Our people will never know the gamble that I have taken when I proclaimed martial law.
For I deliberately diverted the possible enemy fire to myself so as to save our people.
Martial law is a limitation of freedom and, therefore, generally objectionable. There were too many factors that were imponderable. How would the people react? Would they take up arms against us? The number of firearms surrendered (Now about 280,000) indicate that if they did take up arms they would have overwhelmed us including the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The international press and world public opinion would be against us. And I would be the principal target.
And the American government was probably going to be against it.
Even the military had not all committed themselves to the program.
Oct. 31st (Con’t)
The American attitude of sacrificing everybody else for their national interest as they did with Taiwan and now South Vietnam shows that if we had made just one mis-step, they would have turned against us.
But it seems to me that we have overcome all these difficulties –after one month and eleven days.
In view of the probability that the Constitution will be finished by the Concon by the end of November and submitted to a plebiscite by January 15, 1973 I have decided to call the congressional leaders to a luncheon conference on Thursday.
Received Speaker Villareal, Doroy Valencia, Cong. Danding Cojuangco, Mike Stilianopoulos, Tony Madrigal (the last two for appointment to ambassador to the Quirinal and the Vatican
And was interviewed by German correspondent Harry Hamm.
Imelda has not been feeling pain for the last three hours.
Conference on prices 10:00-12:30 AM. Tariff Code amendments –Sec. of Agri. recommendations
Reassignments in the AFP –Sec. Ponce Enrile and Gen. Espino.
Luncheon with the original group –Sec. Ponce Enrile, Gen. Espino, the major service commanders, Gens. Zagala, Ramos, Rancudo and Commodore Ruiz, Gen. Paz, J-2, Gen. Ver, Gen. Montoya, Gen. Paramis, Col. Romeo Gatan and Cong. Eduardo Cojuangco. Gen. Picarbe who was not in the group was also invited.
This is the group in the last two meetings
I spoke of my plans on the constitution –its scheduled approval November and a plebiscite Jan. 15, 1973. So the need for an information drive even among the troops. And an AFP newspaper.
The Cotobato (North) leaders, Moslem Tururays and Christian alike, have pledged to keep the peace and support me in the proclamation of martial law and the reformation.
But since fighting has broken out in the Magsanoy, Ampatuan, Pikit area I have called them to Manila — (all the provincial and municipal officials). I personally asked Cong. Salipada Pendatun to come over the telephone when I told talked to him after my opening appeal wherein I told the leaders that Mindanao is Moslem land and we, the Christians, are there because of their tolerance and their invitation; that the Christians should therefore help their brother Moslems and other minorities who are less prepared for an exacting modern world; that the policies I have established favor the Moslem areas; most of the money we have borrowed from abroad go to Mindanao, the seaports and airports being developed are in Mindanao; the “Investments below the typhoon belt policy” means investments will pour in for Mindanao and Sulu, and the oil exploration program will favor Mindanao and Sulu, the number of schools being constructed now in these islands are double that of the Luzon and Visayas areas.
So I concluded “I am ready to wipe out all past records and start out with the slate
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
clean provided that there will be no repetition of the past offenses.” And pointed out to how I had personally gone to Buldon to stop the Armed Forces of the Philippines from decimating that Moslem town under Mayor Aratuc (his son Tonatic had been sent by the father who was taken ill campaigning for the people’s support of martial law) with artillery fire notwithstanding the seven casualties suffered by the government troops.
We ended up with Cong. Salipada Pendatun reiterating support for my program and agreeing to head a mission to contact Ex-Gov. Udtog Matalam whose MIM forces have started the fighting to come to see me in Manila. But we have to stop the operations of the AFP against his band in the meantime.
And Datu Akilan Ampatuan will contact the two Sanki brohers, Abdullah and Balacat and son A to also come and see me. So too with the old man Datu Kadanding who have apparently joined Datu Udtog Matalam.
The Disumimba band which threatens Dinaig is composed of outlaws and will have to be destroyed.
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
Met Congs. Armi Gustilo of Negros and Eduardo Cojuangco of Tarlac. They report 105 armed men have gone up the mountains in Negros and their transit point to Panay where they have contact with some other subversives is through Guimaras through a certain Jayme.
