March 21, 1936

Back in Zamboanga. About 11 o’c off for Basilan, which was “non-Christian territory” in my time. Rough crossing to Isabela. I had visited there 20 years ago when the only plantation was that of Menzi (Behn, Meyer & Co.)–the pioneer rubber plantation in the Philippines. Then we went only 300 yards from the harbour to see the old Spanish fort and the Spanish naval hospital built on stilts over the sea. Today we motored on a first-class road 9 kilometers to the United States Rubber Co. plantation managed by Dr. Strong. Magnificent coconut groves and miles of splendid rubber trees. The market for their rubber is entirely in the Philippines–in Japanese owned factories for making rubber-soled shoes etc. The plantations are now cramped by the lumber concession of Künzle and Streiff. Arthur Fischer, Director of Forestry, will not allow more plantation land to be taken from the forest. Clearings that have been made were done by raising a platform twenty feet from the ground and then sawing off the tree; gigantic trunks were left standing and then burned, which is a frightful waste of good lumber!

Strong and Menken have 400 laborers–from a Yaktan tribe of Moros, who are now mostly Christians. They are of pure Malay type wearing picturesque costumes. Strong says he has never carried a weapon in his thirty years there. Both men love their present way of life and would hate to have spent their years indoors in an office. A Yaktan dance was given for us–derived from the Siamese-Bali etc.; the movement is all hands and wrists–hardly any body rhythm–syncopated time is beaten by the feet. They chanted: “Maida–ling a ling da’ling.” No instrumental music. The dancers sang.

Doria asked if there were no “beach-combers” on this enchanted isle–none; “well then, where is Robinson Crusoe?” Sure enough, there is such a person on Basilan; a Doctor, retired from the United States Navy who is rich, and goes once a year to the United States to buy four or five boxes of books and then returns to live in the jungle, sans clothes, sans shoes and eating camotes. As is to be expected, alcohol is said to be his recreation in idle moments.

Mangrove swamps–probably alive with crocodiles; astounding groves of coconuts. Alano’s plantation is on the smaller island opposite.

A launch chartered by Dr. Strong came down to meet the Arayat, but the sea was too rough to board the vessel so our steamer went straight up the river. The launch followed flying a big flag with an Arabic inscription–Strong hoped Quezon would not notice this flag: “I told the Moros to decorate the launch and the lousy fellows put up that flag!” Evidently this was the end of an era for them, and they didn’t know it!

Miss Karagdag, with her father and mother, were on this trip.

Back to Zamboanga where more festivities are planned which I hope to duck.

Visit from Admiral Yarnell and return visit of Quezon dressed in riding clothes and flourishing a crop to the American cruiser Augusta–salutes etc. Buffet supper on Augusta given by the wardroom. Admiral very affable; he is a brilliant man. I had a long talk with him about Rossshire and Inverness where the Admiral was stationed during part of the War. Also had a talk with the Chief Signal Officer about fishing. Later there was a dance at the Overseas Club which I managed to escape.

Colonel Stevens of the Zamboanga Constabulary is a fine type of frontiersman, was a Lieutenant in my time, and says that after we removed the Military Government from Mindanao and Sulu, there were for a time, just as many excitements as before, but there was no publicity about it such as the army had always given. Now, all is absolutely tame and settled.

There are few young men among the civilian whites in Zamboanga; mostly these are “Old Timers,” now in business.

I note the predominance of Southerners in our army and navy–this should produce a fine fighting type.

We did not get away from Zamboanga until 4 a.m.

March 19, 1936

Arrived at Zamboanga one hour before the Mayon which brought Quezon, his daughter “Baby” and a considerable suite. Walk up to market place where Assemblyman Alano introduced Quezon who spoke in Spanish. His address was on the duties of citizenship and the relations of the provinces with the Commonwealth Government; said also that whereas in the past elective officials who were guilty of misdeeds were more leniently treated than appointed officials would be–now the new government would treat them all severely since it was their own administration. Just afterwards, he proceeded to a hearing on charges of petty graft against Provincial Governor Ramos (mulcting ten pesos from policeman etc.). He gave no decision, tho’ during the hearing, Quezon suspended a stenographer and the Secretary of the Provincial Board for having falsified the record in favour of Ramos. Afterwards, Quezon told me he thought Ramos was guilty but did not know whom to appoint in his place. He gave a hearing to a Moro Datu who was opposed to military conscription. Quezon told the Datu, to the latter’s surprise, “I don’t give a damn whether you enroll or not. You will have time to study the question, and later on, if you don’t enroll something will happen.” This is in accordance with his idea that Moros are great bluffers, and will never agree with what you seem to want unless they can put you under an obligation.

