May 26, 1943

Doria and I sat in a taxi today with Mrs. Paul McNutt who had not seen our small daughter Ursula since she was a baby of three weeks at Baguio, six years ago. Mrs. McNutt was looking lovely and very smartly dressed. She commented on the regal style in which the Quezons lived at the Shoreham; and said that sometimes shen she entered the hotel with her arms full of bundles, as one was obliged to do nowadays, she met Mrs. Quezon flanked by two a.d.c.’s! Said that she herself had once been a refugee (from Mexico), but that was not the way people expected refugees to look! It was good-natured but ironic.

The Japanese radio (Domei) states that Vargas announced that all Filipinos should celebrate Japanese Navy Day (May 17) since the freedom of East Asia had been assured by the shattering by the Japanese of the Anglo-American and Dutch navies!

Arnaldo in charge of the library in the Commonwealth Building (1617 Mass. Ave.) says that it is not believed that the Japanese have destroyed any libraries in the Philippines, except possibly a part of the University Library. That the Philippine National Library was untouched, except that probably they took the old documents for their own great collection of Filipiniana in Tokyo–as, also possibly all the priceless collections of Professor Otley Beyer.

Sitting in the lobby of the Shoreham that evening with Dr. Trepp, we saw Quezon and his daughter Baby going toward the front door for a drive. Quezon went up the three or four steps nimbly almost waving his rubber-tipped cane. Trepp observed that if he had seen us, he would have been leaning feebly on Baby’s arm. Trepp told me that the President was a “used-up” man, physically; that there was nothing organical serious about his condition, and that he should live for from 5 to 10 years more–but was gradually wearing down. Says he (Trepp) saved Quezon’s life in 1932 and at first Quezon was grateful to him and put him in charge of the Sanitorium later replacing him there by Dr. Cañizares and making Trepp the latter’s “adviser.” As soon as Trepp had taught the Filipino doctors his methods, they shoved him aside. Quezon has not been generous to him in later years, but Trepp had built up a fine private practice in Manila, and had put his savings into successful gold mines.

Trepp said he “simply adored” Quezon until they went to Corregidor–but thought his leaving Manila a terrible mistake (of course, Trepp did not know of the pressure and specious promises of help from Roosevelt).


June 18, 1936

Wrote a memorandum for Quezon on the extension of the season for shooting snipe.

Saw Quezon from twelve to one o’clock in his office with Secretary Torres, Alcalde Posadas &c. He asked me about the Landlord and Tenant Bill–I told him I had left it the day before in Diokno’s office for revision–he said “It is loaded with dynamite–better telephone Diokno how confidential it is; not to let it leak out prematurely; and I want to see it before it is sent to the Assembly.” Something or somebody has been at him–this warning from him is alarming!

Beyer and Belts, two geologists to lunch. Ross and Hoskins to dinner.


June 12, 1936

All day at sea. Worked in the morning on Landlord & Tenant bill. Bridge with Quezon, Roxas and Sabido. At Dumaguete from 4-5 p.m. to allow four Visayan Assemblymen to disembark. Quezon again put Osmeña forward to receive the honors. The President took Speth, Assemblyman Villanueva and me by motor out to see the hot springs. Many attractions in this neighbourhood. They have a “Baguio” at 3000 feet on the extinct volcano–very rich soil, and 70,000 people in or near the town; Quezon agreed that there is sufficient population here to make a chartered city with a decent hotel, this could be developed into a tourist resort. There is a crater lake, also limestone caves which are a great site for archaeology–evidences of iron, gold and sulphur exist hereabouts. They have a successful Methodist university, the Silliman. Quezon asked me many questions about Dr. Otley Beyer–evidently wants to be informed of the ancient history of the Philippines. Said he himself had Ilongot blood through his mother. There are many mestizas in Dumaguete–it appears that when the Spanish liberals were exiled to Mexico, some of them drifted out here and to Zamboanga. Quezon remarked that they did a good job!

Quezon talked of the Public Service Commission which as he recalled was one of the progressive acts of my Administration, intended to protect the public, but had turned out exactly the opposite; said the Supreme Court under Johnson had entirely rewritten our law; remarked that he ought to have been on the Supreme Court himself. Has now put Vera as Public Service Commissioner to try to get things more decently run. I told him there was general dissatisfaction with this commission.

