February 5, 1942 — Thursday

Got up at 5 a.m. Shaved, took a bath etc. At 6:45 a.m. left the house for the dock with Vice-President Osmeña, Chief Justice Abad Santos, Captain Andres Soriano, Major B. Diño, Medical Service and Lieutenant Jose Abad Santos, Jr. The launch Baler took us to Cabcaben where we arrived at 7:20 a.m. General Francisco, General McBride, Colonel Sellick, Colonel Jalandoni and Major Gavalen were waiting for us. On three cars we proceeded to the evacuation area N—1 which is near Cabcaben. The camp has been recently organized to accommodate the civilians that evacuated from the towns recently occupied by the Japanese and from the mountain regions which fall within the zone of battle. General McBride informed me that the first information that they had received was that the evacuees numbered about three to four thousand. This figure was wrong because there were about ten thousand already. The camp was fairly well organized each family having built a small bahay kubo under trees so as not to be seen from the air. The problem of sanitation is serious. There were some places with a strong odor of human excreta. I talked to the doctor in charge and to the evacuees. From this camp we walked through fields to the Base Hospital N—2 U.S. Army which is about half a kilometer from this camp. We met the Commanding Officer Colonel Vander Broughest and he took us around to the various wards, all placed in the open air. I saw many Philippine Army officers and enlisted men, and also some U.S. Army. I distributed some packages of cigarettes and they were all happy to get a good smoke. I also distributed matches and soap. In the front these three articles are in great demand. Soap is so scarce that officers and men have to wash their underwear, without soap, and use them again without ironing. I was surprised to see among the wounded Lieutenant Orobia and Lieutenant Molina of the Air Corps. They were wounded in the battle of Aglaloma where 200 Japanese were able to land.

Upon leaving the hospital we took the cars again and proceeded to the Command Post of General Francisco which is in Km 166. He was busy studying maps and giving orders. I walked to Manolin’s place which is about 300 yards from General Francisco. Lieutenant Colonel Roxas and other Medical Officers were all together. Manolin had his bed and tent nicely fixed under a large tree. While at General Francisco’s Command Post I phoned to Lee Stevens who is a Captain and is assigned under Colonel Quinn in Motor Pool N—2 at Lamao point. I asked him to meet me at San Jose but unfortunately we were delayed and he left before I could see him.

From General Francisco’s place we went to General McBride’s Command Post situated in the interior of the forest. While we were seated there having a cup of coffee, a Japanese plane passed by and circled around apparently on observation. General Marshall came from his Command Post to talk to me regarding the pay of civilian laborers. He was under the impression that the Commonwealth Government was paying them per diems in addition to their pay from the U.S. Armies. I informed him that this was not true. We talked with Colonel Fischer who is handling the G—2 work of the H.P.D.

From here we proceeded to base hospital N—1 which had been transferred from Limay to “Little Baguio”. It was neatly kept. Colonel Duckworth the Commanding Officer took us around the wards and operating rooms. I saw for the first an X-ray unit similar to the ones we ordered before the war broke out and which we never received.

Then we proceeded to Km.172 the old Command Post of General Francisco which has been transferred by Colonel Luna into an evacuation hospital. Further into the interior of the forest the evacuation camp N-3 for civilians was being installed under the supervision of Captain Gonzalez Infantry U.S. Army and Dr. Baltazar of the health service, brother in law of Lieutenant E.D. Rufino. Nice place now. I believe it will be damp during the rainy season.

Then we proceeded to the evacuation camp N-2 for civilians situated above Mariveles. There were serveal families from Bacolor. They were happy to see us. A young lady approached me and said: “General, how is Charito(Nucay), your little girl”? “I believe she is all right”, I answered. “Give her my best regards, I am Socorro Sarmiento, her teacher in the Assumption Convent”. What a coincidence! To find in “no-mans land”, living the life of a soldier, the teacher of my child.

Then we proceeded to the Headquarters of the Philippine Army where I conversed with the officers and discussed with them several problems presented to me for decision.

