Fifth Day, January 8, 1829

Fifth day. I started at 5 o’clock in the morning to march toward the southeast, and entered the bed of the River Aringay. This we followed for one hour, until we reached the foot of the mountain, when we began to climb. This first ascent is very tiresome, and as the first mountains are thickly grown over, being covered with dense undergrowth, we marched with great difficulty. At 9 we arrived at a small village called “Pilauang,” situated on a prominence from which the coast is visible. I was received by the headman, called Milo, but I found nobody else in the village, as all the inhabitants had fled, taking with them all their possessions. I treated Milo to the best, and he has since been very useful and loyal to me. At this place I had the rations served out. At 12 we pursued our march toward the north-northeast, wending our way up hill through a “cogonal,” [1] where, with the sun right overhead and reflected by the cogon grass, we suffered an indescribable heat. At 3 we entered a wood which we followed till 5, when we halted at a small village of eight houses called “Luceng.” Its inhabitants had escaped, but I was received by an Igorot who brought me a basketful of camotes and other tubers as a present. This was the headman, named Pipiuan. We passed the night here.


[1] The character of this expedition, which was only one of many similar ones undertaken by the intrepid Galvey, will be best understood by the following remark made by Mas in his Informe, chapter “Poblaci6n,” page 11: “These idolaters [the Igorot] cultivate in some regions immense fields of tobacco, which they introduce into the provinces. The consequence is the ruin of the tobacco revenue, the necessity of maintaining guards and troops to check this lawlessness, the extortions which these very officials commit in the towns, and, in short, so many expenses and troubles that it has been necessary more than once to send out special commissioners, and that this has come to l>e a question of arduous solution. In other regions they molest the peaceful Christian towns and render the roads so dangerous that it is not possible to pass over some of them without an escort.”

‘-Forced carriers. [TRANSLATOR.]

First Day, January 4, 1829

This was the first expedition on which I penetrated into the interior.  On my preceding ones I had not gone beyond the first mountain chain, as the large fields of tobacco planted clandestinely, which I had to destroy, detained me many days, and when my provisions were exhausted I had to return to the towns.

I had heard some Igorot say that beyond the great mountain called  “Tonglo,” which overlooks Santo Tomas and Agoo and is one of the  noteworthy mountains of Luzon, there was a very large town situated in a broad and fertile valley the inhabitants of which were very rich and brave people and made war upon the pagans of the foothills.

But no one of the Igorot who were my friends had the courage to guide me or even knew the road. They knew, it is true, the direction and the point where the town lay, but were not acquainted with the precise trail to be taken in the midst of so many ups and downs and intricate windings. At last I induced my first Igorot friend, Pingue, to guide me, promising myself to find the road, if I were to lose it, with the help of my compass. I assembled in Agoo two officers, three sergeants, six corporals, and fifty troops, with 200 polistas 2 to carry provisions and baggage, and in the afternoon of January 4 set out toward the east.

Following the bed of the river of Agoo till 6 o’clock I reached a barrio of this town called “Tubao.” Here I passed the night.