Tuesday, May 2nd, 1899

Calumpit, Luzon Island – Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo

My clothes are wet with perspiration & I am still hot. The day has been on of constant rush & work.

Out of bed early. Read the first chapter in Book of Numbers. Prayed. Committed myself into the hands of my God, whose providence is over me. Hurried off without washing dishes. Arrived at the Dagupan R. R. Train near the Port Captain’s office about 7.40 a.m. Boarded the train early to secure a seat. 8.30 the train left Manila. At Malolos saw & spoke to several 3d Reg’t Heavy Artillery boys.

Arrived at the Bagbag river about 10.30. The bridge over this stream was partly destroyed on the north bank, an iron span was dropped into the river. A temporary wood wagon bridge has been constructed. At the south end of a long train of cars are standing the “fort” train with its rapid fires General McArthur’s headquarters with his staff, etc. The crowd of soldiers from our train & civilians with supplies etc. struck out northward. The sun was excessively hot. I gave a distributor of “Freedom” a chance to walk under my umbrella & talked salvation to him. Said he is saved; was converted a few years since. At one of our stopping places a number of cigarettes fell out of his pocket. My idea of his salvation fell with the same.

I saw 2 of Aguinaldo’s officers in Gen. McArthur’s car on my way out. Think they are peace representatives. The country back of Bagbag and South of Malolos is getting some of its farmers & they are starting in to repair the wreck of war, plowing their land, etc. “Freedom” is authority for the statement that half a million refugees etc are back of Aguinaldo’s lines. I do not find this statement difficult to believe after noting how completely denuded of population the county & towns are that I have visited. Calumpit is only a name, everything else seems to be ashes. There is a stretch of open country about 2 miles across from the Bagbag river to Calumpit on the Rio Grande, a wide stream with a five iron bridge. Beautiful cornfields with indian corn ripening, covers the 2 miles on either side reminding me of the western states of America. The high railroad grade is cut across in many places with trenches, likewise both sides of the grade & the ditches have been changed for fighting men to use. There are, too, what a Montana soldier calls “get away” trenches. These are so constructed that the Filipinos can slip away under cover, providing they are not flanked. Many iron culverts break this high grade.

At Calumpit, after jumping across quite a number of trenches cut in the grade, & walking 5 inch iron bridge stringers, I crossed the Rio Grande on the Railroad bridge. The track flow including ties and iron have been carried away as were the 2 side foot walks by the Insurrectos. The American troops  crossed by holding to the hand rail & walking sideways under fire, on a 3 inch iron stringer! A brave feat.

Across from Calumpit is situate Apalit, a most peculiarly built town of one street about 3 miles long following the course of the river. The most formidable trenches I have seen up to date are the trenches & forts at this place.

Followed the long street with its nipa huts, embowered in banana bushes, about 2 miles thro’ a very hot sun. Passing the 20th Kansas Vol. Inf. a squad of men of Co. M. invited me to take dinner with them. Accepted the invitation gratefully Y said grace over a cup of coffee, hand tack & Boston baked beans. The men of this company invited me to call again for a hold out meeting; so I understood it.

Half a mile alone M. company I found E. Co. 1st Montana Vol. Inf. likewise Private A. Lloyd who complained of feeling bad. Encouraged him spiritually & prayed together in a native hut where he & others are quartered. A heavy shower with thunder came up. When it ceased, Lloyd accompanied me back to the Rio Grande bridge. Here we parted. I returned to Bagbag bridge & hunted up Private V. Heron Co. L. 1st Nebraska vol. Inf. a convert of the S.A. Claimed that he is saved. We had a long talk including spiritual lines. At my request he got his Springfield & belt of cartridges & I took his photo at the bridge. Also took other photos including Private Peter E. Lamar & a gang of Engineer corps men who are surveying and plotting the country & specially the trenches for the U.S. Gov’t.

Spoke to several men re salvation & my Christ.

Met Bro. Glunz of the Christian Commission. He was returning from a trip done from the Master’s cause.

Our train arrived in Manila about 6.30 p.m. Getting home tired & weary & hot I cooked supper. A large mail of letters and papers awaited me.

(1) Lizzie White, Cotton, Cal. wants her boy Cha. Reed Co. I, 14th U.S. Infantry, converted.