We will mount a special intelligence and search and destroy operations.
They also showed a telegram of Sugar Administrator Jose Unson for all sugar people on planters and millers to pass their sugar through the Producers Cooperative controlled by Ex Sec. Alfredo Montelibano by a voting trust agreement who is apparently trying to corner the sugar market.
I have called all planters and millers next Wednesday at 10:30 AM so I can organize a government sugar commission to handle exports and domestic sales.
I met with Justice Fred Ruiz Castro. He has told the Chief Justice of my request that there be no direct confrontation between me and the Supreme Court. Justice Castro called attention to the fact that in all the cases they have studied, the U.S. Supreme Court decided the cases after martial law was over. I believe they will do this.
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
I have asked the Justices to help in preparing a list of CFI and CAR judges whose resignations should be accepted.
And reforms in the judiciary –or for that matter the whole society.
But I believe we still should look into how the Lopez interests (Meralco) have been paying the children and relatives of the justices.
And the payrolls are in the Meralco offices of the comptroller, the treasurer and personal secretaries of Mr. Eugenio Lopez.
The last article of Richard Critchfeld in the Washington Star is most laudatory: It is about the book (my book) calling it the best analysis of why I imposed martial law “It is a brilliantly-reasoned manifesto calling for a government-led 1. non-violent revolution to fundamentally remake Philippine society xxx The book provides the political theory and the blue-print of what Marcos is doing now xxx”
Oct. 11th (Con’t)
“It is perhaps one of the most extraordinary theoretical documents ever produced by a contemporary non-communist head of state.”
“Marcos book, taken together with all he has been saying and doing since he declared martial law, puts the present crisis into an altogether different perspective. Far from being a short-term emergency or a routine power play, it is a far greater and more dangerous enterprise.”
“Marcos is pitting himself, the Army, the technocrats and other modernizing forces against the entrenched oligarchy, the communists, the radical left and the Philippine criminal underworld in a prolonged struggle to decide whether this country can afford to remain an open society.”
Bongbong’s Birthday. Right now they have converted Suite I into a nightclub complete with strobe lights and blow-up pictures of Bongbong.
And there are more girls than boys. In fact there are only a handful of boys and about five times of girls.
At the rate the tension and hysteria in Manila continues, I may have to declare martial law soon. Many people are not leaving their houses.
Threats to bomb and blackmail is rampant. KBS and the Daily Express were told to raise P200,000 otherwise there would be a bomb for them. This was conveyed by a certain Policarpio, a KBS labor leader. He probably cooked it up.
So I met with Johnny Ponce Enrile, Gen. Tom Diaz, Col. Montoya, Col. Romy Gatan, and Danding Cojuangco this evening at Pangarap and we agreed to set the 21st of this month as the deadline.
In the meantime Sen. Aquino in a privilege speech, today, claims we have an OPLAN Sagitarrius, which allegedly includes placing Greater Manila under PC Control preparatory to proclaiming martial law.
Sept. 13th (Con’t)
This is nothing but the contingency plan for the coordination of the local police forces and the Armed Forces in case of insurgency.
It is ridiculous to ascribe it to the plan of martial law since it referts to calling out the troops to quell a disorder.
But of course the media will give it all kind of meaning.
But, again, perhaps it is best that the political opposition start a debate that will get the people used to the idea of emergency powers.
The children have a party for 20 with Kimpura food at Pangarap. Imelda is with them and I am above at the State Dining Room watching the movie Eye of the Hurricane while writing my diary. (Imelda just arrived)
Just finished all the paper work that has piled up with the urgency of the calamity and with the third congressional special session about to and on the 1st of September. We have to prepare some compromise bills in a hurry –- on public works to include reconstruction and the authority to borrow, tariff, tax on cigarettes, removal of exemptions and subsidies, amendment of the special highway fund law etc.
This morning I inspected the cemetery at Mendiola, covered Rizal, J. Abad Santos and M. H. de Pilar – after golf where I scored one under par.
At 12:30 AM I met the Director Bugarin of the NBI, Cong. Cojuangco and Adrian Cristobal.