At dinner, the President talked with me confidentially about Osmeña & Roxas. He had been very reluctant to oust Osmeña as the leader in the days when I was here (as I was then urging him to do) for it would have been said that he had gained the leadership thru the support of the American Governor General. He added that he had lost Roxas to Osmeña when those two were on the “Osrox” mission to Washington–that they then believed he, Quezon, was dying. That he was reluctant even then to go to issue with Osmeña, but his Senators were “sick of O” and forced him into it. He said Osmeña is now less powerful mentally, and was not at all the man I used to know–no brilliant ideas–always coming to him for appointments, in which he (Quezon) skillfully outmaneuvers him, taking a leaf from Osmeña’s own book. I asked him why Osmeña looked so triste; whether it was his troubled family affairs (his sons)? “No” he replied–indicating that it was Osmeña’s loss of power. Said he had been ready to break with the whole lot of them over Teacher’s Camp in Baguio, even to the point of accepting the resignation of Osmeña as a Cabinet member! He thinks Roxas is the one with brains, but that he would have to break him if he went on organizing “his fellows.” Quezon said he could not let down his own supporters, who had “made him President.”

I suggested a method of his writing as he wished his account of the administrations from Wood to Murphy in collaboration with me by having a stenographer present and letting me ask him questions. I told him this would be the way to get his vivid personality into print. He seemed pleased to agree. I made some mention of when I “left here” and he enquired anxiously whether I was going–told him that was only to spare him any embarrassment that I really wanted to stay here. Quezon said that is what I should do–get a home; invest here; that I had more friends here than anywhere else; that my life’s work had been done out here, and that Filipino historians would agree that they would still be Struggling for their independence if it had not been for me.

We discussed the missionaries out here, with whom I never had any trouble. He stated they caused him embarrassment only recently by complaining about the Philippine Army and by saying to President Roosevelt that its spirit was anti-Christian. The High Commissioner had brought him an enquiry on this matter and he remarked: “The answer was easy,–President Roosevelt signed our constitution, and we are only carrying out what is permitted in that.”

Talked of present population of the Philippines. He now agrees that there are probably 16,000,000 (I think 18) and may be 25 in ten years. Makes him jubilant over the possible size of the army.

Memo: In Zamboanga I commented to Colonel Stevens on the fact that there had been three killings in Jolo that week. His reply was “they are at least 3 behind schedule–they average one a day.” When asked why? he said: “Because they like it.”


May 14, 1936

Short chat at Malacañan with Francisco Benitez, in which I expressed pleasure in the new plans for education. I asked him about building school houses–he said that in future they were going to stop building, in expensive and ugly concrete, and construct in “native materials.” After all these years of folly, I am glad to see common sense at last prevail.

Long talk with Dr. Manuel Roxas about the Council of National Research and the importance of research work in general to promote diversification of the products of the country. We seemed to agree about the deplorable paralysis in all economic plans, due principally to the influence of sugar interests and their lobby in Washington. Nevertheless, he wishes to speed up research work to be ready for the time when the National Development Co. does get to work (if ever).

In p.m., went with A. D. Williams, Consulting Engineer of the Metropolitan Water System to inspect their plant. Lovely drive to Ipo–on a road new to me. Otley Beyer, who came along with us, pointed out many of his best archaeological sites in Rizal and Bulacan, where he made the first discoveries in 1926. He was very interesting about the neolithic and Iron Age people. The latter era in the Philippines was from 200 B.C.–700 A.D. He also showed us the streaks of red earth where the “tektites” are found, which he named “Rizalites.” These are, he said, the only meteoric stones of a silicate nature, and also the only ones which contain mineral elements not yet known on this earth. The valley of the Novaliches River is rich in ancient remains–a region now largely unoccupied by man. Beyer says this is probably due to two reasons: (a) malaria (still there) and (b) gold digging and panning by the ancients, which then petered out, so far as their methods went. The earth here is honeycombed with old worm-like tunnels, with ventilation holes every 30 feet. Beyer says this was the mining method of the Chinese who flocked to California, after the ’48, and began working over the sites abandoned by Americans. We saw the spot where gold signs were discovered when the Bureau of Public Works constructed the road to Ipo–which led to the Ipo and Salacot mining industries today.