(2) Lt-Col. Wm Evans, S.F. re Lawyer Duncan’s curios.

(3) do      do     date March 28th enclosing $34 money order, salary a/c charges me personally with $1.50 with gramophone needles & $3.50 for Bushnell’s copying books –- 3.

(4) Major John Bard, London, Eng. wants me to write a hurry article descriptive of the Philippines, 1,500 words for the London War Cry.

(5) A generalizing letter for Commander F. de Lataur Booth-Tucker which says nothing in particular – date New York March 29th 

(6) Alice Lewis, Rec’d my letter re fares Manila to America. Keeping it for references. Want pictures from me. Says I am representing the S.A. so well, they have no idea of me farewelling at the present – date of letter March 29th – New York

(7) Harry Stillwell, Kansas City, Mo. Much interested in the Philippines. I think a hint has been given him that he may be sent to this archipelago to take charge. Date of letter, March 26th.

Thursday, April 27th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island – Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo

Am very tired. Have been rushed all day, from the time I got out of bed until the present moment, with this difference that I am closing the day’s toil. Time flies so fast! Wrote last night part of the article for the New York “Harbor Lights” i.e. the finishing part, which was largely copied with ink; finished it this forenoon.

Before tackling the aforesaid article, read 2 chapters of Leviticus & one psalm; then remembered my precious God in prayer & praise. Going into my kitchen I discovered a monkey clinging to the window. Caught him & gave the scamp (he upset my ink bottle on the table before repairing to the kitchen for further adventures) to the sentry across the street, he belongs to the soldiers. We have a small monkey in No. 2 sent over by the Utah boys. We all the little chap “Old Man”. He is a first class nuisance but amuses us.

Cooked & partook of breakfast but did not wash the dishes. Couldn’t spare the time.

Completed the article “Five Memorable Nights in the Philippines”. Wrote it in the back of blank Tagalog receipts secured at Paombong. They have “La Republica Filipina” crest stamped on them with a rubber stamp. Covered 25 pages MS. when written with a lead pencil, but was written closely with ink & reduced to 21 pages. The article was divided into the following subheads: “A Night With Dewey’s Blockading Fleet”, “A Night in Camp With the Besieging Army”, “A Night of Block house No. 2” and “A Night of Fire.” Wrote & sent a letter with the copy enclosing 2 photos: Lighthouse on Corregidor Is. and Cocoa nut raft & houses at No. 2, addressed the letter to Ms. Lt-Col. Minnie Brewer, Newark, New Jersey. Wrote & copied my 2 Weekly Letter to Lt.-Col. Alice Lewis New York city. Several Spanish & mestizo women & children came around to hear my gramophone but went away disappointed. I had no time for that kind of pastime. Copy & letters completed jumped on the Calle Jolo street car & mailed them about 15 minutes before the U.S. mail was advertised to close.

After dinner wrote & copied a 4-page letter to Adj. C.W. Bourne, manager of Ft. Herrick, S.A. Colony at Willoughby, Ohio. Added Philippine news for a local paper at his request.

Cooked supper of bacon, cocoa & oatmeal mush. There is much strength in this trying, enervating climate to do considerable work. Am sometimes surprised.

Read the Houston “Post” & some local papers. Am following the war closely in these parts & also take considerable interest in the progress of Houston and Texas.

Ex-Lieut-Col. Keppel’s letter & the letter of Major Ashley Pebbles re the Booth’s trouble (S.A.) in the U.S. has cast a gloom over my spirits. I very much deprecate strife in the Salvation Army.

Saturday, April 8th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Heavy black clouds threatening a storm rolled up today, but no storm followed save a slight fall of raindrops.

Felt quite tired from my yesterday’s trip to Malolos with resulting fast and heat. The heat of this country enervates. Started the day with Bible reading & prayer. Cooked my simple meals – breakfast & supper, made dinner of lemonade and dry bread. Washed dishes and cleaned up.

Wrote & copied 2 letters (1) to Lieut-Col. Alice Lewis, New York my 22d weekly letter (2) Chaplain H. Stull of the 1st Montana Vol. Inf. notifying him that 3 comrades of his regiment, Salvationists, want money paid over to me. I requested the Chaplain to name a place & time to meet him.

