May 11, 1936

At Malacañan where I saw Sandiko. He came to enquire how he could get some of his followers placed as waiters at the Manila Hotel. He had with him a child of 4 whom he called his baby. My next visitor was Major Mendes, aged 64, who was looking for a job. His appeal was chiefly based upon the number of children he had. It was very much like the line of talk of Mussolini who prods the Italians into frenzied reproduction, and then complains that there is no room in Italy for its people, and they must have colonies for expansion! Odd how all these Filipinos in their sixties have a brood of little children!

Afternoon bridge here with Mrs. Oleaga, Mrs. Hill and Peters. I gave a dinner for Geo. White, ex-governor of Ohio and my old friend in Congress and his bride, whom he married in Columbus, Ohio just thirty days ago. Captain and Mrs. Sellers also were here. Geo. White is 64–likewise, ex-Governor General General Davis was married again this week.


May 4, 1936

Quezon back for 48 hours. Malacañan humming again as per schedule. Visited the Ice Plant with E. B. Rodriguez, Assistant Chief of the Philippine Library to see the old archives of the government which were moved two months ago to the top floor because this building is supposed to be fire proof. Quarters for archives are commodious enough, but are as hot as the hinges of hell since they have no ventilation–95 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:30 a.m.–it rises later to 108 degrees. Need of twenty-five cataloguers, and money for binding and repair of old Spanish documents, which are written on fine old paper and in beautiful handwriting. A horrible smell of fish arising from Army cold stores below! Rodriguez says Governor General Murphy’s economies are partly responsible for Sakdalista uprising in Laguna a year ago.

Later in the morning, I visited Otley Beyer at the University of the Philippines, and asked his opinion of the Bureau of Science. He says it was originally started as a government laboratory; Worcester put Freer there and made the staff do research work. In my time, Denison made it more “practical.” Later, Dr. Brown came in and realizing the difficulty of getting from the legislature funds for research began to boom and advertise the practical, or routine, productions of the bureau (glass, paper, pottery etc.) and raised the annual appropriation to nearly one million pesos, but disorganized the Bureau and left it in a mess. He attempted too much. Beyer says Arguelles is a good chemist but has not backbone enough for political life. He added that the Filipinos treat the Government like a family (pariente) affair, and when a high salaried post is abolished, the salary is divided up among half a dozen small men who are of no earthly use. Says research and routine should not be combined–with the Dutch in the Indies they are kept entirely separate. He believes that Secretary Rodriguez is one of the worst pariente job seekers of the lot. Am to see him later.

In p.m. to cinema with Peters.

Saw Paulino Santos, just made a Major General and Chief of Staff of the new Army. He appears happy and thrilled. Sworn in today and asked me to attend.


April 28, 1936

At Malacañan. A. D. Williams had just come from a conference with Quezon, Paez and Ramon Fernandez; says the President is set on building railways in Mindanao, and “A.D.” and, Fernandez tried to convince him they would not pay. “A.D.” said he thought he had offended Quezon still more by replying to his (Quezon’s) complaints that the roads offered too unfair competition to the Manila Railroad, that the competition from trucks was unfair and when they had finally managed by January 1, 1936 to get the tax on trucks raised from one peso to two pesos per 100 kilos, the rate had at once been reduced again. This was Quezon’s own doing on the advice of Geo. Vargas, and they both looked pretty glum. (This is the first instance I know since his inauguration where private interests had influenced the President contrary to the public interest.)

“A.D.” also inveighed against the taking of the accounting division out of the Bureau of Public Works and putting it with the others in the new budget office.

He also admitted it was a mistake to have put the Bagagab-Echague road over the mountains–it should have followed the Magat River down stream.

3 to 5 p.m. with the Survey Board quizzing the Directors of the Bureau of Lands and of the Land Registration Office. They sat side by side rather like naughty school boys, each covertly watching the other.

Bridge at the Polo Club, Peters, Satterfield and Ale. Went for a short time to Oleagas “cock-tail supper.”


