May 6, 1936

Visited Director Camus of the Bureau of Plant Industry. He is a relative of Judge Camus who was present. This director is a fine example of the energetic, clean, highly educated public servant. The poor chap was zealous to show se his whole industrial plant in the short time at our disposal, which was interesting but exhausting. My seeking him was to ascertain whether there is any “overlapping” with the Bureau of Science; as, indeed, there turned out to be in the work of soil analysis, and probably in other botanical and agricultural enterprises. He said Quezon and Murphy had been there. The latter allowed him 10,000 pesos for a house to install his looms, and he put it up in twenty-five days to get the whole appropriation before the end of the year. He also makes cotton yarns of Philippines cotton, with old second-hand machinery. His purpose is to show the people that their cotton will find a market. He asserts that he could also make of hemp all the sugar and copra bags needed in the Philippines, and better than those made from imported Indian jute. He is also perfecting a process of manufacturing coir.

In p.m. bridge here for Guevara, Banqui and Nazario. I asked Pedro Guevara about his successor Resident Commissioner Paredes. Guevara replied that Paredes didn’t understand American Congressional psychology; said he (Guevara), without any speeches, got thru the authorization for the payment of the $23,000,000 “depreciation of gold” deposits of the Philippines at the end of a session of Congress, and even Senator Adams stood by him. Now Paredes is getting nowhere with all his speeches and public statements. Guevara also predicted the election of Landon (if nominated) over F. D. Roosevelt. Said organized business would defeat the latter. If elected, he thought, Landon and the Republicans would come out for a permanent dominion status for the Philippines and that there would never be complete independence here. Although this is exactly what Guevara himself has been working for he said he was in favour of F. D. Roosevelt because the latter was “good for the Philippines.” Also he had advocated selecting me as High Commissioner. Said when I was here it was all “like one happy family, and none of that anti-American feeling which is now growing up.”

May 4, 1936

Quezon back for 48 hours. Malacañan humming again as per schedule. Visited the Ice Plant with E. B. Rodriguez, Assistant Chief of the Philippine Library to see the old archives of the government which were moved two months ago to the top floor because this building is supposed to be fire proof. Quarters for archives are commodious enough, but are as hot as the hinges of hell since they have no ventilation–95 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:30 a.m.–it rises later to 108 degrees. Need of twenty-five cataloguers, and money for binding and repair of old Spanish documents, which are written on fine old paper and in beautiful handwriting. A horrible smell of fish arising from Army cold stores below! Rodriguez says Governor General Murphy’s economies are partly responsible for Sakdalista uprising in Laguna a year ago.

Later in the morning, I visited Otley Beyer at the University of the Philippines, and asked his opinion of the Bureau of Science. He says it was originally started as a government laboratory; Worcester put Freer there and made the staff do research work. In my time, Denison made it more “practical.” Later, Dr. Brown came in and realizing the difficulty of getting from the legislature funds for research began to boom and advertise the practical, or routine, productions of the bureau (glass, paper, pottery etc.) and raised the annual appropriation to nearly one million pesos, but disorganized the Bureau and left it in a mess. He attempted too much. Beyer says Arguelles is a good chemist but has not backbone enough for political life. He added that the Filipinos treat the Government like a family (pariente) affair, and when a high salaried post is abolished, the salary is divided up among half a dozen small men who are of no earthly use. Says research and routine should not be combined–with the Dutch in the Indies they are kept entirely separate. He believes that Secretary Rodriguez is one of the worst pariente job seekers of the lot. Am to see him later.

In p.m. to cinema with Peters.

Saw Paulino Santos, just made a Major General and Chief of Staff of the new Army. He appears happy and thrilled. Sworn in today and asked me to attend.

May 2, 1936

Visit to the Museum of the Bureau of Science: good collection of birds and fishes. It is amazing how few species of wild mammals there are in the Philippines. The ethnological and insect collections are defective. Then to the Botanical Gardens–a sad “petering out” of this little zoo since my time. They have one small elephant, two bears (one mangy), a few wild boars and some wretched monkeys, and one deer. Most of the cages are vacant. Then to the Philippine Library to see E. B. Rodriguez. He wishes to restrain their library to its present scope of historical works and their museum to history and art. Very canny fellows: Teodoro Kalaw and Rodriguez! They know exactly what they want and just what they cannot get out of the legislature. Rodriguez believes the other bureaus of the Government should keep their own small museum collections as at present for their studies; also that the Bureau of Science should keep its own library.