In the afternoon, past 3 o’ clock, Rev. Owens & myself proceeded to the post office when I rec’d quite a pile of War Cry and newspaper mail. A strange feature of this mail was a package containing 7 copies of the “American”, viz. No. 72 March 29th to No. 78 April 7th. This daily arrives very irregularly.

The Houston “Post” brings news that Houston is putting for the energetic efforts to be something of importance. One encouraging thing is the fact that the city voted $2,400 to the “Lyceum”, which is the only library approaching importance that Houston can boast of. About 2 years ago the Lyceum contained 9,000 volumes. Is a depository for U.S. Gov’t reports. The Lyceum was so poor when I passed thro’ Houston in that the lady librarian then in charge, hoped to sell a piano to raise money to purchase books. I called on her expressly to learn something about this organization a halfway public literary & self-improvement club. I owned quite a large private library which I was willing to give to the public, but did not care to trust it to the Lyceum as it was operated at that time. I am willing to give my collection of books, minerals, curios etc. to the public, providing the city takes charge of the same. If the Lord blesses my efforts I hope to have before a great while 2,000 bound volumes, besides hundreds of pamphlets. A collection not to be despised.

Rev. Owens & the writer visited Messrs. Glunz & Jackson, of the Christian Commission. The boys are now living in a room across the bridge of Spain, in the old ex-Spanish military barracks. I wanted 3 testaments for 3 men in Bilibid prison. Bro. Glunz gave me 21 copies. I purchased over $5 worth of food supplies today for my cubhoard, the same gets quite empty at times.

The S.F. weekly “Call” of 2d March says the European air is charged heavy with war electricity. Great preparations are under way secretly.

To me this has been a day of temptation.

Polished & cleaned some seashells & read papers.

The war situation is at a status quo. I fear the natives are set on fighting to a finish.


Tuesday, March 28th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo Dist.

More or less cloudy; air still; weather hot; dry. Heavy smoke cloud rose straight up in the sky & hung above the horizon, northward, probably more house-burning in Malibon [Malabon]. Tonight weather lovely, clear sky and bright full moon, shining. Nature is so still & the “meek-eyed angel of peace” seems to have his wings shadowing the land in outward seeming, but the reverse is the case. The Filipinos are desperately fighting for existence & death is abroad. Bombs made of high & powerful explosives are beginning to be used in this city; three I hear have been exploded; one in front of the U.S. Quartermaster or Commissary Dept. building.

I remained in Manila all day. Rev. Owens brought word that no one can go to the front without a pass on the railroad. Capt. Crow walked out to the trenches. Is a sea captain.

On my awakening this morning, launched the day as its mission with Bible reading & prayer, then breakfast & dish washing. Private Geo. Schumerhorn of Co. D. Oregon Vol. Inf. came in early this forenoon. Put his Springfield rifle & belt of cartridges in my bedroom & spent the larger part of the day in the city, about 4 p.m. he walked out to Caloocan to rejoin his regiment. We prayed together before he left.

Schumerhorn took an active part in the recent fighting with his regiment at first later by supplying his regiment with ammunition while in action. Had charge of a Chinaman or two & a caraboa [carabao] cart loaded with ammunition. Schumerhorn told me today that Prince Lowenstein (whose full name is Henry Ludwig Lowenstein Wertheim Freudenberg) of Bavaria, Germany, was shot through the stomach & instantly killed by the squad under the charge of Corporal Frank C.E. Edwards C.M. of of the 2d Oregon Vol. Inf. Edwards (who was also severely wounded) said they saw two men dodging about in a house some distance in front of the Oregon line. They could not recognize the men & did not know they were non-combatants, because Filipino sharpshooters were firing from some of the houses in the vicinity at his squad. The strange thing connected with the Prince’s habit of venturing between the lines & near the Filipinos was the fact that the latter never molested him. Loewentstein’s companion, Mr. Wm Neggli, a Swiss, was shot thro’ the hand. The sad mistake occured about 1. o’clock p.m. last Sunday. Schumerhorn saw his body lying in a church near the bridge about 2 miles beyond Caloocan, covered with a cloth. The prince was too rash for a spectator.

