April 1942: WW2PH 80 Years After

In commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of World War II in the Philippines, we have compiled the diary entries for April, 1942, the fifth month of the war, along with other interesting material, in the hope that this will help interested readers to get a sense of the of that conflict.

Each date contains the relevant entries as well as materials culled from different sources of information:

  1. Battling Bastards. A Diary-Type Account of the First Days of World War II in the Philippines, by J.G. Doll (The Merriam Press, 1989), which provides the American military perspective on events. These entries are in italics. These provide a fair summary of the American point of view.
  2. The World War II Timeline prepared by the Official Gazette; these entries are in bold. these give an indication of the Filipino point of view.
  3. Various documents and photographs from the Quezon Family Collection.

See what came before in the 80 Years Later Series: December 1941, January, 1942, February, 1942, March, 1942.

April 1942: “Bataan has fallen…”

See Bataan, 1942: views of a father and his son.

Statement issued by Jorge B. Vargas, Chairman of the Executive Commission, regarding the use of the Japanese flag, April 1942

4/1/42 Day 115

The Japanese continue to bulld up thelr forces forward of the U.S.-Filipino lines. Rations are now set at about one-fourth of the normal daily consumption.

April 1, 1942

I don’t know whether or not the Japs celebrate April Fools’ Day, but I thought it possible they might try to pull something unusual today. How- ever, they didn’t. They followed the same old routine of bombing, although I believe they are slowing up. They seem to send over fewer planes each day, and drop… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942

Pura, my little Red Cross Filipina nurse friend, lifted my mosquito net before I was up to tell me the great news that Tokyo had been bombed by the Americans. By noontime, everyone in camp had heard the joyful news. The morning Nishi-Nishi warned, “Filipinos, beware of misleading propaganda, and do not believe in American… Read More »April 1, 1942

Wed., Apr. 1, 1942

The air offense against Corregidor is lessening. Japanese first sent 64 planes, then 47, then groups of three. Now only two planes come at a time, due to heavy losses from anti aircraft fire to large formations. Attack by two planes goes on steadily night and day, in an effort to exhaust the limited number… Read More »Wed., Apr. 1, 1942

April 1, 1942

I never expected to sleep so long without sheets, on a plain mattress. But we must not forget –This is War! Mosquito nets look so queer at night. Some are square, some oblong, some peaked, some round, others just little face veils. In the dusk it looks like a cobweb city of fantastic shapes. No… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942

Wednesday Off Alasasin Pt. I’m getting very lax about my log writing. I’1l have to watch my step or I’ll be falling way behind. First, I’ll give the number of bombers overhead today. There were 12 in groups of 3 during daylight and 3 single planes during moonlight. Judging from that you can see that… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942 – Wednesday

Called on General Brett and General Royce. Had dinner 7 p.m. at the home of Sir Norman Brookes. Delightful dinner. Fine company. After dinner we went to the movies. Lady Brookes drove her car and I sat inside with one of the daughters. Colonel Willoughby sat in front.

April 1st, Wednesday

General King, Major Cothran and I went to subsectors C and D. Saw General Bluemel and General Lough. Returned three PM. Earthquake of some intensity, approximately 20 seconds at 2212 PM. Another submarine came in with 400,000 tablets of quinine. Looks like big push is on. A. Philippine Army NCO and two negritoes came in… Read More »April 1st, Wednesday

April 1, 1942

Hamiltons’ 13th anniversary. Sam arranged for fried chicken and we had mango ice cream and cake from home, also spinach and sweet potatoes. We gave them a cake and Falek and Carvajal each sent cakes. News from Annette Marsh and Swish Loucks.

April 1, 1942

Back to Lubuagan.

April 1, 1942

American transport are reported to he in the Philippine waters now. Perhaps they’re here now, ’cause at 10:00 a. m. last March 31st they left Mindoro towards north. 3000 Japanese killed and captured here in the Front. Wow, good news fellows.

