October 25, 1935, 9 p.m. — October 29, 8 a.m.

My wife and I are on a trip to the Bicol Provinces as guests of Sr. A. Roces. Sr. Paez, head of the Manila Railroad Co., accompanied us, also Ramon Roces and his wife (Manuelita Barretto), on a private train. Fishing in Ragay Gulf (Doria caught 2, I one); shooting snipe and duck at Pili –at the home of Prieto in Camarines Sur; trip to rest house in Albay on Mt. Mayon driving up through hemp plantations, on the new Paez road.We were given an attractive tea dance at the Mayon Pavilion by Governor Imperial of Albay. Spent a comfortable night there. Sensational scenery, views of the Pacific Ocean; future health resort at altitude of 2500 feet, with a temperature of about 70°. Numerous conversations with Roces, Paez, etc.

A. Roces, Sr. is the proprietor of Vanguardia, Tribune and Tagalog Daily and of the Ideal Cinema. He is a very generous, warm-hearted man, full of ideals, and rather puritanic zeal for the welfare of the poor people; is really an ardent patriot– not a politician, and is thoroughly stubborn and fearless. He wishes well for Commonwealth and is willing to give Quezon full support if a decent honest government is set up –but is rather anti-capitalist. Has always been devoted friend of mine and a supporter of my work here. Would be glad to see me Economic Adviser –and favors low tariffs on the necessaries of life. He advocates also a 25 years period before full independence but accepts the new law. Roces believes it is a waste of time to work for the permanent continuance of the old free trade with the United States, but believes the American people are “sentimental” and can be appealed to for a modification of the present restrictions. I agreed. He advises me to consult with Manuel Roxas about the economic future –thinks him safe in judgment– and considers him sane and studious –believes him to be the coming man, and says that Quezon takes his advice.

Here are some of Alejandro Roces’ opinions on people.

Quezon is impetuous –changes quickly– is not personally concerned over money –has great opportunity now to give a decent government. Roces advised him to go in for a reputation as a good President and not to care about financial benefits; better leave a good name to your children rather than a fortune. He commented that Jim Ross and Jacob Rosenthal are Quezon’s best friends among Americans.

Osmeña, in the opinion of Roces, is too lacking in firmness of character –is always 50-50!

Aguinaldo is entirely ignorant –has no organization and is pitiful.

Wood was a tragedy –was dotty when he came out here; Wood said of Quezon that when surrounded by angels he was an angel –and vice versa.

Davis was nothing.

Governor Cailles is a “100% liar” –that he (Roces) did not believe Cailles’ story of the killing of seven Sakdalistas. He laughed over a photo of Cailles smoking a cigar and pointing a revolver at three dead men.

Don Isauro Gabaldon is an honest man.

Governor Murphy is lacking in firmness —vide the award of Government printing.

Yulo represents capitalists.

Does not advise Roxas to accept the post of Secretary of Finance, nor Paez to accept that of Secretary of Communications.

Sison is the best of the present cabinet –and is absolutely honest.

He then denounced by name several prominent Filipinos whom he believed to have accepted or demanded large sums of money for their influence in public life.

Roces says Quezon is afraid of assassination –that the President had told him that this eventuality was “inherent in his job.” I said that assassination was “not in the Filipino character”; he replied he used to believe that –but not now.

Says Barretto is too old; that Singson is not a reliable man; Sumulong is a good man, he believes, but he cannot understand him at times. Tirona is of no real account.

Agrees with me that there is too much higher education in the Philippines –it makes only for discontent.

Roces, Sr. advocates a National Transportation Corporation to take over all the motor bus lines –capital required now is about three million pesos but they would take shares or installment payments; they can be run as feeders for the Railroad. Paez agrees with him. Roces advocates moving Bilibid prison out of town and making the site a central market and the hub of motor buses –thus cutting out the middleman. This has been tried in Spain –and is a success.

Doria reports a conversation with Mrs. Roces, Jr. and the provincial officials of Albay in which she told them the Philippines was being exploited by American salesmen –with which they rather shamefacedly agreed. Mrs. Roces said to her, “I know why I like you so much because you are English –the Americans treat us like niggers.” Mrs. Roces said where possible she bought only Jap goods. Doria said the Wolfsons and the American hairdressers in the beauty shops talk of Filipinos as if they were imbeciles.

At Pili Prieto talked of his starch factory there –he employs about 100 men– their starch is 80% for the laundry because, it is “more viscose” –20% for food (tapioca). they failed at first because they used camotes –now they make $200,000 gross per annum using cassava plants which he smuggled out of Java in 1933 –they are nearly double the size of the native Philippine cassava.

Talked October 27 with Gov. Imperial of Albay about hemp central and hemp-stripping machines –the latter are made by Int. Harvester Co. and cost about six thousand dollars; too expensive for the small farmer with a plantation averaging about 40 hectares. It would take two to three generations to teach cultivators to cooperate on a central. Said Albay has a 6000-horsepower waterfall –which had been abandoned by Meralco.

