January 15, 1942

Bataan

HQ, Intelliegence Service

 

“See You in Manila” news sheet published by Intelligence Service well received by men in front and officers in Corregidor. Major Carlos Romulo wrote our unit a congratulatory message.

First part of news sheet carried items on fighting in various sectors in front lines. Leonie wrote a column analyzing situation, painting hopeful future, reminding boys of America’s promise to send us a convoy.

We did not put our names to publication because we were playing safe. Japs might have spies or some copies may fall in Japanese hands and our families in Manila may be needlessly endangered. We placed our initials as editors: CGB. C for Castro, G for Guerrero and B for myself. Most of the stuff however was written by Leonie, then Fred, I did the least work. Leonie and Fred write very much better than I do and I have to aide the general most of the time.

The SYIM publication is also running a Bataan Sweepstake. Corregidor boys may also join in. Each soldier is entitled to one guess as to date of our victorious entry into Manila. Each entry must be accompanied by P1. The one who first guesses correctly the date of entry of first troops into Manila will receive sum total of pesos entered in contest. Right now we have received more than P60 already. My entry is April 9, Guerrero’s is March 26th, his birthday. General run of entries is January 31st, Roosevelt’s birthday. Only one fellow July 4th. Most optimistic guess is January 20th, within five days.

Chuck Boyle, sergeant in Corregidor, is Voice of Freedom. Leonie was asked to broadcast but he refused because he was worried about his wife in Manila.

Heavy bombing during the last few days. Big tree near motor transport of our service was cut in two. A lot of AA shrapnel dropped near our C.P.

The town of Mariveles is a mass of ruins. All houses, nipa or cement, have been destroyed by bombs.

The coast area is leveled to the ground due to incendiaries. In some houses, nothing remains but the cement stairs. In the blaze, Bonifacio’s monument still stands but the bolo he carries has been partially destroyed. The flag was not hit. The Cross in the dome of the church still stands but part of the altar has been wrecked. The quarantine station in Mariveles stands on three posts only. Some of the rooms are open to the sky and the garden in front of the quarantine office is full of bomb-craters. The walls of the house are pock-marked with shrapnel holes but some of the rooms in the first floor are still habitable. I saw an old man trying to fix up the ruins of his nipa shack amid the wrecked homes in Mariveles. “The Japs can bomb this place again,” he said, “for all I care, I’ll build my shack.” He represents the fighting spirit of the Filipino people. You can’t put them down.

Just received telephone call from outposts in Cabcaben. Beach defendants claim they have arrested several men in bancas in civilian clothes. The general has sent for the men. They might be some of our operatives. There is still no coordination between our unit and the beach defense.

Food supply is running low. We now have only two meals a day. Brunch –breakfast and lunch– at 10 a.m. Brunch consists of one salmon and half a plate of rice. All the water you want. Supper is at six p.m. before sunset. Menu: Salmon and rice. Sometimes salmon changed to sardines. On Sundays, we get carabao’s meat. Sometime, monkey-steak which I can’t swallow.

Life in our HQ is like Robinson Crusoe’s . We have a shower bath. My sergeant connected bamboo poles to a stream. We therefore have a non-stop faucet. If you pull a rope, the bambo rises and you get some sort of a shower bath.

Our toilet is very primitive. Its just a canal with wooden facilities for squatting. It is also very spacious. Three people can be accommodated at the same time.

Our water for drinking comes from the upper part of the stream. The medical officer takes charge of boiling the water for us.

Each officer has a wooden desk made out of Carnation boxes. Maps are spread on tables made out of branches of trees.

The telephones are of the field type and they hang on tree branches near tents of the officers. The radio runs by battery and it is in the center of the C.P. Officers gather around at night to listen to the Voice of Freedom. Fred calls it “Voice of Boredom.”

The kitchen has been built quite far from the main camp because of the smoke. An old gas stove has been reconditioned for firewood use.

In between tents are dug-outs which can accomodate seven to ten men. Dug-outs have chairs inside and look like little tunnels. Some dug-outs are connected to each other and there is a cobweb-like network underground. At night, lamps are placed inside dug-outs and typing of reports for Corregidor continues.

Staff meetings are held in little plaza in front of radio. Today the General said operatives have begun gathering reports in Manila and various enemy occupied Luzon regions. The General also read reports that Japs have been pocketed in sector of 1st regular division and “is trying to break through fiercely”. “In other fronts,” he said, “interdictory fire has been maintained.” In eastern sector, artillery duel continues and patrol activity has been further intensified. The general said that he was worried about the supply problem but that plans are being studied to solve difficulty by bringing food from Visayas. He did not say anything about the convoy. Col. Torralba, chief of staff, entered Bataan Sweepstakes. He thinks it’ll be Jan. 31.