April 30, 1936

Called at Dr. Sison’s. I must go completely on the waterwagon. Went to the Bureau of Science–then to Malacañan where I talked for half an hour with Dawson (from Shanghai) of the United States Department of Agriculture. He has been here for some weeks studying the agricultural situation: says the Filipinos are the most “agriculturally minded” people he has ever known, and that many alert minds are busy on the problem of diversification of crops. Dawson reports the tobacco crops in the Cagayan valley are almost a failure from drought.

Saw Hartendorp and had a telephone from Dosser in Baguio. Tried to help out troubles for both.

Paulino Santos has been appointed Chief of Staff of the Army and a Major General–best man possible, and he will still be allowed to carry on as Director of Prisons–this will take him from Malacañan. Reyes also is made a Major General and Provost Marshal, Dr. Valdes a Major General, Vicente Lim also a General–all good selections.

Talked with Lapointe who has just come up from Antimonan where he is building a nipa shack in his coconut grove.

Went to the Aquarium which seems rather neglected. Called on Jim Ross to get his opinion concerning Americans becoming Philippine citizens. He agreed with Dewitt that this act does not impair American citizenship.

April 24-25, 1936

Long talks with Unson about the Philippine Government. He remarked that General Wood had a sense of humour and was a strong character–in some respects was a great man. Does not know why Wood vetoed the act to create a Budget Office.

Unson and I discussed the Bureau of Science. He thinks it is attempting too many diverse duties; that it is overlapping the work of other bureaus. Unson is in favour of turning it into an Industrial Research Bureau; when it has perfected an industrial method it should quit that and investigate another. Discussed also appointive provincial governors and a national police as authorized in the constitution, in order to stop political maneuvers, favouritism and improper use of the police. Various members of the Assembly seem to be receptive to these ideas.

We reviewed consideration of the Bureau of Posts and of a possible consolidation of the Bureau of Lands with the Land Registration Office. Unson says it has been a mistake always to have appointed a lawyer as Director of the Bureau of Lands. (Undoubtedly this is one of the most unsatisfactory Bureaus of the Government.) More discussions as to Aldanese and the Bureau of Customs. All agree that Aldanese is himself perfectly honest but has not enough firmness or “ferocity” (Unson).

Dinner with Mr. and Mrs Oleaga at Casino Español. Doria tells me that Marguerite Wolfson and Mrs Gaches tried to take care of Quezon at Topside, Baguio, two or three years ago when he was so ill he could not walk. They were trying to get him away from his host of followers, but Quezon stayed only thirty-six hours at Topside, and was so strenuous a personality that she and Mrs Gaches had to “go to bed for a week” after he left. She says he is as exhausting as a “vampire.”

April 17-20, 1936

Six hours on pony-back, over flat country and Magat river–which may be forded only at this time of year–then over low rolling country to a ranch leased from the Government by Dosser and Beulan; they have about one thousand head of cross-bred Hereford and Indian stock, which are the finest cattle I have seen in the Philippines. The altitude was only some one thousand feet; there is plenty of water and the whole country is ideal for grazing, resembling California in the old days. Hunting from the 17th-20th April 1936. We were posted on hills with “draws”–i.e., wooded valleys above streams which were beaten by Ifugao and Filipino hunters: very picturesque they were, with lots of their jackal-like dogs. The deer came out running at a distance of 150-200 yards–and were hard shots. We got 8 in all, and one sizeable boar was bayed by dogs and speared by the Ifugaos. We saw parrots, jungle fowl, monkeys and orioles, in the most beautiful imaginable scenery. The men caught a fifteen day old fawn (which we have brought down to Manila and are keeping in the yard). At the bathing creek near the ranch house, where the average depth of water is six inches, there is a hole about fifteen feet deep dug by the crocodiles which come thirty kilometers up in the mountains by the small streams discharging into the Magat River. They take occasional calves from the ranch. We saw no wild carabao, tho always expecting them. One crowd (!) (Batangas Transport) was near there the week before and had killed two cimarrones. The administration of the game laws by the Bureau of Science is ridiculous–it should be transferred to the Constabulary and have some teeth put in it.

There is a great scarcity of game since my day 20 years ago altho it is now supposed to be a closed season for 3 years, except for those who hold special licenses in the Mountain Province. We spent three golden days perched on hill tops watching the beaters and their dogs in the draws below–with the shouting, calling and fusillade from above when a deer appeared. Doria stood the “roughing it” and the physical strain magnificently–thirst was the worst feature of all–the temperature must have risen to 130° in the sun, and we had no effective method of keeping water cool in the canteens. The ponies did prodigies in carrying us up high hills over rough cattle trails–one of these little stallions does twice as much work as a stable-fed horse at home. I was ill with indigestion all the time, and made the grade with difficulty. Pleased by the abundance of song birds–(unusual in the Philippines) and by the hoarse shouts of the kalaw (hornbill).