At the tea dance in Mayon Pavilion there was a good orchestra from Tabajo –people danced like Americans. Mrs. Imperial said her chief ambition was to go to Hollywood.

Duck and snipe shooting at Pili –duck were teal and mallard– very novel method of screening bankas –men went into water like retrievers after a wounded duck.

Mayon Rest House “the beauty spot of the Philippines.” Volcano erupted last year for the first time in a century, as is still smoking –comfort and modern conveniences at the rest house.

Clouds of locusts in Camarines Sur.


Jan. 13, 1932, Wednesday

Conferences with Vanderburg[1] and Hawes. Lunch with Osmeña, Roxas and Alunan?[2] family who arrived last night. Hawes later came to the hotel for another conference in the evening.

Called for Gloria and found Mr. Loring and Lola Loring (?) visiting Montinola.  They took her to dinner and then I escorted the two girls to the movies.

[1] Arthur H. Vandenberg (March 22, 1884-April 18, 1951) Republican Senator from Michigan 1928-1935

[2] Rafael Alunan (Dec 16,1885-May 18, 1947) – Sec for Agriculture and Commerce during Philippine Commonwealth


Jan. 12, 1932, Tuesday

Montinola is much better and will be out, I think by Friday.

Went to Mrs. Alicia Longworth[1] for tea to meet Roosevelt. It was a small affair but the Sec. of War and Gov. Davis were there.

Dined with Osmeña and Roxas in a Chinese restaurant, then a movie.

[1] Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth  (Feb 12, 1884-Feb 20, 1980) oldest child of President Theodore Roosevelt. She was an American writer and socialite. Her husband,  Nicholas Longworth III was Republican representative from Ohio and was, Speaker of the House from 1925-1931.


January 8, 1932, Friday

R[oxas] & O[osmeña] had an early breakfast conference with Switzer (?) today.

Davies gave his luncheon in honor of Mission at the Patio of the Ritz Carlton.  Present in addition to our crowd were Sec. Hurly, Gen. Win…(?) Gen Parker[1], Sec. McIntyre, Sen. Pittman[2], Fred Harris? and Mayor Ashbridge? – all men.

Davies told me his wife was worse than ever in health.  It means he is resigning.

[1] Homer Cling Parker (Sept 25,1885-Une 22, 1946) U.S. Representative from Georgia, Democrat

[2] Key Denson Pittman (Sept 19,1872-Nov 10, 1940)  was a US Senator (Democrat) from Nevada, became chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations.


January 6, 1932, Wednesday

Raining and muggy. On my feet all day – to M[ontinola], McIntyre[1] in the afternoon and shopping with Sabido. O[smeña] and R[oxas] and T[irona] spent the day in conferences. Took Gloria home and then returned to the hotel. R[oxas], S[abido], and F[ernandez] asked me to movies but I was too tired and so to bed.

[1] Frank McIntyre (Jan 5, 1865-Feb 16, 1944) served in the US army in the PI from 1899-1902. He was for many years with the Bureau of Insular Affairs which was responsible for the federal administration of the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico. He became its head in 1912.


January 3, 1932, Sunday

Roxas and I to Mass at 11:00. Then called on Tirona and all together to  Guevara’s[1] for dinner.  There were about 25 there including Celia Costa (UST) who is studying in Washingon on a scholarship.  After luncheon we took Gloria to her father again and made arrangements to leave him there and have Gloria call every morning.  To a movie, then dinner at Osias’ [2] (where Glo is to stay) and then to bed.

[1] Pedro Guevara (Feb 23,1879-Jan 19, 1938)  was Resident Commissioner 1  of the Philippines to Washington DC from 1927 – 1936.

[2] Camilo Osias (March 23, 1889-May 20, 1976) served as Resident Commissioner 2 from 1929-1935. He was a member of the first Philippine Mission to the United States in 1919.


January 1, 1932, Friday

Arrived at Chicago 12:00 or nearly 3 hours late.  A large group of Pinoys  met us headed by Dr. Zulueta? Zialcita? and Dr. Montenegro(?)  Montemayor (?). We ate ice cream and cookies in the Filipino Recreation Center and toasted Speaker Roxas who is 40 years old today.  Then to catch the 1:45  …?... Capitol Hotel to which our special car was booked. We lunched at 2:30 p.m. on the adobo prepared by Mrs. Zulueta (Zialcita?) and that evening we were guests of Roxas for dinner.


December 29, 1931, San Francisco

Arrived at breakwater at 6:00 but immigration officials were late and we did not dock until after 9:00.  Dolly met us and spent the day on board. Roxas and Co, with exception of Montinola left for lunch and tea with Ehrman, Jackson & Co while F[ernandez] and I remained to expedite baggage through.

Left for So. Pac. Ferry at 4:00 and joined party there at 5:40  to cross over the ferry into Oakland.  Left on the S.F. at  6:55. Dolly is returning to L.A. tomorrow.