Leonie and I feel situation is not as rosy as pictured. There must be some trouble about the convoy. Maybe the U.S. Navy was badly crippled in Pearl Harbor.  Maybe also something has happened in Hart’s Asiatic fleet. Why did he not come out and challenge the Jap transports? Maybe –and this is likely I think– I don’t know anything about naval strategy.

Nevertheless morale of boys in Bataan still high. There is still a strong determination to kill the Japs. They are praying for reinforcements from the U.S. though. They’ve been fighting since Dec. without any replacement. Rations are getting less and less.

Most of the boys say: “Never mind sending us troops. We can lick the Japs. Just send planes, planes, planes.”

Presence of Japs flying above without opposition, bombing and strafing at will except for AA fire gives a helpless feeling. One gets very sore but there’s nothing he can do about it. Some of the boys in desperation shoot at planes with their rifles. In certain instances, this has made matters worse because the Japs are able to locate positions. They return later and drop bombs.

There is a rumor that S.S. Legaspi was able to steam up Cavite and load rice sacks carried from Batangas. This will greatly help fast decreasing rice stocks. Salvage units are trying to refloat a ship sunk in Bay loaded with wheat flour. Quartermaster officers believe the inner part of flour can still be eaten. Only outer walls will be wet, they claim. All these moves show food supply is getting very short.

Funny incident happened between Col. Jalandoni and Gen. MacBride. The General who had just inspected Jalandoni’s beach defenses said:

“Colonel, your line is getting thinner,” Jalandoni thought the general was referring to his waist line, and so he replied:

“General, I did not come here to eat; I came here to fight.”

General MacBride laughed and said:

“I was not referring to your waist line but to your front line.”

Another funny incident happened to Col. Jalandoni the other day. His area was subjected to heavy aerial bombardment. The colonel ran and when he saw a dug-out, he jumped in. The dug-out was a latrine.

Col. Jalandoni was commander of Nueva Ecija garrison before the war. Then he was assigned to Malacañan. He is a good friend of President Quezon and family. He came to our C.P. this morning to visit Gen. de Jesus and he gave me a box of chewing gums. He is a good friend of my dad.

It’s getting dark now so I must stop writing. I wonder how mama and papa are. I am missing them an awful lot. Never thought this fight would last this long. When will we be able to see each other? I pity those whose boys die. They will never be able to see each other again. Of course, there is the memory that their son gave his life for the country. I wonder if that is a great consolation. Maybe it is.

I guess there is really no place like home especially when you are not home. Leonie is always thinking of his wife. Fred is worried extremely because his wife was on the family way. “By now, I’ve got a baby, I wonder if it’s a boy,” he said. I’m sure all of us at this time of the night start thinking of our homes only we don’t tell each other about those feelings. When I pray at night, I don’t only pray that I might see my family but also that all my companions might see their families too. But I guess that’s an almost impossible thing to ask. I think I’ll stop writing now because what I am writing is making me feel sad.

 

(later)

 

Prayed rosary with Sgt. Sinculan. He said he had not prayed for a long, long time.


January 12, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Service

Bataan

 

Met Leonie Guerrero, Salvador Lopez, and Vero Perfecto as I was leaving the command post of the 2nd regular division.

Leonie will be assigned to our unit, Lopez to Corregidor and Perfecto will join the Signal Corps in Little Baguio.

Brought Leonie to our HQ. He and I are in the same tent. The General has assigned Fred, Leonie and I to job of putting out daily news sheet for soldiers in Bataan and Corregidor. Name suggested for publication is “See you in Manila”. Corregidor will furnish us with paper, stencils will be provided by Philippine Army Headquarters in Mariveles. Romulo called up and said the appointment of Leonie is in process. He will be made 1st lieutenant, Lopez will also be 1st lt. and Perfecto, sergeant.