April 11, 1936

In Iloilo, where we saw a great extension of the filled lands and a long river wharfage. It is a solid and well-kept city with fine environs such as Jaro etc; old Spanish churches. Little parklets are everywhere. Both this and Cebu are good-sized cities. Iloilo has been the centre for shipping the sugar from Negros and Panay. Now that the new port of Pulupandan has been opened, part of this traffic will be diverted there as soon as bodegas can be built, and Iloilo will suffer as Zamboanga did when the port of Davao was opened. Visit to the Santa Barbara Golf Club and to the Iloilo Club; luncheon at Greenbaums, with Wolff, Peters, the McCreers and the Powells.

Both in Iloilo and in Cebu, the Philippine Railway representatives complained bitterly about the Public Service Commission–said they fixed unfair rates, and two men in Iloilo told me [that the other judge was as undesirable as Judge Paredes who was fired.]

2 p.m. off for Manila and home.

Quezon is in Davao with three members of his Cabinet and the Japanese Consul General, trying to settle the land embroglio there.


April 9, 1936

In Zamboanga. The Mayon arrived with Yulo, Quirino and Rodriguez, Santos, Fellers and many others, and Peters, Wolff and I shifted to the Mayon for Manila.

Interview with Johnson who has been here since ’99 and was an agent for Governor Frank Carpenter whom we discussed–he said Carpenter was a public servant thru and thru and perfectly coldblooded; knew everything that was going on from his agents and especially from Filipina women. Said the only way for a white man to succeed down here was by keeping active every day. Most of the fifty Americans who had settled in Zamboanga Province had gone in for loafing and booze, and lived on their Filipina wives. He was broke when in 1932 copra went down and he was left with nothing but debts–subsequently, he paid them all off and last year was assessed for the largest income tax in the Province, on an income of 50,400 pesos. It came from dealing in cutch and copra, and from stevedoring and automobile agencies. He remarked that the Chinese down here come as coolies, get a little tienda at some cross-roads and in ten years own all the property around–they plant nothing and create nothing–send to China for their “sons” (made by parcel post)! The Japanese on the other hand created plantations and improved and developed the country, and lived like highly civilized beings with all the modern conveniences. He greatly preferred the latter.


April 1, 1936

Message from Quezon asking Babbitt, Andy Anderson and me to join him on Arayat. I accepted, Babbitt and Anderson declined–rather a job to get substitutes–Peters and Wolff were proposed.

News in the morning papers that Lanao Moros had fortified a cotta–it was stormed by the Constabulary and 5 Moros are reported killed (more likely 50!).

What an intolerable bore it is being in an office where three out of four visitors come to ask something of me!

A. D. Williams says Quezon has approved plans for the appraisal of a yacht in Los Angeles–1000 tons–sister ship of Yolanda (Mrs Moses Taylor’s).


March 25, 1936

Busy morning at office. Miguel Unson has seen Quezon and has received instructions that I shall work with the Government Survey Board. He came in and outlined their work. The office is at the Heacock Building, and he spends most of his time there. Is worried by the belief that insufficient revenue is obtained from the customs, and is trying to work out a scheme for improvement; he says that every time the customs bureau is investigated the revenue receipts leap up!

We talked over the issue of railway vs. roads in Mindanao: he says the plan is to take down there that useless railroad outfit in Cebu, and perhaps in Iloilo as well, and to build roads as feeders. I also saw Osmeña for a moment before the Cabinet meeting and he talked on the same subject: says the time has come to decide either for railroad or roads, and not to make the same mistake as in Luzon, where they run parallel.

Hartendorp came in, and reported that he had recently called on General MacArthur, who has an office in Santa Lucia barracks. The General told Hartendorp that he was the first editor who had called on him, and expressed surprise; he also voiced regret that Quezon’s address on National Defense at the University had not been better received, and that the press does not support the plan. He said that his plans are extremely well forward, and that the Philippine army is going to get munitions and equipment at one-quarter cost from the United States Army. In ten years, the Philippines, he believes, will have a force making it necessary for another country, if attacking, to lose a great number of men, and to spend perhaps a billion dollars, which will make them hesitate to attack. This would be very different from the picnic the Japanese had in walking into Manchuria. Hartendorp asked whether the Philippines were not rich enough to make this “worth while,” and whether these islands are not a prize because “strategically located”? The General replied that the strategic situation would bring in other allies–especially the United States. Seemed positive of that. He also remarked that Quezon was one of the five great statesmen of the world.

