October 11, 1972

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12:00 PM

Oct. 11, 1972

Wednesday

Malacañan Palace

Manila

The Cotobato (North) leaders, Moslem Tururays and Christian alike, have pledged to keep the peace and support me in the proclamation of martial law and the reformation.

But since fighting has broken out in the Magsanoy, Ampatuan, Pikit area I have called them to Manila — (all the provincial and municipal officials). I personally asked Cong. Salipada Pendatun to come over the telephone when I told talked to him after my opening appeal wherein I told the leaders that Mindanao is Moslem land and we, the Christians, are there because of their tolerance and their invitation; that the Christians should therefore help their brother Moslems and other minorities who are less prepared for an exacting modern world; that the policies I have established favor the Moslem areas; most of the money we have borrowed from abroad go to Mindanao, the seaports and airports being developed are in Mindanao; the “Investments below the typhoon belt policy” means investments will pour in for Mindanao and Sulu, and the oil exploration program will favor Mindanao and Sulu, the number of schools being constructed now in these islands are double that of the Luzon and Visayas areas.

So I concluded “I am ready to wipe out all past records and start out with the slate

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Oct. 11th (Con’t)

Malacañan Palace

Manila

clean provided that there will be no repetition of the past offenses.” And pointed out to how I had personally gone to Buldon to stop the Armed Forces of the Philippines from decimating that Moslem town under Mayor Aratuc (his son Tonatic had been sent by the father who was taken ill campaigning for the people’s support of martial law) with artillery fire notwithstanding the seven casualties suffered by the government troops.

We ended up with Cong. Salipada Pendatun reiterating support for my program and agreeing to head a mission to contact Ex-Gov. Udtog Matalam whose MIM forces have started the fighting to come to see me in Manila. But we have to stop the operations of the AFP against his band in the meantime.

And Datu Akilan Ampatuan will contact the two Sanki brohers, Abdullah and Balacat and son A   to also come and see me. So too with the old man Datu Kadanding who have apparently joined Datu Udtog Matalam.

The Disumimba band which threatens Dinaig is composed of outlaws and will have to be destroyed.

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Oct. 11th (Con’t)

Malacañan Palace

Manila

Met Congs. Armi Gustilo of Negros and Eduardo Cojuangco of Tarlac. They report 105 armed men have gone up the mountains in Negros and their transit point to Panay where they have contact with some other subversives is through Guimaras through a certain Jayme.

We will mount a special intelligence and search and destroy operations.

They also showed a telegram of Sugar Administrator Jose Unson for all sugar people on planters and millers to pass their sugar through the Producers Cooperative controlled by Ex Sec. Alfredo Montelibano by a voting trust agreement who is apparently trying to corner the sugar market.

I have called all planters and millers next Wednesday at 10:30 AM so I can organize a government sugar commission to handle exports and domestic sales.

I met with Justice Fred Ruiz Castro. He has told the Chief Justice of my request that there be no direct confrontation between me and the Supreme Court. Justice Castro called attention to the fact that in all the cases they have studied, the U.S. Supreme Court decided the cases after martial law was over. I believe they will do this.

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Oct. 11th (Con’t)

Malacañan Palace

Manila

I have asked the Justices to help in preparing a list of CFI and CAR judges whose resignations should be accepted.

And reforms in the judiciary –or for that matter the whole society.

But I believe we still should look into how the Lopez interests (Meralco) have been paying the children and relatives of the justices.

And the payrolls are in the Meralco offices  of the comptroller, the treasurer and personal secretaries of Mr. Eugenio Lopez.

The last article of Richard Critchfeld in the Washington Star is most laudatory: It is about the book (my book) calling it the best analysis of why I imposed martial law “It is a brilliantly-reasoned manifesto calling for a government-led 1. non-violent revolution to fundamentally remake Philippine society xxx The book provides the political theory and the blue-print of what Marcos is doing now xxx”

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Oct. 11th (Con’t)

Malacañan Palace

Manila

“It is perhaps one of the most extraordinary theoretical documents ever produced by a contemporary non-communist head of state.”

xxx

“Marcos book, taken together with all he has been saying and doing since he declared martial law, puts the present crisis into an altogether different perspective. Far from being a short-term emergency or a routine power play, it is a far greater and more dangerous enterprise.”

“Marcos is pitting himself, the Army, the technocrats and other modernizing forces against the entrenched oligarchy, the communists, the radical left and the Philippine criminal underworld in a prolonged struggle to decide whether this country can afford to remain an open society.”