Old women still pan about 50 centavoes a day worth of gold out of the Santa Maria River near there–just as their ancestors did 2000 years ago.

At Ipo, we saw the coffer-dam being constructed on the Angat River which is to be completed in 1938, thus making a deep and narrow lake ten kilometers back into mountains. The river varies fifty feet in height between lowest and highest levels, and is always swift. The six kilometer tunnel, which took six years to complete, gives a six foot (in diameter) opening down towards the filter plant near Novaliches. When finished, this project will ensure Manila for the next century at least a fine water supply. Visited the new reservoir at Novaliches, and also the recently opened filter plant a few miles below there. All very wonderful engineering.


May 4, 1936

Quezon back for 48 hours. Malacañan humming again as per schedule. Visited the Ice Plant with E. B. Rodriguez, Assistant Chief of the Philippine Library to see the old archives of the government which were moved two months ago to the top floor because this building is supposed to be fire proof. Quarters for archives are commodious enough, but are as hot as the hinges of hell since they have no ventilation–95 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:30 a.m.–it rises later to 108 degrees. Need of twenty-five cataloguers, and money for binding and repair of old Spanish documents, which are written on fine old paper and in beautiful handwriting. A horrible smell of fish arising from Army cold stores below! Rodriguez says Governor General Murphy’s economies are partly responsible for Sakdalista uprising in Laguna a year ago.

Later in the morning, I visited Otley Beyer at the University of the Philippines, and asked his opinion of the Bureau of Science. He says it was originally started as a government laboratory; Worcester put Freer there and made the staff do research work. In my time, Denison made it more “practical.” Later, Dr. Brown came in and realizing the difficulty of getting from the legislature funds for research began to boom and advertise the practical, or routine, productions of the bureau (glass, paper, pottery etc.) and raised the annual appropriation to nearly one million pesos, but disorganized the Bureau and left it in a mess. He attempted too much. Beyer says Arguelles is a good chemist but has not backbone enough for political life. He added that the Filipinos treat the Government like a family (pariente) affair, and when a high salaried post is abolished, the salary is divided up among half a dozen small men who are of no earthly use. Says research and routine should not be combined–with the Dutch in the Indies they are kept entirely separate. He believes that Secretary Rodriguez is one of the worst pariente job seekers of the lot. Am to see him later.

In p.m. to cinema with Peters.

Saw Paulino Santos, just made a Major General and Chief of Staff of the new Army. He appears happy and thrilled. Sworn in today and asked me to attend.


February 28, 1936

Visit to office of the usual series of men wanting me to get them jobs. Great relief when Rafferty arrived–he has forced his partners in the Manganese Mine, to “do him right.” Told me Sy Cip’s brother took a Chinese “dumb head” to the United States to campaign against our attempt to make the Chinese keep their books in English, Spanish or Tagalog so that the Government could collect taxes. The Chinese won.

We discussed the “customary law” of the Philippines which underlies the laws imposed by the Spanish and by ourselves. This explains many apparently incomprehensible events here. I told of the magnificent lands in the Cavite foot hills which were unoccupied because of the bandidos. He said he was the first of the Americans in Cebu to move out to a section on the outskirts of the City–no Filipinos would then live there because of the Pulijanes. Said Osmeña told him apropos of the recent surrender of Encallado, that this was the customary method of putting an end to brigandage: inviting the leader to one’s house and treating with him. “I was afraid” said Osmeña “when the criticism was running so high here over the princely way Encallado was treated by Quezon, that the papers would recall that this was the method I used myself when Provincial Governor to put an end to the Pulijan movement in Cebu.”

Long talk with Rafferty about Pershing and the “Moro question”; he was collector of customs in Cebu and Zamboanga at the time General Pershing was military governor there. Rafferty believes there was no Moro question there; only a “question” created by the United States Army! Said the reason why Pershing did not oppose my plan to remove the Army from Moroland and install Civil Government under Carpenter was that Pershing wished the credit, for having made this possible. (As a matter of fact we would never have had peace down there unless we had withdrawn the United States Army!) Rafferty says Pershing was utterly selfish and extremely unpopular in Zamboanga. His “illness” when he left for home as the last military governor of Mindanao was only an excuse.