Wrote & copied 2 letters. (1) Capt V.R. Post, acknowledging receipt of $36. for one month’s salary –date Feb. 17–

(2) To Lieut-Col. Alice Lewis, 134 W. 14th St. New York a 7-page letter –my 21st weekly– describing as per her request the situation down here & that if the S.A. leaders conclude to hold the Philippines, foreign Salvation Army officers should sent here against whom the natives would hold no grudges as they are likely to do against Americans as the outcome of this war. Cited the case of Rome preparing Italian priests to supplant Spanish priests on the archipelago. I consider this letter as very important.

After bidding Schumerhorn good-bye I went down to the Escolta. Got shaved in a Spanish barbershop; then called at the post office. Got a letter from my niece Miss Eva Milsaps, Shawnee City Oklahoma Ty. Writes very affectionately. Says I am about the only person who seems to care for her in this world. Wants to see me. Is keeping a Scrap book of my Manila letters to the War Cry.

Rec’d several publications (English) & forty copies of “El Amigo de la Infancia” in Spanish; letter from Madrid, Spain. God is good to me praise His dear name. –I drew at the post office the $36. postal note, turned my tenth $3.60 over to the Lord’s fund.

Sunday, Mar. 26th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Sky covered with light hazy clouds which hardly broke the force of the sun’s rays. Weather hot.

Bible reading, prayer, breakfast & lesson for Bilibid prisoners. About 10.30 a.m. struck out on Paseo Azcarraga for Bilibid Prison. Arrived there in good season. Met Major Bean first who directed me to Lt. Wolf of the 2d Oregon’s. We had a long talk in the yard re yesterday’s fight. He is quite friendly. Provost Sergeant M. Ryan went around among the military prisoners & invited them to attend my meeting in the yard. Only three responded. The Sergeant then suggested the quarters of the white civil prisoners. Agreed. Had an audience of 25; very rough men; mostly sailors and beach combers –apparently. I was thankful to the Lord for this change. Don’t have to stand in the hot sun. My rough audience joined heartily in the singing. The service was broken off abruptly, by dinner call. Indeed when we entered the cook was already dishing out dinner on the floor to the prisoners of this ward. The food was left standing until the close of the service. At the close I was invited to return again. The Sergeant & I managed to have future meetings in that place as it is the best I have seen up to date in Bilibid.

Walked back home thro’ the hot sun, & found my table covered with mail from the United States. After going thro’ the letters gave my attention the remainder of the day to the War Crys of different countries. The number is increasing in variety. Lt-Col. Alice Lewis sent me a “Dispo.” for Dec. ’98. the first to come so far. Now for the letters:

(1) Feb. 20th ’99 from Capt. V.R. Post enclosed Postal order No. 30678 date Feb 17th. –my salary; am’t $36. U.S. coin.

(2) Brigadier Jno. Complin, Canadian General Secretary acknowledged receipt of my copy for their War Cry re Philippines.

(3) Private G. Bertrand sent his Soldier’s Pass for me to sign

(4) Lt-Col. Wm Evans, pv. B. acknowledges War Cry copy.

(5) Lt-Col. Alice Lewis, New York. Refers to receipt of several weekly letters, says she quoted contents to Commander Booth-Tucker & Consul. Feel anxious about me & ask me to advise them what to do in my case whether to remain or go away. It has been decided for the present that the Philippines remain attached to United States as my work is with the American soldiers & sailors.

This last item at least settles my mind for a short time, as Commandant’s letter greatly unsettled me. Expected Australasian officers to come up from the land of the Kangaroo any day.

Heavy cannonading this afternoon. “Monandnock” shelled Paranaque.

A German prince is reported killed today at our lines. Was a spectator. Colonel of the 22d U.S. Inf. also reported killed.


Wednesday, March 22d, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. Calle Santa Elena.

Clear and cool. Lovely weather.

Bible reading and prayer. The Holy Ghost blesses me in my soul — He did so last night. My God is good to me, blessed be His holy name, and leaves me not comfortless down here in this heathen land.

Wrote and copied 2 letters: (1) Lt-Col. Alice Lewis, New York, 20th Weekly Letter; (2) Major Gen’l Elwell S. Otis, Governor General of the Philippines requesting a pass to visit troops of 8th Army corps.