Visited hospital in Base Camp. The sick were in make-shift bamboo beds. Many are afflicted with malaria. Others with dysentery. Some are suffering from bullet-wounds, others from shrapnel injuries sustained during shelling and bombardment. Every day hundreds of boys are being brought to hospital. Doctors in hospital work 24 hours. Medicine used are leaves of plants and herbs. Doctors know when there is heavy fighting in front due to truckful of wounded brought to hospital while fighting is in progress. It is a heart-rending sight to see boys with open wounds diving on the sand when planes fly overhead. Wounds have to be cleaned all over again. Many shell-shocked cases. Sulfa-thiasol works miracles to injuries. But supply is very limited now. Some boys are suffering from vitaminosis. Weighed myself in hospital. I have lost ten pounds already. Got some quinine. I think I have malaria.

 

(later)

 

Name given to Jap observation plane by boys: “FOTO JOE!” Name given to our mess hall “Tom’s Dixie Kitchen”. Between ourselves we call the General “B.P.” e.g. “Buck Private.”


January 9, 1942

Manila Bay

On board Navy Courier Boat

 

Beautiful morning. Sun is slightly above horizon. Sea is calm. Cool morning air. All is quiet except for chugging of boat. Looks like a pleasant cruise.

Heard Mass said by Fr. Ortiz and received Communion. The President and family, Vice President Osmeña, Gen. B. Valdes, Sec. Abad Santos and Col. Manuel Roxas all attended Mass. Mass was said in small corridor between Fr. Ortiz’s bed and the President’s. Fr. Ortiz was slightly peeved because Nonong Quezon attended Mass in pajamas.

Had breakfast with President and his daughters. The President was in good spirits. He said he was aware of the sacrifices the Filipino youth were now undergoing. “I am sure,” he said, “they will come out of it gloriously.”

The President recalled his last speech in the U.P. campus when he told the student body that it was very probable that in a very short time many of them would be fighting and dying.

At the other table, I watched Gen. Douglas MacArthur taking his breakfast. He was not talking at all. He ate hurriedly and I don’t think he even finished his coffee.

Breakfast even in Corregidor is rationed. We had a handfull of oatmeal, one slice of bread, a little jam and a cup of chocolate. Nonong Quezon wanted more and I noticed Nini gave some of her own food to her kid brother. I had to hurry through the breakfast because the boat was about to leave.

Fr. Ortiz gave me a big can of of powdered KLIM and he told me to ask him anything I needed. He gave me a strong embrace and he told me to take good care of myself.  He accompanied me to the boat and he told the general that I was one of his craziest students.

Right now, I am half-way between Corregidor and Bataan. From here, Corregidor looks like a small reef floating between the jaws of a huge monster. Corregidor stands between Cavite and Bataan at the very narrow entrance of Manila Bay. Japs have not dared attack Corregidor from Western entrance. Too many coast artillery guns.

Morale of men in Rock very high. They have more ‘inside’ news on the convoy. All the big-wigs are there. I noticed a lot of officers in Rock are somewhat bored due to inactivity. Some of them want to go and fight Japs in Bataan. Others prefer comfort and safety of Rock.

Life in Rock is very dull. Officers sit around listening to swing music from KZRH and laugh at radio commentator. Once in a while during day they have to rush inside the tunnel to hide from bombs. At night, they gather outside mouth of tunnel, to breathe some fresh air and to light a cigarette. Smoking is prohibited inside tunnel.

Boys in Rock are very glad when some of the fellows in Bataan drop over. It sort of breaks the monotony of their lives. They crowd around Bataan boy and pump him with a thousand questions on life in the mountains and conditions of trenches and “how many Japs have you killed?”

Pepito Abad Santos was very eager to go with me to Bataan. He said he was bored stiff with life in the tunnel. But his father did not give him permission. He gave me several letters for some of his schoolmates that are now in the front.

We are now approaching Cabcaben. Japs have bombed this little dock several times but they have always missed. Our boat is signaling the shore defenders now. I can see Fred waiting for us in the command car.

The general just called for me. He said: “When the boys ask you why they called for us, keep it a secret. Nobody must know. Tell them I’ve just been relieved. Secrecy is essential.” He added: “If they ask about the convoy, say you understand it will be here very soon —to pep them up.”

I asked the General: “Frankly sir, when is it arriving?”

He said: “No mention of it during our conference.”

 

(Later)

 

51st brigade, C.P.

Bataan

 

Everybody wondering why we were called to Rock. Fred’s asked me ten times: “What’s up, Phil? Come on tell a pal.”

Major Sison asked: “When is the convoy arriving? Are we going to get more reinforcements?”

My sergeant said: “May be, sir, we are going to commence a general attack.”

