Sunday, February 1, 1970

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PAGE 63

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Sunday —

February 1, 1970

4:00 PM —

Have suspended classes in the Greater Manila Area for one week.

A Fr. Sheffeld of Germany is living in Ateneo and approves the expenditure of the Adenauer fund supposedly for research on constitutional reforms. This is alien intervention in internal affairs. Father John Doherty, Vice President of Ateneo for Academic Affairs says it may be used for the rallies and demonstrations as Manglapus and the student leaders went to Germany some time ago.

Fr. Otazu, Rector of San Beda warns that the San Beda Towers if taken by the rioters could overlook Malacañang. So I have ordered it to be secured. Both felt that I have taken too soft a stand against the rioters and that the students do not believe my warning yesterday.

Perhaps they are right but we must not adopt a stance of arrogance but of humility. And if the terrorism continues then we must meet force with force. Only however if the anarchists continue the sabotage and terrorism.

I asked Gen. Balao, now Reparations Minister in Tokyo and former Defense Secretary to take over the Defense portfolio tonight. Sec. Mata was drunk during the crisis on Friday night as he is drunk every night. He is not only useless. He is a security risk.

ATTACHMENT TO DIARY ENTRY OF FEBRUARY 1, 1970

“WHY I AM FIGHTING COMMUNISM”

(Page 1 of 3)

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Malacañang

  February 1, 1970

To my children, Imee, Bongbong and Irene:

Why I am fighting Communism  

1. Because it does not believe in God. It believes that everything that happens is brought about by man alone. It believes in the theory of dialectic materialism. I believe in God.

2. Under communism, a man has no rights. He is a creature of the State. It is the State that is glorified not man. So man becomes a slave under communism.

3. Under communism, a man has no freedom. In contradistinction to democracy where individual freedom is sacrosanct, communism does not allow such simple liberties as freedom of thought, speech and religion among many others. There is no such thing as dissent or debate or dialogue.

4. Correspondingly, under communism a man may own no land as he may not own any production goods. The cry of land for the landless is a mere shibboleth. For the land belongs to the state and the farmers are only slaves of the state. The farmers get a share of the produce byt only such share as the State arbitrarily dictates.

5. Communism is a totalitarianism or a

ATTACHMENT TO DIARY ENTRY OF FEBRUARY 1, 1970

“WHY I AM FIGHTING COMMUNISM”

(Page 2 of 3)

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Malacañang

  

dictatorship by the elite who have acquired power through force, killing, murder and coercion. Prime examples are Stalin and Mao Tse Tung.

6. Correspondingly the common people that communism is supposed to serve do not have any share in government nor in decision-making. Communism does not allow such simple processes as an election or voting or political campaigns. Everything is dictated by the few or the man on top who got there by force or violence.

7. The common people, the laborers, farmers and the employees, cannot rise beyond their level. They cannot send their children to school to become lawyers, doctors, engineers, teachers or attain any profession they may wish. The State, meaning the ruling elite, determines what the people become. There is no alternative.

8. Communism gives no inducement to genius, talent, perseverance and hard work. Everybody is pulled down to a common wage or salary except the rulers who live in a state of luxury and privilege.

9. Communism ostensibly seeks to eradicate the ruling or influential oligarchies. But it succeeds in only replacing them with a worse group – the

ATTACHMENT TO DIARY ENTRY OF FEBRUARY 1, 1970

“WHY I AM FIGHTING COMMUNISM”

(Page 3 of 3)

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Malacañang

  

ruling or influential cliques and elite who actually rule without the approval or consent of the people. These group of elitists cannot be changed except by violence or force – by a revolution.

10. Communism ostensibly seeks to drive away the foreign colonialists in the Philippines, the Americans. But it would place the Philippines under a new alien power – Red China, which is worse. Our country should be free and not dominate by any alien power.

11. Communism believes in violence as the principal weapon of policy or of change. “Power comes out of the barrel of a gun,” is its principal dictum. Everytime there has been change in a communist country, there has been killing, arson, pillage and destruction – wasteful, merciless and senseless. In contradistinction to this, democracy offers change through the democratic process of elections and free speech in the open market of ideas. The process may be creaky, unwieldy and sometimes frustrating, but comparatively, it is humane, Christian, wiser, more democratic and less wasteful.

