whole society.
But I believe we still should look into how the Lopez interests (Meralco) have been paying the children and relatives of the justices.
And the payrolls are in the Meralco offices of the comptroller, the treasurer and personal secretaries of Mr. Eugenio Lopez.
The last article of Richard Critchfeld in the Washington Star is most laudatory: It is about the book (my book) calling it the best analysis of why I imposed martial law “It is a brilliantly-reasoned manifesto calling for a government-led 1. non-violent revolution to fundamentally remake Philippine society xxx The book provides the political theory and the blue-print of what Marcos is doing now xxx”
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
“It is perhaps one of the most extraordinary theoretical documents ever produced by a contemporary non-communist head of state.”
“Marcos book, taken together with all he has been saying and doing since he declared martial law, puts the present crisis into an altogether different perspective. Far from being a short-term emergency or a routine power play, it is a far greater and more dangerous enterprise.”
“Marcos is pitting himself, the Army, the technocrats and other modernizing forces against the entrenched oligarchy, the communists, the radical left and the Philippine criminal underworld in a prolonged struggle to decide whether this country can afford to remain an open society.”
The Concon and the sala of Judge Lustre of Quezon City trying the subversives were bombed by unidentified person this afternoon at 3:40 PM. It caused extensive damage and injured about thirty people.
Two of the subversives were almost able to escape.
This is apparently the answer of the subversives to the raids on their headquarters in Manila, Quezon and Pasay last Sunday morning at 4:30 where about 48 were arrested including Cabardo, a former PMA cadet who is tagged as the Visayan NPA head.
Ex Sec. Peding Montelibano, after bringing the problems of the PNB and the sugar industry, pledged that he and his family (one governor and one congressman) were behind me and Imelda even if I proclaimed martial law.
One thing about this man, he has a good nose for survival.
Sept. 18th (Con’t)
We finalized the plans for the proclamation of martial law at 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm with the SND, the Chief of Staff, major service commanders, J-2, Gen. Paz, 1st PC Zone Commander, Gen. Diaz and Metrocom commander, Co. Montoya, with Gen. Ver in attendance.
They all agreed the earlier we do it the better because the media is waging a propaganda campaign that distorts and twists the facts and they may succeed in weakening our support among the people if it is allowed to continue.
So after the bombing of the Concon, we agreed on the 21st without any postponement.
We finalized the target personalities, the assignments, and the procedures.
Our communications network will center in Malacañan as before.
Imelda is strong enough to play host to her crowd nightly. We have just eaten Chinese lugao and lumpia brought in by Joe and Betty Campos. I liked most the bajo or powdered beef tapa and the seeweed for the lumpia. It is now 11:00 PM. Last night we went to bed at 11:30 PM. Read De Gaulle’s war memoirs up to 1:30 P.M. after writing my diary.
I must soon write my war memoirs while the events are still fresh in my mind.
Met with the fiscal policy committee at 8:00 AM here in the hospital and gave instructions to Com. Sychangco and Gov. Licaros to reconcile the figures on government deficits. The Central Bank has the figures at P1.1 billion cash deficit. Com. Sychangco says the cash deficit is only P600 million with savings of P283 million.
I have also ordered Gov. Licaros to put down in a formal Aide Memoire to be handed to the IMF consultative committee our position that we will not agree to a devaluation and will take any measures short of it; — and to include the stabilization measures we have adopted including the allowance of the establishment of dollar accounts in Philippine banks with 100% dollar backing and to allow hotels to keep 25% of their dollar earnings because right now the dollar earnings of hotels has gone down to zero.
I met with Piding Montelibano, who was brought to Pangarap by Bobby Benedicto. He has just recovered from the flu which is all over Europe and Asia.
[Marginal note: We must now develop rural electrification under the new law passed last year and Schools of Arts and Trades. The British Ambassador who came to say goodbye also seems to agree these will bring about development faster.]
Incidentally Col. Ver reports to me that Terry Adevoso, the mastermind of the assassination and military takeover of the government informed the conferees of the Junta in their meeting at the house of Commodore Alcaraz that the Vice President or the Lopez group has its own liquidation plot for me. I must look into this more deeply.
I intend to have the EEA cases filed against Adevoso and Emmanuel Ocampo his operations man to keep them occupied. But at the same time we must obtain evidence for the filing of a case of conspiracy to commit treason. Apparently included in the plot is Col. Patterson, the U.S. Embassy military attaché, or so Adevoso says. Terry Adevoso said that he spoke to Ambassador Byroade about their plot and while the Ambassador was defending me he said that if he (Adevoso) had anything to ask or tell him, he (Adevoso) should talk to Patterson. Adevoso said that it was Patterson who suggested that Ayala and Nagtahan Bridges should be blown up so as to isolate Malacañang Palace during the attack.
Included in the plot are Alcaraz, David Pelayo, Capt. Acosta of the Navy.
The newspapers headlined (specially Manila Times) the resignation of Nolan from the Sugar Quota Adm. and Sugar Institute. I have asked him to stay but today I have had to designate Jose Unson the Asst. Sugar Quota Adm. to replace him.
This may precipitate a break with the Montelibanos and the Lopezes who, I am sure, are behind it.
I hope Ex Sec. Alfredo Montelibano resigns from the RCA so I can appoint Bong Tanco.
I write this on the evening of the 16th because last night after the birthday party of Hilda Ysmael, we slept at the Veterans Memorial Hospital so that Meldy may be operated on at 6:00 AM.
Manila is talking about the sugar bloc blackmailing me into supporting Laurel for Speaker with the editorials of the Chronicle, the resignation of Nolan, the expected resignation of Montelibano and other signs.