Major Montserrat asked about health of President and “how’s my friend Valdes?” I told the Major that Gen. Valdes was sending him regards and that he was probably going to get a promotion. Major Montserrat was very happy.

Nobody dared ask the the General anything. Neither did he speak a word. He just told his orderly to pack his things.

I think the general will take me to the Intelligence Service. I’m sure I’ll find that work more interesting.

The General is writing right now under candle light. He is forming his new staff. I think Maj. Gen. Guillermo Francisco will head this division. General de Jesus may take officers he needs for his new assignment according to arrangements in Corregidor. I wonder where we will have our headquarters: Corregidor or Bataan?

Intensified patrol activity in front. Artillery duel. No casualties, on our side.

A lot of monkeys running up and down trees in this area. Fred said the other night the sentinel shot a monkey. He shouted “Halt” and the dark figure kept on crawling. When morning came, sentinel found out it was a big monkey. Password for tonight is “Lolita.” Words with letter ‘L’ are generally chosen. Japs cannot pronounce the ‘L.’

Some of the boys are singing “The gang’s all here.” They are out of tune. In Corregidor, there was no singing. Too many high officers around.

Report just received that Japs started attack on Western sector putting pressure on 1st Regular Division.

Lost my bottle of quinine pills.


January 6, 1942

Bataan

Limay Hospital

 

Helluva day. Almost died. It was noontime and the sun was very hot. So I stood under the shade of a tall tree beside the municipal building of Limay. The general was standing at the entrance of the building talking with colonels Sevilla, Garcia, and Caluyag. I was talking to Major Mascardo, former aide of President Quezon. Mascardo was telling me about the narrow escapes he had from bombs dropped in Camp Murphy and he said it was bad to be near the transmitter of the Signal Corps. Suddenly somebody shouted: “Planes! Planes!” I saw the general run for his life. Instinctively I dove flat. In a second I heard the droning of many bombers. They were diving towards us. I closed my eyes and prayed. Louder and louder came the planes. Then the eerie swishing of bombs and more bombs. The earth trembled. My chest was compressed by the concussion. My ears hummed. More bombs exploded. Trees fell and a pall of smoke filled the entire area. The municipal building began to burn and I was partly covered with mud. When the planes were gone, I slowly stood up. I was shaking from head to foot. I looked around and everything was burning. Two trucks loaded with troops were hit by incendiary bombs. In a nipa shack which was partially destroyed, there was a woman crying for help. The driver of Major Mascardo’s jitney lay sprawled beside a fence, an ugly gash on his brow and a piece of iron sticking out of his left eye. I saw the mangled bodies of three officers and two drivers who were playing dice under a mango tree. The dice was still in the hands of the chauffeur. I saw Fernando Poe, cinema star, running across the field with a soldier on his shoulder who was covered with blood. He was rushing the man to the medical department. Tony Arrieta was shouting for assistance because he said three of his friends were hit and bleeding to death across the road. Meanwhile Mascardo’s jitney caught fire. The gasoline tank exploded and the box of ammunition inside the car started to explode. I didn’t know where to go or what to do. I just stood pale and looked at everything blankly. Then the chaplain told me to accompany him to the truck with the troops. None of the passengers were saved. There they sat on their seats like carbon statues, charred to death, their rifles beside them. They could not be identified except for names or initials scratched on their helmets. Fred saw a helmet with his brother’s name. He asked me to look for the corpse but there were too many and it was almost impossible to distinguish. I told him “Maybe that’s just a fellow with same name, Fred.” But he wouldn’t be consoled. He is probably still examining each and every corpse. Under one of the Pasay trucks, I saw the body of an American boy. He was only partially burnt but a shrapnel pierced his lungs. I walked to the nearby schoolhouse as everything around me was burning and I could no longer stand the stench of roasted human flesh. Under the schoolhouse, I saw my general crouched beside Major Monserrat. The general was wounded on the shoulder.


December 30, 1941

Ft. McKinley,

Command Post

 

Our division has been ordered to move to San Fernando, Pampanga. The general said that very heavy fighting continues on the northern front. Troops under Generals Capinpin, Stevens, Shalleck and Brower are fiercely resisting the enemy’s full-dress attack.

Meanwhile the enemy has increased intensity of his raids in Luzon. Local air force however has struck back with increased fury. The 11 a.m. communique from MacArthur’s headquarters said that a Filipino pilot and two American airmen show down eight planes in engagements over southern Luzon during the past few days. Cesar Basa of the Ateneo died in one of these raids. His plane was attacked by 50 Japs. (Cesar and I used to swim together.)