Let us improve the house we now have, [which] we call democracy – for it has defects. But let us not burn it down.

(Sgd.) F.E. Marcos

 


Saturday, January 31, 1970

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PAGE 61

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Saturday

January 31, 1970

Malacañang

10:00 AM

I write this tonight having been a little occupied last night during the demonstration or riot. I am glad I was able to hold back on the repeated requests to fire at the rioters, the first request when they took over a fire truck burned it and rammed it against Gate 4 broke the lock and rushed into the compound near the new Administration Bldg, the second when they threatened to do the same on Gate 3.

Have delivered a TV speech, called all the mayors of Metropolitan Manila and Gen. Rodriguez to work out a coordinated plan. Mayor Villegas kept explaining why the MPD police did not come to help us in Malacañang (nor the fire trucks of the MFD either).

Conferred with the military (Sec. of Nat Def, Chief of Staff, Chiefs of the major services and their staffs.)

Then with the political leaders.

Most felt there should be no repression. So I have had to delay the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. We will await developments. I understand the demonstrators will hit the PNB and Metropolitan Branches next. The PCC demonstration of Prudente was called off. But I gather there will be a big demonstration next Tuesday and/or Mar. 3rd.

When they do so again, they may be armed with firearms. In the meantime I can only gnash my teeth and wait.

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Office of the President

of the Philippines

These are difficult days for everybody. But I pity the citizenry caught in the crossfire last night. For the rioters were sniping at the MPD, Metrocom & soldiers with .22’s.

I suppose that the people now sympathize with me, specially if these vandals continue their destructive anarchy.

But Chino Roces still seemed hostile in the meeting with the publishers when I requested support for my position in the matter of the rioters. And Teddy Locsin tonight could not see in it anything but that reform must come by violent means. I had forgotten that he had always written sympathetically of Mao Tse Tung.

We should ride this out with patience and perseverance.

Teddy apparently was warning me that if there was repression by the arrest of the leaders of the communist movement, there would be retaliation and Central Luzon would be transferred to Manila with the slums becoming the jungle.

If I let these fears deter me from fighting communism then we are lost. But I must continue to restrain myself lest we lose the support of the people by a stance of tyranny.


January 25, 1970

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PAGE 50

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Malacañang

January 25, 1970

Sunday

2:55 PM

The President must do almost everything in the government. Nothing moves unless he pushes it.

So I had to meet the student demonstrators themselves. Their speeches were getting obscene and lewd. I told them that I was sad that they could not deliver more moving speeches in more elegant language. We settled the matter but I frankly told them no release of funds until after July.

I met with the labor leaders for breakfast after the oath-taking of the new Court of Appeals Justices including Vicente Rafael, labor leader is objected to by Justice Roman Ozaeta of the Philippine Bar Association, as he (Vicente) was allegedly an undistinguished labor practitioner. Also met the extended generals who I am retiring. Gen. Sangalang says he has no truck provided that they will all be terminated at the same time. I referred the suggestion to the Sec. of Nat. Defense thru the C of S Gen. Yan.

Sec. Romualdez has his misgivings about the plan to free the rate of exchange and to allow it to seek its own level. He is worried it may plunge down too low. Dr. Zabvkar says from his experience it will not. Anyway I have ordered that we be ready with some foreign exchange to support a more stable rate and to finance the importation of essentials.


January 24, 1970

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PAGE 49

Office of the President

of the Philippines

Malacañang Palace

January 24, 1970

1:00 PM

I have just directed the retirement of Gen. Raval and all the extended generals effective Feb 1st and April 1st. I will retain Gen. Yan as Chief of Staff only because there is no one who is qualified to take his place. I will put Gen. Eddie Garcia presently CG of the Tabak Division as PC chief.

I do sympathize with Gen. Raval who claims  he had nothing to do with the abuses of the Special Forces but there is discontent in the rank and file of the Armed Forces and Gen. Raval is one of the reasons. Another is the feeling of the lower ranking officers that they have no hope of advancement. And with the efforts of the Liberals to intrigue the military into a coup d’etat, it becomes necessary to remove all causes of grievance.

The truth of the matter is the retiring officers are better than those who will succeed them. I hope to place some of them in civilian positions.