Drive to San Ramon–a wonderful penal colony. Talk with Joe Cooley, who started it. He was unwise enough to go into business with an associate whom he describes as thoroughly unreliable–and with Joe Harriman the New York banker who is now in prison.

Visits to quarters of the Huntsberry, and the Tiltons–both are Lieutenants in the army.

Tea dance at the Zamboanga Club–met many old acquaintances; the most torrid heat I have ever felt. There was a big thunderstorm at night which delayed the departure of Arayat. Instead of leaving at 8 p.m. we did not get off until 2 a.m., so would be unable to keep our appointment at the mouth of the Cotobato River on the morning of March 20th–docked instead at Parang and we drove 28 kilometers over the hills on the new road across this part of Cotobato and arrived at the latter place at 12 noon. Meanwhile, the water parade which had been waiting for us at the mouth of the river had returned, much disgruntled.

From numerous conversations, I gather that the famous “Moro problem” has been “solved”– though it is still possible to have local disturbances in Jolo and Lanao. Roads are being pushed everywhere. Cotobato Moros are dirty, unkempt and doped looking–poor specimens physically. Cristianos, especially Ilocanos, are settling everywhere in this wonderful valley. Cotobato is the most hideously ugly, galvanized iron town I have ever seen. Cattle, coconuts and palay. The Provincial Engineer said that by next year we would be able to motor from Cotobato to Lanao. Rains–reception at Provincial Treasurer Palillo’s, who was outspokenly furious at the failure of Quezon to come to his merienda. I tried to pacify him. Provincial Governor Gutierrez (Major in the Constabulary) had been tried on charges of using prison labour for his own purposes, but when it turned out that the labour made the magnificent flying field which he has leased to the government for one peso a year for five years, Governor Gutierrez was acquitted and reinstated.

Secretary Quirino says he will transfer the offices of the Department of the Interior for three months of every year to Zamboanga to show the Southern Islands that they are really part of the Philippines.

I congratulated Assemblyman Tomas Confesor on his independence speech answering Pedro Guevara.

Bridge with Quezon, Doria and Felicia Howell. The President said he wanted to stay on in the Southern Islands, but he had two military reviews near Manila. I consoled him by saying that all the hard work he had put in by cultivating the American Army officers was bearing most excellent results.

Quirino said that as Secretary of the Interior, he really occupies the former position of the Governor General, having authority over all the Provincial Governors. He also reported that when Quezon came down from Baguio recently he asked him: “Why did you suspend my Major” (Gutierrez, Major of the Constabulary is the appointed Governor of Cotobato), he (Quirino) replied: “Why shouldn’t I suspend my Governor?” Secretary Quirino started life as a school teacher at the age of fifteen–and his mother then took all his salary. Some years later, he said, Isabelo de los Reyes beat him as a candidate for Senator, and at the next election retired, saying he wanted to give Quirino a chance!

Quirino said to me that my silver purchase suggestion was “gaining ground.” He also remarked that I had helped in the purchase of the Manila Railroad bonds, because I knew the “psychological background” of the English bondholders.

Talk with Alano, the Assemblyman from Zamboanga. He is the manager of the United States Rubber Company’s plantation on Basilan Island. Lawyer. Used to be stenographer for Quezon in the American Congress in 1911. He was born in province of Bulacan. He recently accepted a nomination for the Assembly simply as a matter of “civic duty,” as he is a successful lawyer and plantation manager. Said Yulo had persuaded to such effect, that he replied he was willing to serve just as a stenographer as he did twenty-five years ago in Washington. He said the Assembly would be “all right” when it met in Manila in June. They were not going to make a fight for silly privileges.

Twelve thousand crocodiles were killed last year in the Cotobato River–the hides were sent to Manila for sale.

One merchant in Cotobato claims to have exported 1½ million pesos worth of palay (rice) last year.

Bridge with Quezon, Doria and Felicia Howell–Quezon is way ahead. He plays and bids excellently.

Left Parang at 6 o’c bound for Zamboanga or Basilan. Quien sabe?

Guingona was aboard and in lively discourse with a group of Assemblymen about the very advantageous flying fields they had mapped out and were preparing in Mindanao.

Major Hutter of the United States Army Medical Corps says General MacArthur states that my administration was the best the Americans had in the Philippines. This is something of a pleasant surprise!