The actuations of the Americans before the elections generated the fear that the U.S. was so tired of war that the American people were willing to buy peace at any price — even at the price of being a second class power, or second in military might to others.
But the victory of Nixon, I hope, will change all this. For peace in Asia or for that matter the world may depend on the credibility of the U.S. commitments and agreements.
The U.S. commitment in the U.S.-Phil. Defense agreement (notwithstanding the fact that action for defense against external attack will depend upon decisions in accordance with her constitutional processes, which means Congress would have to decide whether to fight or not and unless the provocation is grave Congress might decide
Nov. 12th (Con’t)
to negotiate even at the expense of the Philippines) at least may now mean something.
Although I do not believe we can expect much in the way of military aid although we may be able to get some economic aid for Land Reform.
Gov. Kokoy Romualdez just talked to me by long distance telephone. He tells me that Pres. Nixon seems to be following what I am doing — asking for discipline, reorganizing the government, resignation of the officers. But that seems logical.
Today I worked on the exports problems — GATT, LTA (Long Term Agreements on Textiles) EEC-ASEAN consultations. Asked Sec. Cesar Virata and T. Quiazon to work on them and submit reports.
Imelda and I loafed around all morning.
Nov. 12th (con’t)
She watched the Bagong Anyo ’72 on TV in the afternoon with her friends. I went to Pangarap to play golf but it started to drizzle so I exercised indoors, had a long massage and talked to Imee by long distance to wish her a Happy Birthday. She was at the Del Mar, a beach house for the nuns at her school in Sta. Catalina. She is 17 today.
We have been sleeping in Suite I since two nights ago because the allergist, Dr. Kua Lim discovered molds and bacteria in our bedroom and gymnasium below and they are now being cleaned completely.
I have been able to placate the hill tribes, the Palawan Tausogs, the Manobos, the Higanons, the T’boli, the Mansakos etc as well as the Moslems.
We met with the Alontos (Domocao, the delegate, Madki and Gov. Tarhata Alonto Lucman) and the Cotobao Datus, the Sinsuats, the Ampatuans, Kudanding etc.
And started operations PARE under Gen. Aluvete and Chairman Aboitiz of the MDA.
Interview by Richardson of the Australian paper The Age.
And met the delegations led by Gov. Espinosa of Masbate, Gov. and Congressman Cerilles of Zamboanga del Sur and Cong. Gustilo of Negros Occidental.
Talked to Kokoy on the US situation. Washington apparently for my martial law but not that of Pres. Park Chung Hee of Korea. He does not seem to have any reason for it as he is now negotiating the union of North and South Korea.
Am now working on the labor intensive investments like garments, embroideries and cottage industries.
And the impact infrastructure like the roads and destroyed dikes, irrigation electric & power projects etc.
Finalizing land reform (ownership phase) on the basis of transfer of ownership over land in excess of six hectares.
Tillwan Durdin of New York Times has now reported favorably on the developments in Manila contrary to his initial reports. I attach cabled report on his story and other stories.
Since the New York Times is the bell weather of American newspaper sentiment, this should mark the generally favorable reaction to martial law.
This morning at 9:30 I met all the generals at Camp Aguinaldo. I cautioned them against complacency arising out of the euphoria of easy victory; to watch October a it may be the crucial month; that the reform movement and the creation of the New Society is our principal objective and keeping down criminality and prices is the urgent and immediate objective; that it is easier to win a war or a revolution (for no matter how peaceful or constitutional it is, it is a revolution) than it is to run a government; but that I am confident in their capacity to continue the excellent performance.
Increased allowances of enlisted men and pay of officers.
Sept. 30th (Con’t)
Decreased the rates of Meralco to 20.9% from 36%. This is the crying need of the people. I attach the order as well as other orders I signed today.
Antonio Roxas Chua and the other sugar dealers and traders were apprehended for hoarding and profiteering. They were also getting ₱10 a bag of sugar sold to industrial users.
He has offered to sell all his sugar at controlled prices. So have the others.
I attach his offer through Ralph Nubla whom I authorized to see him.
The Meralco oligarchs are trying to see me. The head of the clan, Eugenio Lopez Sr., has been trying to get me by telephone. Now the son (Junior) has asked to meet with Gov. Kokoy Romualdez. They sent Tony Ayala. They are also going to see Bobby Benedicto who has arrived.
I am sure it is about the rates.
I intend to review all power rates thoughout the Philippines.
Sec. Vicente Abad Santos on the removal of judges: He is against the outright dismissal of civil service employees.
But I have decided to amend the civil service rules so as to add two new categories of punishment without going through a final hearing in addition to dismissal by an investigator. These are removal of those against whom charges are pending in which the evidence of guilt is strong and those that are notoriously undesirable so that it can be taken judicial notice of.
CIR judges have been removed except Judge Veloso and Paredes.
All Public Service Commissioners except Asst. Com. de Guzman also reorganized out.
I have asked Dr. Genaro de Bega to request Judges Wilfrido Angeles of Quezon City, Vivencio Ruiz of Makati, Herminio Mariano of Pasig to resign.