Golf in p.m. at McKinley with Doria.

Memo: Beyer said yesterday that Governor General Murphy had been so afraid of provoking “labor” hostility in the United States that he had declined to take action against two or three labour leaders here when they deserved it. (That seems to have seen his fault as an administrator: every question to be decided here was considered with one eye on his political future at home.)

Quezon is making speeches in the Cagayan valley denouncing people who will not pay their (cedula) taxes, and those governments in the provinces which fail to collect it. (Perhaps the land tax is involved.) It seems probable that the situation is due both to “hard times” and to a general relaxation of government in recent years.

Quezon has announced that the June drawing in the Charity Sweepstakes will be the last; no doubt the affair has given rise to some scandal but I think it wiser for an aministration to regularize and make use of gambling rather than vainly trying to eliminate it.


February 27, 1936

All day drive with Doria and Professor H. Otley Beyer through Laguna, Batangas and Cavite provinces. At Ft. Mckinley we turned down to the river and took the new road thru Pateros and Taguig to Alabang. Pateros is, of course, the centre of the duck raising industry and Beyer says the people there spread the story of how their men hatched their ducks–the fact was they had a primitive (and perhaps very ancient) incubator of layers of sand on bamboo slats; the top is covered, and the men sit on that and talk and smoke, hence this lurid tale!

The new road to Alabang passes Alcalde Posada’s hacienda--hence the road, according to Beyer! The shores of Lake Laguna are occasionally almost uninhabitable because of the smell of decaying algae, which sometimes even invade Manila via the Pasig River. Beyer said the decaying masses are due to the blackade created by water lilies–that A. D. Williams had installed a fine wire mesh at the outlet into the Pasig River which seems to cure that; there are so few boats on the Pasig River nowadays that this is possible.

We discussed the possibility of help for the Philippines health service from the Rockefeller Institute now that Dr. Victor Heiser was separated from that institution. I told how Quezon had recently thought of bringing Heiser out as Adviser on Health, so that if any epidemic broke out here, the Filipinos would not get all the blame–i.e., to make Heiser the goat. Heiser, who is a shrewd intriguer, “ducked.”

Passed one of Beyer’s archaeological sites on a ridge beyond Taguig.

Beyer mentioned how busy he is nowadays with Dr Geo. Pinkley of the American Museum of Natural History and his companions. Mnbien of Peking, Chinese archaeologist. They had spent 4 months together in Peking, studying the “Peking man”–they had a theory that the “drift” of continents had separated the Philippines and Celebes from the mainland, and that these islands had been the original “rim” of the continent; so that, perhaps the skulls or teeth of the “original” man could be found in the Philippines which they believed to have been formerly the seashore. He had persuaded these two scientists to stay on here to examine with him the brokel lime-stone areas near to and north of Montalban gorge–to search for “filled caves.”

I asked Beyer why the Filipinos used the reverse gestures in beckoning to come, and in nodding (also in using the saw); he said these matters were much disputed, but he believed they came from very early times; said there was a Basque village near Santander where the people also gestured in the reverse way.

He went on Speaking of the mountain people of Luzon, stating that the solution of the problem was their absorption by the Cristianos; said this would improve the Filipino stock and quoted Rizal to sustain his theory. Cited Paredes and Villamor as examples. The former half Tinguian and half Indonesian; the latter pure Tinguian.