June 9, 1936

Chat with ex-Speaker Roxas: he said that there is a copper mine in Capiz which has contracted to sell the whole of its output for one year to the Japanese; he further stated that the vast iron fields which I set aside by Executive Order in 1915 as a government reservation had aroused the interest of Marsman who was now contesting the validity of this action; in Roxas’ opinion, Marsman will not put up a real struggle against the government. I suggested to him that it might be better for the government to lease this iron field to Marsman on a royalty basis. Roxas says he asked the High Commissioner before he left to get the consent of the President of the United States for the Philippine Government to (a) give Quezon flexible tariff rights to raise or lower 100% on any item of the custom’s tariff; and (b) to negotiate commercial treaties (under supervision of the American State Department) with foreign powers.

Quezon made an excellent talk to the Assemblymen just before our arrival at Davao: he spoke in Spanish and first called attention to their visit to Cotobato, and said that the former army post at Parang should be the capital not only of Cotobato but of all Mindanao. That it was equidistant from Zamboanga, Lanao and Davao. He then turned to the Davao question giving a very carefully worded exposition of the burning question of the day: he said “there is no Davao question,” and that the press had been guilty of irritating public opinion both in Japan and the Philippines. “It shows how the newspapers can embroil nations, even to the point of war,” he said, “but there is nothing in Davao which threatens Filipino rights nor the economic position of the country. If there is no Davao question there is a Davao situation, which is not to be sneezed at. By their handling of this matter, the Filipinos will be judged as to their ability and sense of justice in dealing with foreign nationals.” He went on to say that: “The Executive branch of this Philippine Government has examined the situation very carefully, with a determination to solve this matter with the Assembly. It is not desirable, nor is it necessary for the legislators to examine into this matter today.”

When the Negros docked, Quezon again put Osmeña to the fore, and the latter received the plaudits of the crowd and the Constabulary honors. Osmeña was to be in the front all day. (Very wise!) Quezon knows Osmeña would like it very much.

Wolff, Major Speth and I went with the procession to the end of the (plank) motor road, but there was not sufficient railway transportation for all the party, so we slipped back to lunch and to shop at Davao.

Swim with Quezon and Speth–water muddy and warm, but Quezon enjoyed himself with great zest. He went over his reasons for taking Assemblymen into his confidence:–to make them more nationally conscious and give them “a sense of responsibility to their country.” “These young men will be the statesmen of the future–but I am making it very hard for my successor.”

I asked Quezon whether the absence of Japanese on the streets etc., today in Davao was not on their part an act of policy (so this would not look like a Japanese colony), and he whispered that this had been staged by the Japanese Consul General.


June 8, 1936

Slept until 11 a.m. The party went up to Cotobato and Quezon, Speth and I swam at the mouth of the river. Formerly, General Wood’s favourite army post in Mindanao, was near here but is now abandoned and fifty squatters are on the reservation. Quezon says he will put them off, as he wants to make this the principal Philippine army post–just half way between Zamboanga and Davao.

Argument over airplanes,–posts and travel. The President complains they are very expensive. Discussion of the relative merits of land and sea planes for use in the Philippines. (Asked Capt. Bradford in Davao–he rather favours land planes–says that amphibious planes are too heavy to carry pay loads.)

Talk at lunch over exercise of the pardon power. Quezon quoted Chief Justice Taft as ruling that this power extended to one even before the judgment of the court, which surprised me. He spoke of pardons for those sentenced for adultery, and told of a case of long ago decided by Judge Borja in Tayabas, in which he (Quezon) was wrongly accused of using influence for a pardon. The accused were the father of Don Miguel Unson and another man’s wife. Unson was then 70 years old, and the facts were clear. The woman pleaded guilty, and was sentenced, while Unson was tried and acquitted! Quezon stated his views of pardons (which are the same ideas as those which actuated me when I exercised this power)–crimes of cheating and stealing and meanness deserve no pardon, while crimes of violence, if unpremeditated, deserved sympathetic consideration.

Off for Davao. Bridge and early to bed.


March 19, 1936

Arrived at Zamboanga one hour before the Mayon which brought Quezon, his daughter “Baby” and a considerable suite. Walk up to market place where Assemblyman Alano introduced Quezon who spoke in Spanish. His address was on the duties of citizenship and the relations of the provinces with the Commonwealth Government; said also that whereas in the past elective officials who were guilty of misdeeds were more leniently treated than appointed officials would be–now the new government would treat them all severely since it was their own administration. Just afterwards, he proceeded to a hearing on charges of petty graft against Provincial Governor Ramos (mulcting ten pesos from policeman etc.). He gave no decision, tho’ during the hearing, Quezon suspended a stenographer and the Secretary of the Provincial Board for having falsified the record in favour of Ramos. Afterwards, Quezon told me he thought Ramos was guilty but did not know whom to appoint in his place. He gave a hearing to a Moro Datu who was opposed to military conscription. Quezon told the Datu, to the latter’s surprise, “I don’t give a damn whether you enroll or not. You will have time to study the question, and later on, if you don’t enroll something will happen.” This is in accordance with his idea that Moros are great bluffers, and will never agree with what you seem to want unless they can put you under an obligation.

