About Cummings

About the author: Cummings, identified as the German Vice-Consul, “who is a Scotchman, a British citizen and the only foreigner I found enthusiastic for American rule in the Philippines.” No other details known.

About the diary: Quoted on p. 477 by Morrison I. Swift in his book, Imperialism and Liberty, The Ronbroke Press, Los Angeles, California, 1899. Also quoted in the Philippine Philatelic Journal, Volume XIX, No. 4, Fourth Quarter, 1997 by Nestor Nuñez and Alfred F. Kugel, “United States Military Stations: the Postal Markings of Cebu” (pp. 1-9).