Tuned in on radio with Signal Corps boys. Japs seem to be gaining ground in all fronts. Hong Kong’s governor has surrendered. Japanese troops on Malay east coast are reported approaching the Kemmanan area, 225 miles from Singapore. Contact with Kuching, capital of Sarawak has been lost since last Wednesday. Tokyo radio claims they have not bombed Santo Domingo Church.

Just found out there are many Ateneo boys with our division. Among them are Gonzalo Gonzalez, Alex Albert, Fermin Fernando, Henry Burgos, Gregg Anonas, Bert Misa, Saturn Velasco and others. Will try to find out how they are if the general gives me permission. He always wants me to be near him with all his maps and plans. Yesterday he told me that in addition to my duties as aide, I was assigned to also write the history of our division.

Heard the 26th cavalry was annihilated in Pozzorubio. They charged against tanks and artillery. An eye witness claims he saw “headless riders charging onward.” Another said that some members of said unit “jumped at tanks, pried open their turrets and hurled grenades.” MacArthur awarded DSC’s to members of this brave unit. Most decorations were posthumous.

Our division observers reported huge columns of smoke rising into the sky around Pandacan. No information on the cause or source was available in command post this morning. Apparently the Japs are not paying much attention to Open City declaration. However the general said that when we move to Pampanga we shall not cross Manila to abide by provisions of Open City.

Reports received in command post this morning indicate that troops under Gen. Segundo are also moving to Pampanga. Japs are apparently entering Laguna preceded by strong aerial and tank formations. Several young Baguio cadets, recent graduates of the Academy, were reportedly killed in action in the beaches of Tayabas. Capt. Fusilero who was in Camarines said the Japs were well acquainted with the terrain and they carried accurate maps.

Can hear Col. Garcia shouting at truck drivers. He is ordering them to park the trucks under cover of trees. “Do you want us to be bombed?” he is telling the chauffeurs.

Officers of the division spend their spare time discussing about the convoy. Some think it will arrive in a week’s time. Others say it will be three weeks. Fred said “Oh, maybe two months:” and everybody branded him a “low-down pessimist.” Fred explained: “Don’t get excited, fellows. I was only fooling. I think it will be three months.” The chaplain told Fred to pipe down because he was not funny. I ventured the opinion that the convoy would be here in three days and everybody cheered me. Fred said: “What’s your reason for thinking three days?” I said it was not ‘reason’ but ‘intuition’. I also pointed out that Roosevelt said “Help is on the way.” “If it’s the family way,” said Fred, “it’ll take nine months.”

Now Fred’s got me doubting…….

 


December 29, 1941

Command Post

Ft. McKinley

 

Our division has been ordered by Corps headquarters to retreat and form a new line with a view to defending the Southern entrance of Manila. The general has chosen McKinley as the site of his new command post.

The troops are perplexed. “Why should we retreat when the Japs have not even dented our lines?” The general explained that the enemy was fast gaining ground in Tayabas exposing our rear to a possible flank maneuver.

Am writing this in old office of Maj. Gen. Parker which is partially destroyed. The books of Parker are still here including a complete set of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Other officers have left their files, typewriters, radios, hats and shoes. Fred just popped up, looked over my shoulder to see what I am writing and said “There are a lot of canned goods left in the Post Exchange.” From the window, I can see two huge craters, big enough for ten carabaos. The Japs have evidently subjected this fort to heavy aerial bombardment. The barracks are partially demolished. Some of the cottages for officers have also been destroyed. All the houses here are deserted. Fans, refrigerators, wardrobes, kitchen utensils have been left in disorder. Names of officers are still on sign posts outside their respective houses. I told my sergeant to get all the canned goods he could lay his hands on and to put them in the general’s command car.

Must stop writing. Air-raid alarm. I wonder where the shelter here is.


December 23, 1941

Silang, Cavite

Headquarters, 51st Division

 

Still no action. Troops ready in positions. Morale of men very high. Spent whole day running to a nearby foxhole every time Jap planes flew overhead. Several bombs dropped on grass field near ammunition dump but no damage done.

Ate with Silang’s parish priest. He gave me ham and eggs and coffee. He said he was glad the 51st was in Silang to defend the town from Japs who might land in Nasugbu Bay. “when there is a raid,” he said, “you may use the cellar of my church because it is very safe.”