April 1, 1942

It was the last evening in March of 1942 and our little corner of Bataan Penlnsula wasn’t exactly a health resort. In most localities the trees were tall and you jumped in a fox hole only when you heard the bombers dive or the bombs swizzle thru the air. The hot season was in full… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942

HQ, MIS, BATAAN   Awakened by “Photo Joe”. Name given to Jap observation plane by Bataan boys is “Photo Joe”. Leonie said: “That means bombing around ‘brunch’ time.” Fred, usually more grim, said: “That also means deaths.” Major Javallera who was O.D. said that there was continous artillery firing the whole night. “It must be… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942

Edith Shacklette, know as Shack to her intimate friends, phoned me this afternoon and said, “You have a package here; I think it is something edible, I’ll send it down to-you tomorrow by Captain Burge? I’m so excited about it I can hardly wait–I do hope it is something sweet. I wrote Florence Sanders of… Read More »April 1, 1942

April 1, 1942 115th Day of War

Yes, it’s April Fool’s Day for the men on Bataan, the only army in the world boxed up and bottled up; We certainly are the biggest fools of this war, fighting for the biggest and strongest nation in the world. The war dept. keeps telling us to fight to the last man, fight to the… Read More »April 1, 1942 115th Day of War

1 Apr. ’42

Just another day,, the 90th. Temperature 97.

April 1, 1942 

No April Fool joking this year. Alert at C. again. Wish they would get over it. Had an earthquake just after I got in bed, sure was a funny feeling.

April 1, 1942

A friend of mine was shocked. He was standing near one of the Japanese garrisons in Manila. He saw a major entering the gate and all the soldiers stood at attention. The major was his former gardener. Preparations are being made for the next rice planting season. The Bureau of Plant Industry is in charge… Read More »April 1, 1942

4/2/42 Day 116

The Japanese build-up continues.

Plans to establish an underground broadcasting station is discussed.

April 2, 1942

Just as Sophie and I carried the card table and eating utensils into the corridor outside our room in preparation for lunch, a group of Axis officers on a rubberneck tour bore down on us. It was too late to run and hide. There was nothing to do but sit down and try to cover… Read More »April 2, 1942

Thurs., April 2, 1942

Amah disappeared today, did not return from her breakfast. She’s been singing and humming last year’s love ballads all working hours and getting herself into a state for an Easter orgy. Yesterday was payday and, being Wednesday, her afternoon off. She was to return to spend the night at 7:00 p.m. But, afraid of the… Read More »Thurs., April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942

HQ, MIS, BATAAN This place has turned into hell. The Japs are battering the lines from morning to evening, pounding the front from the air with high explosives. rushing the front with tanks and flame-throwers under cover of ceaseless artillery fire. The rear areas are being subjected to inch-by-inch bombardment. Several AA guns have been… Read More »April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942

Jim has an Authentic. Russia is not in the war in any way but is getting tons of American supplies which come faster. Russia is no further in Germany than when we were out, is just holding them. Americans and Chinese have invaded Thailand. MacArthur has gone to Australia which now has air supremacy in… Read More »April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942

I believe the rainy season will soon begin in Bataan. It starts in April there as Mariveles Mountain has an influence on the weather. It rains now and then over there. We can see it distinctly from here. For the most part it will rain high up on the slopes of the mountain, while in… Read More »April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942

On this date I hereby pledge myself that unless ordered by higher authority to do so, I will not move my headquarters to the south, in the event that the fall of Corregidor Is imminent, but will, if necessary, surrender myself with my troops. No other course of action would be honorable.

April 2, 1942

Thursday Off Alasasin Pt. We got up a pool today of $300 to be given to the lucky winner when Tokyo is bombed. The man who has signed up for the date takes all. I have the 8th of each month. I hope I win and within the week. The crew has had so many… Read More »April 2, 1942

April 2nd, Thursday

Front and rear no change. Very heavy bombing, much fighting on roads in front. Nip artillery is raising hell. If only we could get that damned balloon. More medical supplies came in by plane tonight. Have only enough rations for 19 days.