Entering the province of Batangas, he said the residents were the most sturdy and independent race of Luzon, and were great fighters. Their horses and cattle are also the best in the Philippines. Their food is maize, dry rice, and poi. All the slopes of Mount Makalut (chief volcano)–5000 feet high, near Lake Taal, were densely inhabited in the neolithic age–a large proportion of his archaeological finds came from there. But there is a gap in their history of nearly 1000 years–positively no iron age relics. He supposes that an eruption of the Taal volcanoes drove out or destroyed all those early settlements–perhaps the survivors migrated to the site of the present Rizal Province. In 1911, the year of the last explosion, Father Algue of the Weather Bureau three days before the eruption came, had begged the Philippine Government to remove all people on the island of Taal. Some 2600 people who were there, and in the surrounding neighborhood, were killed in that explosion. The name of the mountain: Makalut, means “curly-headed” since it was inhabited until within 200 years of now by Negritos. Taal Lake is the crater of the great volcano of former times. Now only four or five small craters are left above the water, and also Mount Makalut of which the whole gigantic cliff to the west is the remaining wall. Thu volcanic ash makes wonderful soil when decayed–hence the better specimens of man and beast. The lake was connected with the sea by a river navigable to former ships, until the 1911 explosion which blocked the former outlet and raised the level of the lake. The water of Lake Taal is still brackish, and the fish are of marine types. The soil cuttings hereabouts show various levels of volcanic ash, marking the periodic eruptions.

Passed thru a barrio which had voted against de las Alas four years ago, so to punish them, he would not complete the 1½ kilometers of road connecting their barrio with the main road for three years!

Visited the town of Taal on the sea–it was moved from the original site on Lake Taal 200 years ago, after being twice destroyed by the volcano. Nice old church, and another well-known church and stairway constructed by Christian Chinese after a massacre of their people by Filipinos. In answer to my question why the Filipinos periodically massacred the Chinese–he replied “various reasons”–the massacre of 1603 was permitted by the Spanish because they thought the Chinese were getting too rich; the attempted massacre of 1922 was due to the arrogance of the Chinese after their own revolution in China.

Mabini came from Batangas–his brother still lives there; so do Conrado and Francisco Benitez, Teodoro and Maximo Kalaw (note how shrewd they are in keeping out of high political office)–Galicano Apacible, de las Alas and the Tironas, and the Lopez family. The Zobel and Roxas families have large haciendas in the southwest of this province.

I asked Beyer why in his “ancestral chart” of Filipinos, he did not mention the Japanese; he replied that the Japanese had only lately begun to settle in the Philippines. The similarity of appearance of many Filipinos to the Japanese is due to Malay ancestry which is in nearly half the Filipinos and in most of the Japanese. Those Malays now here invaded from Java and Celebes, and partly from the mainland. Those Malays who went to Japan, entered partly from the mainland, and others, during the Stone Age, from islands east of Java, via Guam, Marianas, Marshall and Bonin Islands–not via Celebes and the Philippines. This is proved by the oval stone axes of a type found in Japan and in the Pacific Islands mentioned, but never found in Celebes, Borneo, nor the Philippines. (Note: the Japanese are just becoming aware of this kinsmanship and are modifying their former arrogant attitude towards the “Southern Barbarians.”)

Today’s newspapers give an account of a military revolt in Japan led by the army, and the murder of five leading statesmen by the soldiers. Beyer said this is in the Japanese tradition. The samurai were so arrogant and such bullies that the Japanese 80 years ago got rid of them and re-instated their Emperor. In his opinion, the domination of the military caste today in Japan is dangerous, but the Japanese will eventually throw them out as they did the samurai.

Other remarks of Beyer were:

Searchers are finding the teeth of elephant and rhinoceros in the Philippines, but none of the tiger, as yet. Plenty of tamarao teeth, all other Luzon. This central region has been agricultural for so long that the dangerous animals were killed off in prehistoric times.

He is not sure the carabao is not indigenous here; the appearance of the Ifugao cimarron is quite different from the domestic type. I could corroborate that statement.

Chinese carp had been introduced here by the Bureau of Science in the fine fish lake in Camarines. Result: the newcomers had devoured the superior type of fish already there, and the people would not eat the carp. So the Bureau of Science is now trying to eliminate the Chinese carp by some disease fungus.

Coming from Butangas through the western part of Cavite towards Tagaytay ridge, Beyer said this country was not settled as is the adjacent southern Batangas, because it was and always had been a paradise for gangsters, now operating as cattle thieves. Some of them were rich men who were playing cattle rustler where formerly they would have been pirates–for sport. They had “fixed” the municipal officers and the Constabulary. I commented on the great decline in morale of the Constabulary under the amiable General (Dr.) Valdes. He said part of it was due to the building of so many roads–the Constabulary had given up “hiking” patrols, and now seldom got out of their motors. He added that my execution of General Noriel–public enemy N° 1 in Cavite, had put a stop to the gangster business in that province for nearly 20 years. Now it was springing up again.