Accompanied Gen. S. de Jesus during his inspection of front line and reserve lines. High spirit of troops impressed me. The boys are raring to fight and anxious to “knock out a couple of Japs.” One private raised the flag atop a ridge. Somebody said: “Better remove that because it will disclose our positions.” The general remarked: “Take every normal precaution but let’s keep the flag flying.”

Went to Signal Corps tent to listen to radio. Tuned in on San Francisco, Tokyo and Manila. Heard Ignacio Javier’s daily commentary on the news. Signal Corps officers said they intercepted Jap messages at about eleven last night. “There must be ships nearby” remarked the radio operator. On my way to the command post, I stopped at a store to buy several packages of Camel’s . When I offered to pay, the waitress said: “never mind, you are a soldier.” I insisted but she refused. She was a smart looking girl although somewhat plump.

Wrote Mama three nights ago. Asked her to stop worrying about me because I can take care of myself. Fred also wrote to his mother but his letter to his wife was longer. I wonder whom a man loves more, his wife or mother. Started writing to Morita but tore the letter because I didn’t know what to say or how to say what I wanted to say. Fred smiled and remarked: “I’ve gone through all that.”

Attended staff meeting which lasted until 9:30 p.m. The general said main effort of enemy being exerted on northern front. He said a huge enemy fleet of about 80 transports was sighted off Lingayen Gulf. He stated that Gen. Capinpin’s 21st division will be on hand to welcome the Japs. The general explained that this was the second enemy thrust upon the Lingayen sector. The first landing was attempted on December 12. The division G-2 pointed out that Jap troops from 40 transports landed in Atimonan. He said that MacArthur’s headquarters gave information that troops of General Parker in this area are “behaving very well but are greatly outnumbered.” He opined that if the enemy continues gaining ground our lines may be outflanked. It was decided to establish closer contact with units under Gen. Albert Jones to coordinate defensive efforts. Capt. Fred Castro was told to act as liason and he was given a fast Ford coupe and Signal Corps men for transmission of messages as need arises. The general told Fred that he must observe conditions in Camarines and Tayabas fronts and relay information to our command post continuously. “Be sure you don’t lay down on the job Fred because I don’t want our rear exposed.” Fred’s face beamed with importance.

It is a beautiful night. Thousands of stars in the sky. Fields are green, river beyond is quiet, papaya trees are about to bear fruits. I can feel a soft wind blowing on my face right now. The soldiers sitting under the trees in the orchard nearby are singing “Tayo na sa Antipolo.”

I’m homesick, really.


July 21, 1941

Our training during the past week on the 1st Q-Boat Squadron was hectic and very extensive. Torpedo firing exercises were conducted under the watchful eyes of our torpedo mentor William Mooney. I really do not know how I fared during my turn during those exercises. I know I scored several hits.  Manila newspapers today says the German advance smash near Leningrad but the Soviets claimed the Nazi column crushed.  London BBC Broadcast to Europe encourages resistance against the Nazi under the slogan “V for Victory.”  Meanwhile, it was reported French Vichy gov’t yields military bases to the Japanese in Indo-China to prevent the British from gaining complete control of the area which consisted of Vietnam, Cambodia and Burma. 

My Mistah, Maning Acosta reported to me the feverish training activities of the FA in Camp Dau. The early pioneers of the FA were trained at the FA School at Ft. Stotsenburg under Lt Col Ralph Hirsh, USA FA, a product of the FA School, Ft Sills, OK. Some of the early pioneers were Jesus Vargas, Alfonso Arellano, Luis Villareal, Zoilo Perez, Felipe Pilapil, Francisco Adriano, Simplicio Rivera and my seven classmates. Later an FA School was established in Camp Dau.  I have touched on the early pioneers of PAAC, OSP, INF, CAC,QM, SigC and now the FA.

The Med Corps was pioneered by Maj. Joseph Weaver USA MC, thence Victoriano Luna, Diño, Roman Salacup, Hospicio Solidum. Early DCs were Fernandez and Hawkins (forgot their first names).  JAGO were Fred Ruiz Castro, Delfin Jaranilla, Luis Torres, Sixto Carlos. The AGS were Federico Oboza and Luis Florentin.  Let me touch on the other branches of the PA as I recall them.  The early pioneer of the CE was a certain Maj Torres from the USA CE, thence Antonio P. Chanco, Rigoberto Atienza, Pollard, Clemente Guerero, Benjamin Mata, Ramon Olbes, Licurgo Estrada, Washington Sagun, Cipriano de Leon, Reynaldo Bocalbos.