Hearing the Utah Artillery sentinel in front of my house call the attention of another soldier to a fire, I looked out and saw a cloud of smoke rising from some buildings in our neighborhood. Hastily putting on my street clothes & taking Kodak & umbrella I hastened over to the fire which was on Sagunto street near the Divisoria market site. This region (the market & adjacent buildings. Sagunto street takes the name Santo Cristo on front of the ruins of the market building. This is a peculiarity of Manila streets.

Chinese occupied the burning buildings. They were beside themselves with excitement –rattled– acted like madmen. While it was serious, at the same time it was a most ludicrous scene. The “bombaderos” (Filipino firemen) are an absurdity. They fastened a hose without a nozzle to a hydrant, Chinese carried the hose pouring out water into the second story window of the burning house. They got as wet as drowned rats. Some American soldiers lent a hand to minimize the bungling. A corporal fell from a second story window & injured himself. Another soldier while dashing down the street had his money belt come loose. Ten dollar gold pieces fell out on the pavement in a shower over a radius of about ten feet. Chinese onlookers rushed up to the gold. Rev. Owens, myself & a soldier also rushed to the assistance of the unfortunate man. I saw a Chinese stoop down & pick up a ten dollar gold piece. Grabbing the arm that held the money I made him give it to the owner. The fire was extinguished without much damage.

After Owens & I returned from the fire, a bite to eat, then I got out some Texas & U.S. railroad maps & an old pamphlet history of Texas, by an anonymous writer –published in 1846. Studied the maps & read with much interest current history of Texas in the days of the Lone Star Republic. The history gives a peculiar insight into the society & habits of those days.

About 4.00 o’clock went to the post office & mailed my letters. Rec’d 2 copies of the “American” –Saturday last and Wednesday –today.

The member of the 3d Artillery who brought my evening “Times” late this afternoon, quite enthusiastically exclaimed that an advance is to made against the enemy tomorrow. The front has been very quiet the past two days.

News is that the Filipino prisoners held in the walled city have sent a note to their relatives in Aguinaldo’s army, calling on them to cease fighting, as it is hopeless, & that the U.S. Government is good enough for them.

Down on the Escolta while I was buying a dozen Chinese oranges from a Filipino woman for Rev. Owens, 2 civilians stepped up & asked me to give them some advice. About 50 –all the crew I think– of the “Indiana” has been discharged. They had no money, no place to stay & were in a quandary what to do. The Governor General would have nothing to do with the tumble, Consul Williams said he washed his hands of the whole business: they could get satisfaction nowhere. I advised them to call on General Hughes, Provost Marshall General, who has jurisdiction over the city, as he might be able to do something on the line of sleeping accomodations, etc.

The U.S. transport “Sherman” arrived in port today bringing reinforcements. The American army is getting strong. I hope & believe that the war will soon end.

Tuesday, March 14, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Weather somewhat cool, with heavy clouds hanging overhead. Like this weather.

Remained at home all day.

As usual Scripture reading & prayer began the morning hours’ serious business.

Wrote & copied Weekly Letter No 19 to Lt-Col. Alice Lewis No. 124 W. 14th St. New York.

Private Hummer of H. Battery 3d Artillery-heavy called. A long talk on the war & God in history followed closing with prayer. Later Private Joe Stahl of the same regiment, a Texan & fellow town’sman of mine –that is of Houston. Gave him some Houston, Texas semi-weekly “Posts” & had quite a conversation re the aforesaid city & it’s affairs. Stahl said he was at one time an alderman & engineered thro’ the city council the scheme to pave Main street with asphalt. Hummer brought me word that Bro. Devine (Landon) is in the General Hospital down with dysentery.

Rev. Owens brought me, from the post office some periodical mail, especially from Madrid Spain, the following: 40 copies of a children’s paper printed in Spanish –“El Amigo de la Infancia.” Año XXVI-No. 296, Jan’y 1st 1899.

Last night the sawmill, a large building about 200 feet from my Headquarters was set on fire. Chinese extinguished the same. Last Sunday, some clothing was discovered buring in the house occupied by me. Tonight the sky is red again from a conflagration somewhere in the distance.