Col. Bugarin reported the results of the investigations on CAA illegal contracts (The Contact Construction for Teletype machines:Overpriced and second hand), no unit losses on the Cueto killing by Yabut’s police, the dollars confiscated in the airport should be forfeited, in drugs there is raw intelligence connecting Cong. Baduya, Teves and to a heroin refining center in this area I directed continued surveillance and investigation.
Aug 25th (Con’t)
Cong. Cojuangco came to inform me of his success in getting a contract for 40,000 tons of rice from Red China, bartered for cement. I am encouraging barter for rice from Red China so that we do not spend any of our much needed dollars.
Adrian Cristobal came to show me a paper on the ideology of the Free Farmers Federation and their ideologies, the Lakasdiwa headed by former seminarian Ed Garcia (they call father).
Looks sophomoric. But attacks for both Maoism and Capitalism. And can be used as a basis for study for an acceptable ideology and program of government.
I place it in Envelope No. XXXIV-C.
This afternoon I met with the congressional leaders, Sen. Pres. Puyat, Senate Floor Leader Tolentino, Sen. Teves, Acting Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee Speaker Villareal and House Floor Leader Marcelino Veloso. The Senate wants to adjourn after the Tariff and Customs, Code and the tax on cigarettes is approved – to meet in the regular session next January. The House wants the Public Works bill, the amendment of RA 917 at least approved also before adjournment. We are trying to get them to continue working for at least
Aug 25th (Con’t)
a week more. Specially since there is no money for the calamity appropriations and no authority, for borrowing abroad. The Foreign Borrowing Act, RA 6142 limits me to borrowing for projects provided for by law (specially the public works act) and no existing public works act authorizes the reconstruction projects nor some of the on-going projects – ergo we cannot borrow for them.
Thus, there would be no money or cash for the Reconstruction or Rehabilitation Program.
And Congress which is supposed to be controlled by our party would be open to the changes of indolence and impotence to meet the crisis occasioned by the floods.
The rest of the world is helping to rehabilitate us. But Congress wants to adjourn and go junketing abroad – the UN, the APU, and conferences that are convenient excuses for a visit to the flesh pots of America and Europe.
I write this only tonight as the trip by boat last night was rough and I went to sleep at 11:00 PM. We started from Pier 15 at 8:15 and arrived at the San Fernando pier at 9:45 AM today. Outside the breakwater we were on a SE course with the wind from the North so we were rolling a little. This stopped when we rounded Cochines point at the south of the Bataan Peninsula. But the swells in the China Sea made Bongbong sick, he had to be given half a bonamine. Stevie Cu Unjieng vomited twice and Tessie Yulo once. But the rest were all good sailors.
In the morning I left at 7:30 AM to Lipa City – Fernando Air Base to speak at the graduation of the Flying Cadets (19) and student officers (12 and PMA’ers). Had to travel by car and it took us one hour and a half because of the fact that the airplane crashes have made Meldy nervous everytime I fly. (We just received from PAL the picture of the AVRO plane that crashed at Pantabangan with its tail section blown off apparently by explosives, then the right wing disintegrating then turning upside down just before impact on the ground). The PAC plane of Boy Tuason, Andy Roxas and Peggy Lim had an engine burn on take-off, the pilot feathered it but banked steeply on the dead engine instead of the functioning one, so stalled and crashed on its nose. The PAL Fokker plane that crashed in Iligan took off below minimal requirements as it was raining heavily and visibility was 100 yards, hit a mound of dirt on the side, twisted around and burned after all the passengers had escaped the plane. The stewardess who was about to put on her belt was thrown off the door that flew open and died of a cracked skull (the only casualty).
Returned to Manila at 10:30 AM to arrive at the Escolta PNB building at 12:00 to address the Rice and Corn
May 16, 1970 ( Cont)
MALACAÑAN PALACE Manila
Then went to Malacañang at 1:00 PM to meet Gen. Menzi on his Pulp and Paper project and the PHILCOX man, Tony Tiotko on the navigational aids valued at $12.5 million they are installing.