What they do not know is that Iñing Lopez when I saw him on the 13th at the Meralco Hospital insisted on the appointment of Montelibano as Secretary of Finance on the ground that there was need for a new face in the Finance Dept. I am sure this is because Danding Romualdez has refused to be their tool. Anyway I told him that if Danding Romualdez should be changed
this would be an admission of the failure of the monetary policies which I am not ready to do because I approved of them. Although the state of our balance of payments was never revealed to me until June 1969 when it was impossible to do anything as any retrenchment and curtailment of imports and government expenditure would have caused a skyrocketing of process during the political campaign. This would have been a disaster.
But as soon as my reelection was assured, I ordered all the necessary steps to be taken like the curtailment of imports and the cutting of government expenditures; all public works releases have been suspended, all casuals terminated, loans and guarantees by the government financing institutions stopped. Prices went up and I had to call the retailers, dealers and importers to maintain the old level of prices. We sent a mission to the U.S. and Europe to obtain new loans and restructure our short-term loans.
Ting Roxas bungled the mission. According to Iñing Lopez, Maurice, the President of the German National Bank, Ting Roxas panicked everybody in Germany into believing that the Philippines was in chaos. And they came to the Philippines to see for themselves. To their surprise they discover us still operating as a democracy.
Ex-Pres. Macapagal who is visiting in Singapore says that he is shocked by the news that there is supposed to be a secret agreement for the Sabah claim to be relinquished by the Philippines after the resumption of diplomatic relations.
There is no such agreement. I used Mr. Moon Park and Mr. Chang Ming Thieu as emissaries to Prime Minister Tungku Abdul Rahman and Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Ragak so that they would agree to the resumption of diplomatic relations. The Tungku had insisted on such relinquishment of the claim and a recognition formally of the sovereignty of Malaysia over Sabah, but I refused and they formally agreed that after diplomatic relations our two peoples should get used to each other travelling in our respective countries before we spoke of these matters. The Filipinos should now go to Sabah and invest there.
VP Agnew in Thailand and Taipeh has said that I asked him whether America was slowly withdrawing from Asia and he had answered in the negative. I asked Pres. Nixon the same thing. He was more vague, although when he reached the U.S. he did say what Agnew is saying now.
What I want to know is what bases they are going to keep in Asia and what troops where, and under what arrangements
Agnew is quoted as saying he had told me that he had made me understand and that he told me
that, of course, the number and location would change with the need.
He told me nothing of the kind.
On the last day of his stay here, Jan. 1st, when I talked to him about the U.S. helping us on our present balance of payments problem, he was evasive. I did not press the point.
Either he has no power to commit the U.S. or he is still feeling his way around.
During the conference at 11:30 AM if Dec. 31st when I met all the special envoys of 44 governments who attended my inauguration, the only matter on which there was some vestige of promise of help was on studies of typhoons and their control. Amb. Byroade is supposed to follow this up.
I impressed on VP Agnew that we in Asia could not make any plans on our security if we did not know their plans but that however even in such state of ignorance we in the Philippines are moving to prepare to defend ourselves on our own.
He invited me to come to the U.S. after September 1970 – preferably not while the other heads of state are in the U.S. on the UN anniversary. I made no commitment on the exact date but did promise to go.
Pres. Nixon and VP Agnew strike me as very evasive about helping the Philippines now although they are supporting us in the IMF and IBRD in our efforts to get dollar loans.
I am skeptical about the wisdom of a trip to the U.S.
I have told Sec. Romulo repeatedly that there should be no further talks of the U.S. military bases in the Phil and our wish to remove them as we will use this as the “ultimate weapon” in the trading that may be needed to obtain recognition of our special preferences in the American market. For if our quota on sugar is not extended by the Sugar Act’s extension this year or by treaty in the replacement of the Laurel-Langley agreement, then the sugar industry is wrecked and our economy may be disastrously affected.
So I have told VP Agnew that before the formal negotiations on trade and security start we should have an understanding as to what terms such negotiations would arrive at. I said that I would like Amb. Byroade to be able to sit down with me on this.
Rod Reyes, editor of the Manila Chronicle, has just told Kits Tatad that they are planning to serialize the libelous book of Chit Navarro on Imelda.
We have to watch the Lopezes and Montelibano. They are still sore for my veto of their franchise to operate a telephone and telecommunications company anywhere in the Philippines and the NuVue – a cable television company that would select programs from any of the television companies (without permission from the latter) to be flashed to their subscribers by cable. Both were illegal and unconstitutional but they took offense at the veto.
They are the worst oligarchs in the country.
I must stop them from using the government for their own purposes.
Piding Montelibano is working on the reclamation project of Republic Real Estate – pending adjudication in the courts.
Iñing Lopez strongly urged that I appoint Piding as Secretary of Finance, as if the position were vacant. This was a repetition of the recommendation in 1965.
Peace and order must be immediately attended to.
I must work out the programs for exports and tourism.
Then I must appoint the replacement of Gov. Calalang as Governor of the Central Bank. The IMF consultative group arrives in Jan. 10th.
There are more than 100 CFI vacancies, 7 Court of Appeals, one in the Supreme Court and another vacancy coming up in February.
The Armed Forces has too many hold-overs who should be retired.
We must change the strategy in Central Luzon against the Huks. We must restudy the use of civilians either as agents or informers.
There are three basic problems that I am personally attending to:
Peace and Order
Balance of Payments
Exports and Tourism come under the 2nd and Central Luzon under the 1st.