Terrific heat, dust and hours of real thirst on the drive hack to Balete.

April 14, 1936

With Survey Board at the Bureau of Science. Very interesting. Lunch with Judge Purdy, Doria and Judge Ingersoll at the Manila Hotel. Dinner at home for Miss Buchan and Rosales and to a dance at the Casino Español for the 5th anniversay of the founding of the Spanish “Republic”–there must have been few of those Spanish present who really wished to celebrate that event!

February 18, 1936

When I saw the Cabinet today waiting patiently for the President to finish a talk in the Palace, I did not much envy them–especially when remembering that Quezon’s intention is not to share anything confidential with them (on account of Osmeña?) but to have an “inside cabinet” of his own–like the War Cabinet in England.

Roxas has been appointed head of the “Rice Commission” which relatively unimportant post he accepts with every show of pleasure after his recent encounter with Quezon’s will and a thorough drubbing.

Enaje has been appointed Adviser to the President on matters concerning judicial reorganization–an excellent choice, but small potatoes after his disappointments over the Speakership and Presidency of the Court of Appeals.

Doria tells me that the tradesmen try on her a regular racket of overcharging–to wit those who supplied conveniences for our tea dance–electrician, chair man and orchestry. She says it really frightens her, and she must get everything down in writing before hand. If, as Major Anderson told me, commercial morality had been enormously lowered in the United States since the war evidently similar influences are at work here.

Saw Osmeña for a few moments, handsome and smiling as of yore.

Professor Africa of the University of the Philippines, the head of the Department of Students of Foreign Relations, called on me to enquire whether the “supervision and control” of the United States over the foreign affairs of the Philippines prevented the establishment of separate Philippine Consulates. Told him I would get Quezon’s opinion, but my own opinion was that it could be done if Philippine Consuls were to deal only with Philippine ships, matters of citizenship and of commerce. I then told him of the question which the American judge at Shanghai recently asked me: “what am I to do if Filipinos now claim extraterritorial rights here?”

A. D. Williams came in to enquire whether there was any basis for Quezon’s newspaper statement that it was being considered whether to build main roads in Mindanao, or railroads, which would cost ten times as much and probably be a heavy loss. We agreed that roads were the modern solution, and that a railroad was only justified if leading to a mine or other heavy industry. He had told Quezon of the failure of the Bureau of Science to get a 6,000 peso machine to manufacture quinine for the Bukidnon plantation. Quezon took up the phone and ordered this done at once. Williams is greatly relieved that Quezon has now abandoned his plan of constructing another building opposite Malacañan–he has compromised on a chalet for tea parties constructed of Philippine woods, after the fashion of the forestry Exhibit at the Carnival.

Visit from Lacson, Iloilo lawyer, whom I asked what the Negros sugar planters were doing to prepare for the “sanctions” of the Tydings-McDuffie law? He replied, as they all do, “nothing, except to wait for a modification of that law–no effort is being made to lower costs of production and transportation–except talk of a harbour and wharf in Negros.” He said he had never been in favour of immediate, absolute independence; that the Visayans are all “Progresistas,” and the Tagalogs are for immediate independence. I asked him just what he meant–he replied “I am an Idealist–I want independence, but it is like wanting a beautiful woman–you want her all right, but if you have any sense, you count the cost.”

Dr Piguiging of Tanay called. He is going to work with the Bureau of Plant Industry and Bureau of Commerce on the Friar Lands question. Evidently Quezon is getting all the information he can on this subject.

Pedro Tan of Arayat and Major Santos, Assistant Chief of the Constabulary in Central Luzon called; both keen sportsmen. I asked them why the law against trapping and selling snipe was not enforced and Santos said because it added fuel to the flames of socialism–the peasants said the rich could shoot snipe and the poor couldn’t catch them. We agreed to try to get the snipe shooting season extended for next Autumn and Winter.

Santos told me of the rarity of the monkey-eating eagle of the Philippines. The British Museum had finally secured two specimens from a missionary priest in northern Luzon. Santos has one specimen, Jaronilla one and the University of Santo Tomas one. Santos also said he could prove that the “painted snipe” bred all the year around in the Philippines like the wild chicken. He believes that Balabac and Palawan had been part of Borneo at one time, as is shown by the existence of the peacock and mouse deer in those islands. Said he disapproved of “deer-sticking” in Jolo, because usually only the females and young were speared.