April 2, 1942

The chief sport is scanning the skies. Some air activity indicating that Bataan and Corregidor are still being pressed. I scrambled Miss Buny’s eggs with tomato sauce and Vienna sausage for Good Friday. Hank Carpenter went out for an appendectomy. Quite a lot of planes went over in p.m. The High Commission employees were told… Read More »April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942

Raids on Corregidor let up some today. Heavy artillery fire on Bataan. The navy coast patrol gave our battery some pies for our good shooting. Boy, were they good!

April 2, 1942

Still no orders from Bataan back to BB.

2 Apr. ’42

No change, full moon last night. Inventory finished. Reading Mary Roberta Rinehart’s “The Album”.

April 2, 1942

There was a slight air raid this noon here in Lamao and Limay. One Japanese bomber was destroyed by our anti aircraft in Lamao. It was heard that our convoy are having a fight with the enemies. I hope they’re making their landings now.

April 2, 1942

Captain Burge brought me the package this afternoon; as I thought it is from Florence. The contents are a beautiful fruit cake and some delicious chocolate fudge! I’m restraining myself with a great deal of difficulty and am impatiently waiting for Bill to come to see me. What a delightful surprise he is going to… Read More »April 2, 1942

Thursday April 2, 1942

116 days Thie All started out with heavy shelling. I was trying to cook hotcakes and wasn’t comfortable at all. We arrived at our CP just In time to catoh a very close bombing. I finished washing my teeth in a foxhole. It masn’t fun and the concussion knocked dirt down my neck. It’s to… Read More »Thursday April 2, 1942

April 2, 1942 

Did not do much all day, but was up all night, bringing in and sending out ships. The 21st and 34th are now officially in Australia. Don’t know what that makes us. Other sources indicate that it was the night of March 31/April 1, rather than April 1/2, when it was like “Grand Central Station”… Read More »April 2, 1942 

April 2, 1942

Heard a good one. A Japanese soldier lost his way in Pampanga. He asked a farmer: “Which is the road to Bataan?” The farmer told him to take the highway on his right and then to turn left when he sees a mountain. The soldier expressed his gratitude and then asked: “By the way, which… Read More »April 2, 1942

4/3/42 Day 117 (Good Friday)

The Japanese open an all-out offensive against the Bataan line, which is by now understrength, undernourished, poorly clothed and equipped, and absolutely battle-weary. After an air and artillery bombardment lasting from 1000 to 1500 hours, the Japanese move forward, making their main effort against Sector B, the west flank of I Corps, where the 21st and 41st Divisions (PA) are very thinly spread and dazed as the result of the preliminary five-hour bombardment. On the west, the 41st Division gives way and Is rendered virtually Ineffective as a fighting force, although one regiment on the extreme west succeeds in withdrawing in an orderly fashion. A battalion on the west flank of the 21st Division is also forced to pull back. An effort to re-establish the line of the 41st Division after dark Is partially successful. The only corps reserve unit, the 33rd Infantry Regiment, less the 1st Battallion, is released to Sector D as is the Provisional Tank Group of the Luzon Force Reserve.

In the I Corps sector to the west, the Japanese succeed in reaching the main line of resistance on the east flank but are unable to pierce it.

By this time, the start of the final Japanese assault, the U.S. and Filipino defenders suffering from a variety of problems with the shortage of food being the greatest. They are reduced to eating dogs, monkeys, bamboo shoots, roots and python eggs. Also, because of the lack of any medical supplies, malaria has reached epidemic proportions.

Executive Secretary Manuel Roxas and Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos meet in Bacolod City. They travel together to Dumaguete.

Japanese General Nara giving instructions to replacement troops on the banks of the Aboabo River, just prior to the general attack on the Bataan front, 3 April 1942

April 3, 1942

HQ, Bataan   Japs pounding the front heavily, continuously, mercilessly. The boys are standing firm, fighting with the littler strength left in their sick, hungry, weary, bloody bodies. What is happening in Bataan today is phenomenal. Here are inexperienced youngsters –schoolboys, trainees, academy undergraduates– fighting veterans of many campaigns who are numerically and materially superior.… Read More »April 3, 1942