From here we went to Barrio San Jose near Mariveles. This hour (3 p.m.) being the time when the Japanese planes invariable bombard the airfield at Mariveles, General McBride suggested that we take the cut-off. I readily approved not only because I realized that the Mariveles road was an inferno every afternoon, but also because I was not familiar with the cut-off. I did not regret having taken this decision. The road is really picturesque, crossing the mountain ridge giving the traveler, a wonderful airplane view of the surrounding country and the Mariveles bay.

On the road we passed the prison compound. General McBride invited us to see it. It is a huge place surrounded by two walls of barbed wire three meters apart. Within the compound the prisoners were separated into small sections. In the left corner there were two enemy aliens (Germans); they looked well fed and contented. In an middle section there were ten Japanese wearing a black blue Kimono which had white letters on the back P.O.W. (Prisoner of War.) I was informed that they had ten prisoners from the Philippine Army and I asked to see them. I was allowed to enter the compound but I was made to leave the pistol with the guard outside. Lieutenants Ponter and Medden U.S. Army did the same thing. As we entered two additional guards rushed to the rear part of the compound and guarded us while I talked to the men. I found that 7 out of the 10 were in for desertion. I investigated them briefly and I became convinced that the charge of desertion could not be proven. They were soldiers left behind when their units changed positions in the battle line and had been lost. As a matter of fact they had been asking for the position of their units.

From here we continued our trip to Barrio San Jose, Mariveles, where the launch Baler was waiting for us. We arrived at 4:50 p.m. Just as we stepped out of the cars and began walking down the cliff to go to the beach we saw three Japanese planes returning from their bombing expedition to Mariveles and apparently were on their way to Cabcaben.

The wind was blowing hard and the waves were larger than usual making it hard for us to board the launch. We were finally carried by sailor to a boat which took us to the launch.

We arrived at Fort Mills at 6 p.m. Too late for dinner, had to dine at the house.


January 19, 1942 – Monday

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Got up at 6 a.m. Shaved & dressed. Took launch Baler at 7 a.m. for Cabcaben. Arrived there 7:30 a.m. Lieutenant Monsod aide to General Francisco & Major Javallera came to meet us. Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Nieto, and Major Romulo were with me. We took the command car and proceed to General Francisco’s Command Post we had breakfast there. Then we left on our inspection tour.

The first place I inspected was the Philippine Constabulary collecting station. I saw Colonel Luna and all the other Medical Officers with him. It is the best place of all I have been. Nice clean running water; good large trees which serve the double purpose of shade from the sun and from enemy airplanes.

From there I visited the Headquarters of the Philippine Army which is just across the road. Very nice and quiet place also. Well protected from Airplane attacks. I discussed some matters with them. I saw all the officers there. The morale is excellent, the spirit is high.

They were all anxious to know how soon would the help come. I told them that I have the pre-sentiment, the hunch, that I will return to Manila at the end of February this year.

It was already 11:20 a.m., so we decided to have luncheon at Colonel Luna’s place. After luncheon we proceeded on our tour of inspection. The first Command Post. we stopped was General Selleck’s. He was reconnoitering. This is the second time I missed him.

Then we went to General Segundo’s Command Post. near Morong. It is situated a few kilometers from Morong, on the side of the mountain. We had to do some steep climbing to reach his place. It was about 2:30 p.m. We found him eating his luncheon as he had just returned from the battle line. He explained to us the situation. “During the morning”, he said “a group of about 300 Japanese tried to make a landing in the beach. Our artillery saw it and let them have a taste of our shells. They ran away leaving about 150 dead and their guns”. At 3 p.m. he took us to his main battle line. We reached our line which was in the south-side of the Morong river. I visited all the machine gun nests and spoke to the boys. The morale was excellent. They were anxious to see the enemy and let him have it. Then we climbed the hill and saw our batteries of 75mm and 155mm guns. I spoke to Lieutenant Menties an American in command of the batteries. He said that he would stick to his gun alive or dead and “Believe me”, he added “when this baby (155) starts firing someone is going to get hurt.”