At 3:00 PM after some conferences and a 15 minute nap, I was at Del Monte to inaugurate the new 15,000 cavan a day rice polishing and processing plant of the Mindanao Progress Corporation of Roberto Tulio. Conference at Bonifacio 4:30 PM to 7:00. Malacañan to pick up some books, papers and clothes and was at the boat at 7:30 PM where I met Henry Martel on the Navotas reclamation project of Ramon Clinamco and Monching Cojuangco on the PLDT franchise which Maj. Fl. Leader Veloso badly mishandled. I had warned him that his asking ₱200,000 only for Montano the minority
floor leader was going to lead to a scandal. Monching Cojuangco also went ahead and paid the grease money although I do not believe Lening when he says that he did not keep any part of it. The House on the motion of Maning Zosa and the promptings of Danding Cojuangco voted to recall of the franchise and now there is a serious move to change Veloso as majority floor leader.
I scolded Monching a little for the bungling.
Imelda is smarting from Nini Quezon Avanceña’s remarks to Fanny Aldaba Lim that we may be hardworking, intelligent and sincere but we are making too much money. She mentioned Al Yuchengco. We are also supposed to own Atlas, Dole, AG&P and other big corporations. If they only knew!!!!
Spent the whole morning and noon in San Fernando, La Union, where I was supposed to prevent the Ilocano leaders and men from marching to Manila and doing battle with the demonstrators. The whole of Ilocandia was there – Tarlac represented by Cong. Eduardo Cojuangco, Nueva Ecija by Cong. Leopoldo Diaz, Pangasinan by Cong. Bobby Estrella, Nueva Vizcaya by Sen. Leonardo Perez and his brother Cong. Benjamin Perez as well as all the mayors, Isabela by Gov. Samuel Reyes and Cong. Rodolfo Albano as well as all the mayors. Cagayan by Gov. Teresita Dupaya and her husband Cong. Tito Dupaya and Cong David Puzon, Ilocos Sur by Gov. Carmeling Crisologo and her husband Cong. Floro Crisologo as well as Cong. Luces Cantor and Ilocos Norte all the officials.
Very overwhelming affection and trust – so completely different from Manila.
Rode in an open car – convertible with the top down. Imelda as usual was mobbed affectionately.
Must go to the provinces more where the atmosphere is more representative of the nation.
Met with Ex-Sen Domocio Alonto and asked him to help me prevent bloodshed in Moroland. He was reported having gone to Basilan and said that the country was in the grip of a revolution and the army 70% against the government. Of course he denied it and seemed obsessed with petty local politics.
He was brought by Cong. Bert Sabido who kept repeating his requests for special favors – the Asst. Immigration Commissioner and allowances for the congressmen from savings in my office.
Comparative quiet. The radicals have called off their rally in Plaza Miranda and will probably hold rallies in the campuses. Met with the UP moderates headed by Gordon and Ortega. They are planning to put up their newspaper.
Commander Sumulong sent word through Danding Cojuangco that the rioting in Malacañang was brought about by the CIA. Jim Rafferty had said that he had made inquiries about the squatters and they had refused to join the rally. This, he said was different from Indonesia, where they had.
Commander Sumulong is going after Commander Dante in Tarlac. He says Dante was wounded in a previous skirmish and may be moving around in a hammock. Danding suspects that Ninoy Aquino is hiding him in either Antipolo, Puringay or in the Joe Rojas ranch in Bataan. Sumulong promises to get him.
Col. Tomas Diaz is now Zone-2 and needs ₱80,000 for six civilian jeeps, one jeep each for the six teams and six more vehicles plus ₱10,000 monthly. We will start going after those Ma-Maos in a big way.
Have asked Bobby Benedicto to join Licaros in the U.S.. He has sought a leave of absence preparatory
Office of the President
of the Philippines
to retirement. Executive Vice Pres Villatuya is Acting President of PNB.
Am still looking for replacements in the BIR, Customs and the financing institutions as well as Undersecretaries of Defense, Justice and Commerce.
Have asked Dir. _______ of Forestry to locate 1,000 hectares near Manila and 1,000 hectares in Bataan near the Free Trade Zone for my resettlement projects.
Have appointed Gen. Tobias as Gen. Man. of the National Housing Corporation. I hope to build 1,000 low-cost houses a month.