Drive to San Ramon–a wonderful penal colony. Talk with Joe Cooley, who started it. He was unwise enough to go into business with an associate whom he describes as thoroughly unreliable–and with Joe Harriman the New York banker who is now in prison.

Visits to quarters of the Huntsberry, and the Tiltons–both are Lieutenants in the army.

Tea dance at the Zamboanga Club–met many old acquaintances; the most torrid heat I have ever felt. There was a big thunderstorm at night which delayed the departure of Arayat. Instead of leaving at 8 p.m. we did not get off until 2 a.m., so would be unable to keep our appointment at the mouth of the Cotobato River on the morning of March 20th–docked instead at Parang and we drove 28 kilometers over the hills on the new road across this part of Cotobato and arrived at the latter place at 12 noon. Meanwhile, the water parade which had been waiting for us at the mouth of the river had returned, much disgruntled.

From numerous conversations, I gather that the famous “Moro problem” has been “solved”– though it is still possible to have local disturbances in Jolo and Lanao. Roads are being pushed everywhere. Cotobato Moros are dirty, unkempt and doped looking–poor specimens physically. Cristianos, especially Ilocanos, are settling everywhere in this wonderful valley. Cotobato is the most hideously ugly, galvanized iron town I have ever seen. Cattle, coconuts and palay. The Provincial Engineer said that by next year we would be able to motor from Cotobato to Lanao. Rains–reception at Provincial Treasurer Palillo’s, who was outspokenly furious at the failure of Quezon to come to his merienda. I tried to pacify him. Provincial Governor Gutierrez (Major in the Constabulary) had been tried on charges of using prison labour for his own purposes, but when it turned out that the labour made the magnificent flying field which he has leased to the government for one peso a year for five years, Governor Gutierrez was acquitted and reinstated.

Secretary Quirino says he will transfer the offices of the Department of the Interior for three months of every year to Zamboanga to show the Southern Islands that they are really part of the Philippines.

I congratulated Assemblyman Tomas Confesor on his independence speech answering Pedro Guevara.

Bridge with Quezon, Doria and Felicia Howell. The President said he wanted to stay on in the Southern Islands, but he had two military reviews near Manila. I consoled him by saying that all the hard work he had put in by cultivating the American Army officers was bearing most excellent results.

Quirino said that as Secretary of the Interior, he really occupies the former position of the Governor General, having authority over all the Provincial Governors. He also reported that when Quezon came down from Baguio recently he asked him: “Why did you suspend my Major” (Gutierrez, Major of the Constabulary is the appointed Governor of Cotobato), he (Quirino) replied: “Why shouldn’t I suspend my Governor?” Secretary Quirino started life as a school teacher at the age of fifteen–and his mother then took all his salary. Some years later, he said, Isabelo de los Reyes beat him as a candidate for Senator, and at the next election retired, saying he wanted to give Quirino a chance!

Quirino said to me that my silver purchase suggestion was “gaining ground.” He also remarked that I had helped in the purchase of the Manila Railroad bonds, because I knew the “psychological background” of the English bondholders.

Talk with Alano, the Assemblyman from Zamboanga. He is the manager of the United States Rubber Company’s plantation on Basilan Island. Lawyer. Used to be stenographer for Quezon in the American Congress in 1911. He was born in province of Bulacan. He recently accepted a nomination for the Assembly simply as a matter of “civic duty,” as he is a successful lawyer and plantation manager. Said Yulo had persuaded to such effect, that he replied he was willing to serve just as a stenographer as he did twenty-five years ago in Washington. He said the Assembly would be “all right” when it met in Manila in June. They were not going to make a fight for silly privileges.

Twelve thousand crocodiles were killed last year in the Cotobato River–the hides were sent to Manila for sale.

One merchant in Cotobato claims to have exported 1½ million pesos worth of palay (rice) last year.

Bridge with Quezon, Doria and Felicia Howell–Quezon is way ahead. He plays and bids excellently.

Left Parang at 6 o’c bound for Zamboanga or Basilan. Quien sabe?

Guingona was aboard and in lively discourse with a group of Assemblymen about the very advantageous flying fields they had mapped out and were preparing in Mindanao.

Major Hutter of the United States Army Medical Corps says General MacArthur states that my administration was the best the Americans had in the Philippines. This is something of a pleasant surprise!