Beyer said that as a geologist, he believed the gold reef in the Philippines extended straight along the Cordilleras. That the Benguet Igorrotes were “gold conscious” and knew all the surface gold places in their provinces; that he did not believe there would be any new gold “strikes” there except at deep levels; that the Bontocs were opposed to gold prospecting, and that the country to the east–Ifugao–was not geologically suitable. That Abra and Kalinga offered a good field for prospecting, especially since Abra, like Benguet, was not heavily wooded.

He expressed worry over the change of the governorship of the Mt. Province now that Colonel Dosser has resigned. Said Bontocs and Ifugaos were resistant to changes in their social and economic system. They were large, organized and proud nations. But, he added, the Filipino officials generally started with great enthusiasm for “reform” in the Mt. Province and then cautiously let the people alone and went in for personal petty graft. Said the Ifugaos were afraid of Cristianos getting all the public offices in their country and taxing, and changing their customs. Said during Governor General Murphy’s vacation in United States, Vice Governor Hayden had appointed some twenty of the Ifugaos as minor officials in their own country.

I asked him what had become of the lgorrote girls educated in Mrs Kelly’s school–he said some of they had married Americans–some lived with them without marriage–most of them had gone back to their filthy ancestral huts and had become lgorrote wives, forgetting their education.

He said the Kalingas, the handsomest and most warlike of the northern nations, had nevertheless proved less resistant to modern “progress” than any of the others.

When in the barrio of Makalut, town of Cuenca, we visited the home of the local cacique, Caves. I asked Beyer to explain his odd face; Beyer said it was mostly Moro–the Moro pirates governed here when the Spanish first came here 350 years ago.

Later that evening we gave a dinner to Consul General Blunt and Mrs. Blunt, Carr, Sinclair, Mrs. Swift and Miss Masters–the latter was half an hour late, for which there was no excuse, for she is hardly a “mere chit of a thing.” Manners in post-war times are certainly “shot to hell.”


February 11, 1936

Morning paper discussed whether Roxas’ refusal indicated a split in the coalition; also announced the resignation of “Mike” Elizalde as head of the National Development Co.

Off at 8 a.m. with Doria and Professor H. Otley Beyer for an all-day trip around Laguna de Bay, thru Rizal and Laguna Provinces. Beyer showed us various sites of his archaeological excavations. Bagas is the oldest continuously inhabited village in the Philippines, dating from neolithic times. He showed us various old Spanish churches on the eastern shores of the Laguna, of which the most interesting is at Morong. The priest who built that in 1640 had evidently come from Acapulco in the galleons –the facade of the tower was designed by him– an odd mixture of Renaissance and Rococo, and with designs of windows and cornices of Maya patterns.

The road around the eastern side of Laguna de Bay has been opened only two years. In my time, this region was a mere backwater gone to decay. But the immense old semi-ruled churches in every poblacion show how rich the church was there in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Beyer pointed out to us underground caves still inhabited today and first used as homes in the iron age. Modern history began there in the twelfth century with the invasion of foreign (Javanese, later Moro) conquerors, who drove the lake-dwellers up into the hills behind. Those whom they dispossessed were of the Indonesian type we know today as Ifugaos, and all the surrounding hills are still marked by the ruins of stone-dyked rice terraces, many of which we examined. We saw in Tanay the old ceremonial tree with a surrounding stone platform, just as is found among the Ifugaos today. The platform had been kept up by the villagers without any thought of their animist ancestors. To the east of us –perhaps 50 miles to the Pacific was “unexplored” country, the home of negritoes and remontados –this belt stretches about 400 miles to the north. We passed the country where the recent bandit campaign was conducted. Then to Pagsanjan –the rich coconut country and so to Lillo on the slopes of Banahao. San Pablo with its crater lake –country with bamboo like those, so Beyer says, in Celebes.

Beyer remarked that the Sakdalista movement is only marking time. That during the recent depression, the people in these provinces were lucky if they made twenty-five pesos in cash a year –that a peseta was big money to them; that they were worked upon by agitators, who ased them whether their conditions had improved in the thirty years of American occupation– then they dwelt on the faults of provincial officials, and told them the two peso cedula tax each man paid went to the rich politicians in Manila for their entertainments and automobiles. The bright spot of it all was that the price of copra had risen again now, and even at the very worst, these people never starved –they could live off the country.