I cannot choose a replacement of Sec. Mata. I am trying to get a civilian and non-military man. But I guess I will ultimately push Gen. Yan up to Secretary of National Defense while I ultimately push Ileto up to Chief of Staff.


January 20, 1970

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PAGE 41

Malacañang

Manila

January 20, 1970 Malacañang Palace I still write this in Veterans Memorial Hosp. at 8:00 AM. Meldy is coming home to the Palace at noon before lunch. We have stopped the regular stipends to the columnists and newspapermen. This was started by Pres. Magsaysay in 1954. But we have to stop this corruption. This may be the cause of the harsh and even vicious attitude of the newspapers. I am still trying to ferret out the TV and radio commentators who are being bought. This has to be stopped too. The Commissioner of Civil Service, Abelardo Subido, has been found guilty in the investigation of his actuations in entering into contracts with himself. I have requested him to resign. We have to set the example in the higher echelons of government. For undoubtedly there is still petty graft in the lower ranks – the export office is one, the BIR and the Customs. This must be eradicated and soon. Malacañang 11:55 PM Settled the Speakership problem this morning by calling Ex Speaker Villareal, then Speaker Laurel to Maharlika. Villareal graciously withdrew but his supporters swear that if Laurel does not remain loyal to me, they will topple him. Met the congressmen who all wanted releases and appointments. Met Commissioner of Civil Service Abelardo Subido whom I asked to resign for violation of the Anti-Graft Law for signing a contract of lease both as lessor and lessee.

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Malacañang

Manila

Will reorganize the army so that the IInd and IIIrd Military areas will be converted into brigades. More flexible and fitted to the concept of home defense or guerrilla war. Updating the emergency plan to include not only counter-insurgency but even a military attempt at a take over. Have ordered Gen. Raval to prepare a strike force in Camp Crame. Must get the armored units, the air force and naval units organized. Met Sec. Mata, Usec. Melchor, Gen. Yan, Ileto, Raval, Singson and Com. Lomibao. Will meet with Gov. Licaros and Zavkar of the IMF tomorrow. Looks like Zavkar has no power to negotiate but has been instructed to propose devaluation of from 25% to 30% or a multiple rate of exchange. From reports, Zavhkar is of the belief that we will not be able to enforce a multiple rate of exchange. They want a budget surplus in the next six months – which we already have. The truth of the matter is everything – but everything is awaiting at a standstill the results of the consultations with IMF – both government and the private sector cannot move until we know what the BOP strategy is.


May 25, 1942

Lt. Col. Jesse T. Trayvick USA, Wainwright’s emissary traveling under a flag of truce accompanied by a representative of Gen. Homma, did not find difficulties delivering the “surrender orders” to Visayas-Mindanao USFIP CG, W. F. Sharp who, in turn, immediately issued written surrender orders to all his subordinates:  B/Gen. Albert Christie, Panay; Col. Roger Hilsman, Negros; Col. Irvin Schrader, Cebu; Col. Arthur Grimes, Bohol and Col. Ted Carrol, Samar-Leyte.  It is reported that all USA personnel and a few hundred Filipinos surrendered in compliance with Gen. Wainwright’s orders but many PA units led by their O’s, specially in Panay and Negros refused to surrender.  In Panay where the bulk of the 61st Div. is assigned are my classmates Lts. Amos Francia, Ramon Gelvezon and Pedro M Yap who believe Gen. Wainwright had no more authority to give orders after he became a POW.  Apparently, they were able to convince their Philippine superiors like Majors Macario Peralta and Nick Velarde and so when their Div. Comdr. Christie told them about the surrender at Mt. Baloy, Peralta and Velarde categorically replied their refusal stating their plans to continue to fight the enemy.  Gen. Christie seemed to understand and even left the remaining funds to the Div. Fin. O.  Meanwhile, in Negros my classmates there are Lts. Uldarico Baclagon, Abenir Bornales and Epifanio Segovia and they also were able to convince their superiors, Captains Ernesto Mata and Salvador Abcede, to disregard the surrender orders of Col. Hillsman.  In Southern Luzon and Bicol Area, surrender emissary B/Gen. G. Francisco delivered the orders and like in the Visayas, only the Americans and a few Filipino USFIP members complied and surrendered.