Rev. C. Owens paid me $17. rent today, Mex. money, for 3 rooms & a kitchen in No. 2, which pays up to tomorrow. The right wing of the American army is now sweeping the Filipinos towards Malolos, between Manila, Pasig river & Laguna de Bay.

Wednesday, March 8th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo Dist.

As usual after morning ablutions, read Scripture –chapter in Exodus– & communion with my precious Creator. To such thrice blessed souls as have had a revelation of God in His “new best name of Love” He is precious. Cooked breakfast washed dishes took dinner late with Rev. & Mrs. Owens & made supper of dry bread & lemonade.

Such is batching in Manila.

Remained at home all day; only went as far as the Cuartel Meisig to purchase a loaf of bread.

Wrote & copied 3 letters (1) Lt-Col Wm Evans, sending him 7¼ pages Ms. copy for S.F. War Cry –narrative of Philippine experiences. Subheads: “Fort Rice”, “A Mummy”, “Damasa Garcia” & “Wild Boys.” Sent him 7 Kodak views taken by myself, to illustrate the same.

Time seems to fly remarkably fast. Days go by & I wonder what has been accomplished. (2) Lt-Col. Alice Lewis, New York, 18th weekly letter. (3) Wm Eletson on Flagship “Olympia.” Encouraging him on spiritual lines, asking movements of the flagship’s launches with a view to trying again to hold a service aboard & also asked names of commanding officers of the vessels.

Private Clayton Scott came in this evening. Sent the letter to the post office, also a bundle of mixed War Crys for the “Olympia” & H.M.S. “Narcissus” –British. Prayed with Scott. Said his brother will probably be released from Bilibid prison today & tomorrow.

At the Utah bakery a Utah artilleryman said a big advance will be made tomorrow by American troops. Lying in trenches is growing monotonous to the men, when rain commences will be very disagreeable.

General Order No. 6 –issued by Major General Otis is quite an inconvenience to such as I who desire to conduct evening services. The second & last paragraph reads as follows:

“2. Until otherwise ordered the inhabitants of Manila will confine themselves to their homes after 7 in the evening & at that hour the streets will be cleared by the police. Very active demonstrations will be made against incendiaries or suspected incendiaries who are discovered in any locality of the city.

By command of Major General Otis.

Thomas H. Barry, Asst’g Adj. Gen’l.”

The war so far has not been destructive to American life seriously. The “Times” of 7th March reports: Total dead in field and hospital, 87; total wounded brought in, 247. Total dead & wounded brought in 334. Cases of exhaustion since returned to duty 22; wounded men returned to duty, 58. God has favored the American cause, praise His name.

President McKinley by proclamation restored property of Cortes family, No. 17 Calle Gandara where I first resided in Manila, was the city residence of Senor Maximo Cortes.


Friday, Mar. 3d, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Weather quite cool for this quarter of the earth. Perhaps the natives regard it is quite cold –mucha frio. The “Times” states that the suffering Filipino soldiers are building roaring fires at night to keep the chill out of their blood.

In town, business after a week or ten days stagnation, is starting up again & we see or hear no signs of war, but the grim specter is not yet laid. Fighting goes on day & night by spells –skirmishes– & men are getting killed & wounded on both sides. When reinforcements arrive the long dreary weeks of skirmishing shall end, but alas it is probable that many –perhaps hundreds, yea thousands who are alive tonight will be dead when the forces meet to settle by a death struggle the present differences.

May the God of battles direct the issue, Amen.

as usual Bible reading & prayer started the day. Cooked breakfast & supper, washed the dishes & satisfied hunger at noon with bread, jelly and lemonade.

Wrote & copied 2 letters (1) 17th weekly letter to Lt-Col. Alice Lewis New York (2) Chas Fletcher No. 2 Equitable Building, Boston, Mass.

Visitors none.

Called at the post office & rec’d several papers.

During the day commenced another War Cry article for the S.F. Cry. Wrote 8 pages note size Ms. This is to save time later on when I may be busier than I am now.

While on the Escolta purchased some shells from a Filipino woman, chiefly land shells to fill out my collection.

I heard today that 200 Americans or thereabouts are down with the small pox. Seems to be spreading. Thought I saw a Filipino man on the Escolta this afternoon with a light attack of varioloid & small pox. Natives regard this dread disease lightly.