We had passed over the high hills on the peninsula of Jala-Jala made famous by La Gironiere; the hinterland is still uninhabited, and the jungle comes right down to the new mountain road.

When, in 1913, I first met Beyer he was stationed among the Ifugaos and has, I am told, an Ifugao wife –so, I asked him questions about what “modern” civilization had done for them in a quarter century. He said that the situation was delicate –that they had three grievances: (1) government interference with their tribal customs; (2) sanitation and (3) schools.

That having a sense of humour, they laughed at themselves over the new sanitary regulations, but that the school question was difficult. The first barrio schools were introduced there by Secretary Denison in my time, say 1915 or 16 –then the elders of the villages were begging for schools– they promised to build the house for the teacher and to feed him. About two years later, they began to balk and to withdraw their children –these formerly had learned at home to play at building rice terraces and Ifugao houses –something useful for every Ifugao to know, but now they were learning to play baseball, or basket ball– things useless for an Ifugao. Besides, they were taught in school to despise some of the immemorial customs of their parents. Finally the only children who were allowed by their parents to go to school were those rounded up by the policeman and marched there. Then came the burning of the teachers’ houses and reprisals of a burnt village by Governor Dosser.

At Morong (or was it at Pillia?)  the young parish priest, namely Prince Troubestskoy who recently succeeded the Baron de Steuer, came down from the convento and begged us to enter and “have a whisky” because he had no beer. Then he asked Beyer to give him the dates of his church, and Beyer replied –foundation in 1585, church really started in 1640– fortifications around it in 1696.

Beyer said that in San Pablo there had been 15 couples, rich Filipinos who had married American wives, who made up a society of their own. Only two of these marriages had been conspicuously succesful. He and I agreed that a mixture of races produced the greatest social and mental movement –that a pure race tended to become mentally stagnant.

To diversify the diet and elevate the morale of the mountain peoples, Beyer advocates goats and sheep –the only animals which could live in those mountains– there are no beasts of prey in the Philippines.

Said the problem in Nueva Viscaya was the two thousand square miles inhabited by the Ilongots –among them no Christians cared to settle, and the one thousand square miles now densely inhabited by Christians.

Apparently, Beyer is now writing busily, a task to which I have often nagged him.

Further observations by Beyer were:

Roxas is very ambitious and is unwilling to risk being Secretary of Finance with the prospect of an unbalanced budget –also, the political situation in the United States may influence him.

The Spanish priests under Legaspi (1560-90) brought the remontados, (Ifugao type) down from the mountains on the Pacific coast to settle again in their former homes on the lake-side whence the Moro pirates had driven them out a century or two earlier.

Dean C. Worcester and David P. Barrows fell out in 1904, and the Department of Ethnology was tossed about for years like a baseball.

J.D. Rockefeller, Jr. was taken out for a ride from Pasig towards Montalban in 1922 by the advice of Dr. Heiser –the road was always 6 in. deep in dust, and there was lots of tuberculosis– Rockefeller offered to pay the cost of a new road; Governor Wood declined the offer, but the road was built by the government.

Governor General Stimson took the funds set aside for the new bridge we had planned across the Pasig above Malacañan for some other public works project in which he was interested—hence the traffic jam and dangerous situation of Ayala bridge which is being now, since a year, incompetently and wastefully doubled in width.

When we passed Muntinlupa, where the new “Bilibid” is being established, I told Beyer how Santos had already planted one hundred and fifty prisoners who are picked men, to labor there, without guards. Doria expressed surprise, but Beyer joined me in explaining that the “criminal classes” in the Philippines contained very few of our type of jail birds –that many of them were there for offenses artificially created by Spain or American taboos and entirely at variance with their own traditional standards. That in consequence, in most cases no great stigma attached among them to a prison sentence.

Beyer also said that Paredes was an Indonesian type, not unlike the Hawaiian which is frequently in Ilocos; that Bocobo was probably a negrito type –rather snappy  for the President of the University of the Philippines!