And I have dismissed 200 Customs men and 190 BIR men.
Sept. 29th (Con’t)
Kokoy reports that the International Press has become favorable.
Increased the allowances of the officers and men of the AFP.
Provided ₱13 million for the equipment of three new PA battalions.
Imelda is working on the commissary for the AFP.
Prices have gone down except sugar which is not available.
Tony Roxas Chua, the principal sugar trader has been arrested with others for price fixing.
Am writing Pres. Nixon on the reasons for Martial Law.
Things have moved according to plan although out of the total 200 target personalities in the plan only 52 have been arrested, including the three senators, Aquino, Diokno and Mitra and Chino Roces and Teddy Locsin.
At 7:15 PM I finally appeared on a nationwide TV and Radio broadcast to announce the proclamation of martial law, the general orders and instructions.
I place them in Envelope XXXV-C
I was supposed to broadcast at 12:00AM but technical difficulties prevented it. We had closed all TV stations. We had to clear KBS which broadcast it live. VOP and PBS broadcast it by radio nationwide.
The broadcast turned out rather well and Mons. Gaviola as well as the usual friends liked it. But my most exacting critic, Imelda, found it impressing. I watched the replay at 9:00 PM.
Sept. 23rd (Con’t)
I have amended curfew from 8-6 to 12-4.
Arms bearing outside residence without permit punishable by death.
Kits Tatad read the proclamation, the orders and the instructions after my talk.
Have started checking on Zone Commanders. Gen. Encarnacion of the IV does not seem to have been systematic. He still talks of some people like Mayor Cabili criticizing the proclamation of martial law as premature although grudgingly extending cooperation under Gen. Order No. 3 for all offices to continue functioning.
Talk to Imee and Bongbong. London newspaper had it I arrested the opposition, no mention of communists.
And called up Sec. Romulo and Amb. Romualdez before them. New York Times at least was sure handed and spoke of martial law after the attempt of assassination of my Secretary of National Defense.
Sept. 23rd (Con’t)
Ordered all wire services and embassies to be furnished the speech, proclamation, orders and instructions.
The doctors advise rest and no work for some time. Even Dr. Tamesis, my optometrist, also recommends no reading for long stretches of time.
Am calling the Congress to a fourth Special Session beginning midnight tonight, inasmuch as they have not approved any of the urgent bill needed for reconstruction and rehabilitation.
Directed Gen. Params of Task Force Soranay to prepare for any eventuality, including possible training in Isabela of 2,500 NPA’s for use for attack on Manila and a total og 10,000 NPA’s for the whole country.
Counteraction and infiltration must be worked out.
Kokoy Romualdez arrived from the US. He reports the bankers and big businessmen of the US are exorcised about the Supreme Court decision on parity and real estate ownership. They asked to meet
August 31st (Con’t)
him in New York. And kept blaming me for their deprival of real estate. But he told them a few facts of life — that there were warned about the impending decision some time ago but they did not do anything about the time bomb, that the only one who could help them was the President of the Philippines; but that the President of the Philippines was less interested in their property than in the security of the Philippines and its people which was threatened by the communists and they have not helped in this danger that haunts the President; on the contrary they have belittled his fears and not extended arms and sympathy to fight the communists.
So the businessmen and even the White House are sending two delegations to see the situation and me.
Spent practically the whole afternoon (4:00 PM) up to about 8:00 PM with the military, Gens. Yan, Espino, Ileto, Garcia, Tanabe, Sabalones, Ordoñez, Col. Ver and Diaz. Gov. Nepomuceno with Eric Mendoza who is a former jet pilot resigned because of hazing and helping in the location of Dante and Arthur Garcia whom he confirms he met after the claim that he (Garcia) was killed by Dante, were also here. Gov. Nepomuceno is disturbed by my statement to him that his bodyguards are Dante’s men. So he is helping through Mendoza in the campaign to locate Dante.
We mapped out the plans in the event of the massive sabotage of the city and the public utilities. Transferred some of the armor to Central Luzon. They missed Dante by a few hours in Capas the other day.
But we have five companies [of] reserves for the Metrocom which has 1,339 men – one company each from the major services and one from GHQ. Then there are two HDF in Malacañang, two in Camp Crame and one in [Fort] Bonifacio. The different brigades are forming up. In the event of an emergency, the PA can organize two more complete battalions with equipment in Fort Magsaysay and Cebu for the April training.
Our unanimous assessment is that the subversives have no capability of mounting an attack of company proportion and probably will not but are capable of small unit harassment, sabotage and liquidation which capability should also be eradicated.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
Cocoy reports that the people have faith in my capability to solve the problems we face.
Ablan Jr. claims Vic Villafranca whom he says is in his payroll will be the publisher of the Catholic newspaper for which a million dollars worth of printing machinery has been ordered. Villafranca is looking for an editor.
Benny Toda of PAL is allegedly organizing an intelligence team under Col. Hernandez, former J-2, to research on the administration – in retaliation for my open skies policy.
These rich people are back to their old tricks to protect their profits.
The new monetary policy seems to be received well. We will see how the market is tomorrow.