As I was afraid to be caught by darkness in the mountain road, we returned to General Segundo’s Command Post, dropped him at the entrance and the proceeded to General Steven’s Command Post at Km. 148, Pilar Bagac Road Trail 7, 3 Km. South to the Interior. We arrived there 5 minutes after a Japanese plane had circled the place and dropped 4 bombs. No damage done, only two telephone wires cut. No casualties. I saw him, Major Velasquez, Captain Papa, and other officers. I did not see General Bluemel as I had been informed that he had left with his division for the main battle line at Abucay.

We proceeded then to General Capinpin’s Command Post at Guitol — six kms to the interior of Balanga. We had to cross an extensive sugar cane field. After we had driven about ten minute, some Filipino soldiers yelled at us: “Be careful for snipers.” I paid no attention. A little farther we were stopped by an American soldier, who warned us that some snipers had infiltrated our lines and were shooting from the sugar cane. I saw some Philippine Army soldiers and one officer waiting. I asked them what they were doing and they replied that they were waiting for a truck to take them to General Capinpin’s place. I told them to stand on the running boards of my command car and shoot at the first sign of snipers. After a few minutes my guide (2nd Lieutenant Subido) said “there is the entrance to General Capinpin’s Command Post”. I jumped out of the car and suddenly I saw a large number of our soldiers attacking from my left. Unknowingly, I was standing two yards in front of a machine gun. The gunner said “Sir, please move away, I am going to start shooting.” Then firing came from our right. I then realized that we had been caught between 2 firing lines. I jumped back into the car, and my guide suggested that we escape through a back road leading to Balanga. We did. Nieto and I held our pistols in our hands ready to shoot in case of necessity. We were able to leave unhurt from that danger.

Earlier, in the afternoon, I had been informed that Lieutenant Primitivo San Agustin had been wounded, so I went to Limay where Hospital N-1 is located. I found that he was admitted on January 6, and left on January 12. No one could inform me of his disposition. I concluded that he had been transferred. As I was in the Limay Hospital, the ambulance arrived bringing Colonel Hudson, who had been wounded at Guitol, just in the place where we had been standing. He was bleeding profusely from his side. We then returned to General Francisco’s Command Post arriving there at 11:15 p.m. It is very hard to drive in those roads at night with black-out lights. The roads are not wide and the traffic is tremendously heavy.

We had dinner at 11:30 p.m. and then we went to bed. I was so tired that I just washed my face and hands and went to sleep.


January 11, 1942 -Sunday

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Got up at 7:30 a.m., dressed with the same wet clothes and wet shoes, took breakfast and proceeded on my journey of inspection of the front. We drove South to Mariveles, and went to the camp of Philippine Army Headquarters ten kilometers north of Mariveles hidden under a forest. I talked to the officers who met me at the road. As I was talking with them 3 Japanese planes arrived and flew over us. We ordered all officers and men to remain quiet under the trees so as not to attract their attention. A few minutes later we heard the Anti-aircraft guns in action in Mariveles, followed by the explosions of the bombs dropped there. Half an hour later, I proceeded. I visited the Command Post of Colonel Castañeda in the interior of the forest. While we were talking to him, 3 Japanese planes flew very low, quite close to the tree tops. We remained very quiet. Colonel Castañeda pointed out a small foxhole to me just in front of me. “Sir”, he said, “jump in if necessary”. The planes continued.

From Colonel Castañeda’s post we went to General Selleck’s Command Post. It was being installed and arranged. I warned the men not to cut too many branches from the trees as that would expose their situation to the enemy. I told them to cut the under-brush only. We saw Colonel Salvador Reyes.