Hartendorp reported that Quezon had cut his Friday press audiences four times running–“doesn’t seem to care a damn about the press,” and, of course, is being criticized by the newspaper men.” Hartendorp observed that in the opinion of people with whom he talked, there were too many United States military reviews and parades going on (n.b. Quezon is reviewing troops at Fort McKinley this p.m.).

8 p.m.--Negros left Manila with a large party as guests of Don Andres Soriano headed for Masbate, to inspect his mines there: Masbate Consolidated and IXL. Quezon, Roxas, Sabido, Confesor, Babbitt, Belden, Correa, Dewitt, Spanish Consul, Fairchild, Fernandez (Ramon), Fox, Hodsoll, Ingersoll, Kerk, Le Jeune, Peters, Selph, Whittall, Wolf and many others. Fine ship of 1900 tons and everything aboard de luxe. Bridge with Quezon, Babbitt, Ingersoll, Peters, Wolff etc. at all hours. Conversations with many aboard on mines, sugar, etc. The general impression as to the latter is no basis for the buoyancy and optimism as to the present prices of sugar shares and their future prospects. No one can answer the question: why this optimism? Not only are Filipinos buying up sugar mills, but haciendas also in the sugar districts are changing hands at prices much higher than before. Ramon Fernandez says they have just found that they can produce sugar at four and a half pesos a picul, whereas five and a half has been the cheapest heretofore. But the real reason for the situation is probably that the Filipinos know the sugar game (some have already made fortunes out of it), and they would rather stick to something they do so well than venture into new fields. Many of the gold mines are in an experimental stage still, and the general public is waiting to see what happens.

Duggleby states that up to date, no proof exists that the Paracale district is as rich as the gold vinds in Baguio. However it was formerly the chief seat of Spanish mining. Says that under American rule no new mines have been discovered in the Philippines–yet every creek in the islands has traces of gold. He doubts whether sufficient gold will ever be produced to satisfy the world, since production is not increasing, in spite of very high present price of gold as a commodity.

The general opinion is that very little foreign capital has as yet come into Philippine gold shares.

Talked with Fairchild, Fernandez and Alunan on sugar: the latter sold his own sugar shares in Negros. Babbitt is bewildered by the high prices of sugar shares, including those of his own company.

I asked Quezon if he couldn’t do something to ease off the dismissal of Hartendorp. He replied “we are going to make him a Professor of English.” Quezon was tired out when he came aboard, and the next morning he was as fresh as a daisy, and very gay. I heard him dictating in his cabin–next to mine, at 6:30 a.m.


March 11, 1936

At office. Hartendorp uneasy because his appointment is as “technical assistant,” and not as “adviser”; fears he will be reduced to mere routine work, and is upset because he can’t see Quezon. Told him I had been unable to see Quezon myself for three weeks. Appointments are out for the Boards of Directors of the Philippine National Bank and of the National Development Co. They are completely Filipinized: even Colin Hoskins is ousted! Bank directors henceforth are to consist only of Government officials, thus freeing the bank from business interests of a private nature. Sorry about Colin who is one of the best directors the bank has had.

Saw Rafael Palma coming to take the oath of office as President of the National Board of Education. He seems pleased, and I am really glad Quezon took care of him–rare magnanimity on the President’s part!

At Manila Club for bridge, but Peters, entering the card room slipped and fell cutting his head badly and fracturing his wrist–took him to doctor’s. Only a few days ago called on General and Mrs. Holbrook and found her with a broken wrist from a fall on a slippery floor. This is a common accident here.

Admitted by affiliation as a member of Bagumbayan Lodge N° 4; I heard that our former efforts to make Americans fraternize with Filipinos had now been replaced by the necessity of persuading the poor Filipinos (Plaridel Temple) to fraternize with the “aristocratic” lodges which contain Americans–a schism is threatened–trouble seems to have been created by Masterson, an ex-soldier who is ambitious and speaks a few words of Tagalog.

Soriano told Doria that he finds it more profitable to sell his copra (Laguna) in the open market than to send it to the nearby (San Pablo) dessicated coconut factory.