We missed the Command Post of General Steven’s 71st Division which we passed because General Francisco’s aide was not familiar with the Command Post. The road from Mariveles to Bagac is mountainous and beautiful. The dust was terrible. I passed General Wainwright’s Command Post. I was informed that he was out on inspection. When we were near Balanga we saw a Philippine Army car on the road. I asked the driver what he was doing and he informed us that he was pumping his tire. He warned us to be careful as the Japanese were bombarding the airfield at the entrance of Balanga. As we reached the landing field which is close to the road we saw eight big craters in the runway. We believed that we were safe and continued to Balanga two kilometers away. No sooner had we stopped our car to speak to the Captain commanding the Philippine Constabulary at Bataan, when a bomb dropped nearby. We rushed to a nearby house for shelter. Two thirds of the town has been destroyed by incendiary and demolition bombs. A few minutes later we decided to proceed to Limay. As we started, several bombs fell again near the place. Instead of stopping we rushed out of the town. We saw several U.S. army cars hiding under trees waiting for that plane to leave.

We reached Limay where the U.S. Army Field Hospital is. We proceeded to Lamao Point where our off-shore patrol is stationed, arriving at 2:30 p.m. Captain Jurado prepared an impromptu luncheon with tinapa of Bangus and rice. At 4:30 p.m. our launch Baler arrived and we left for Corregidor. On our way back we suddenly heard Anti Aircraft gun shots. I looked up and saw a solitary Japanese plane flying very high en route to Manila. How I envied that Japanese pilot. We arrived Corregidor at 5:30 p.m.


November 17, 1941

The special Command and Gen. Staff Course (CGSC) in Baguio City that started last Sept. 1, graduated its students of Senior Army O’s for assgmnts. to the ten Divisions being moblilized, after a two and a half months schooling conducted by USA O’s Cols. Clifford Bluemel as Comdt., assisted by Clyde Selleck, William E. Brougher  and Albert M. Jones.

As of this date, the following O’s are assigned to their respective Divisions as Div. Commanders and Div. Chief of Staffs:

Division             Division Commander                      Div.  

                                                                                   Chief of Staff                    

11th        Col. William Brougher, USA    Col. Juan Moran, PA

21st        Col. Mateo Capinpin, PA       Col. Nemesio Catalan,

PA

31st        Col. Clifford Bluemel, USA    Col. Pastor Martelino,

PA

41st        B/Gen. Vicente Lim, PA  Lt. Col. Tomas Domaoal,

PA

51st       Col. Albert Jones, USA   Lt. Col. Ricardo Poblete,

PA

61st       Col. Bradford G. Chenoweth, USA  Col. Juan

Quimbo, PA

71st      Col. Clyde A. Selleck, USA    Col. Salvador Reyes,

PA

81st      Col. Guy O. Fort, PA          Lt. Col. Calixto Duque, PA

91st      Col. Luther R. Stevens, PA  Lt. Col. Jaime

Velasquez, PA

101st   Col. Joseph Vachon, USA  Col. Eustaquio Baclig, PA


August 13, 1941

Our Q-Boats night attack exercises continue under different situations with greater intensity.  My PAAC Mistah Aranzaso also reported that the 6th Pursuit Sqdn. where he belongs are having intensive exercises at Zablan Field. My other classmates aside from Aranzaso in that Squadron under the command of 1st. Lt. Jess Villamor are Lts. Bartolome Cabangbang, Urbano Caldoza, Horacio Farolan and Pete Aragon.  I got the same report about intensive training exercises from my classmates in the Infantry at Camp Murphy and the Artillery at Camp Dau and Fort Wint since the USAFFE was announced last July 27.

Col. Clifford Bluemel USA is appointed Comdt., CGSS to be assisted by Cols. Clyde Selleck, William A. Brougher, and Albert Jones, all US Army Os selected by MacArthur.

Our Q-Boat training on night sneak attacks was completed last week.  This week, our training  will be on anti-aircraft firing  with drone targets towed by airplanes.

Manila News front page says the British and Soviets warn Iran  to get rid of excess German tourist.  Also, London and Moscow  signed a Trade Agreement.