April 3, 1942

Exciting news swept the camp! The Commandant informed us that a neutral ship would leave for the States at the end of this month after negotiations for diplomatic exchanges were completed between Washington and Tokyo. Out of 3700 people, only about two hundred would go, so there was no need to get too excited. Coming… Read More »April 3, 1942

April 3, 1942

Nothing startling has happened today, for we haven’t even been bombed. We had a couple of alarms, but nothing happened. The Jap planes all appeared to be busy over Bataan. The Japs are putting on a show over there today. Have shelled the front heavily for several hours, and it looks as though an attack… Read More »April 3, 1942

April 3, 1942 (Good Friday)

Friday , Off Alasasin Pt. A relatively quiet day, after all the bombing of the previous days. Don’t think for a minute that there was no bombing. Oh No! A total of 23 Japs bombeers bombed but they all bombed the Mariveles area. Corregidor had 24 hours free of falling bombs. The Japs much prefer… Read More »April 3, 1942 (Good Friday)

April 3rd, Friday

Front and rear no change. Bombing, heavy. Sky black with planes. Estimate an enemy division attacking in front of 42d Inf which fell back and gradually disintegrated. General King has released the 31st Inf. US and attached itto II Corps. 14th and 803d Engineers of GHQ to reserve area. Good Friday.

April 3, 1942

Still waiting.

April 3rd 1942

Things look rather black. The attack which has been building up has been launched net the 2nd Corps front and, as was expected, has its main effort on the left of the 2nd Corps. The bombing is quite heavy both at the front and in the rear area’s and our lines are beginning to give… Read More »April 3rd 1942

3 Apr. ’42

Several nine-plane formations about 20,000 feet pouring In on Bataan and Corregidor areas. We have not seen one bit of offensive from American forces since war began. With no news or radio it’s a hard estimate, so we wait and wonder. No messenger for the property inventory yet. Finished “The Album”.

April 3, 1942 

Slept most of the day. Catching up for last night. Still a lot of heavy bombers in the air. Today Good Friday.

April 3, 1942

Will buy a bicycle. My alcohol ration is not enough. It might even be reduced. Most people now ride in rigs, except the Japanese of course. They ride in cars. It is not an uncommon sight to hear a man walking under the blistering sun shout: “There is my car.” To the victor belongs the… Read More »April 3, 1942

Wernitznig

Feb. 13th to April 3rd, 1942

Moved from KM 200 to SIGNAL HILL for a much deserved rest. Movement without incident. Felt we would there only as few days before we would be used again, but we were to stay there 50 days before our last entry into battle prior to the fall of Bataan. Shower baths available to us at… Read More »Feb. 13th to April 3rd, 1942

4/4/42 Day 118

In the II Corps area, the Japanese attack is again preceded by a heavy and demoralizing air and artillery bombardment. The main line of resistance of Sector D collapses as the 41st Division (PA) withdraws again and the 21st Division (PA) is forced from the main line of resistance to the reserve line In front of Mt. Samat. After nightfall, the Japanese regroup their forces for an assault on Mt. Samat. Sector C has to refuse Its left flank because of the enemy breakthrough. The Luzon Force sends two regiments of the Philippine Division (the U.S. 31st and the Philippine Scouts 45th) to support II Corps.

Elsewhere: Tokyo is jolted as it undergoes its first air attack when B-25’s under the of Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle make a surprise raid. The planes are launched from the deck of the carrier U.S.8. HORNET, a first In naval warfare.

Field Marshal MacArthur radios Gen. Wainwright: “Under no conditions should the Bataan command be surrendered.”

April 4, 1942

Easter was in the air! From my window I watched and listened to the women’s choir practicing in the Father’s garden. Women and children were weaving tiny green baskets from palm leaves and filling them with chickens and bunnies made of cotton and yarn. In the first-floor corridor of the Big House, several men dipped… Read More »April 4, 1942

April 4, 1942

Again no bombing today. This makes two days with no bombs. We had a couple of alarms, but nothing came over. One dive bomber was knocked down by a battery in Bataan. It fell in the water near here. Pilot bailed out but he also fell in the bay. The Japs attacked up front in… Read More »April 4, 1942

April 4, 1942

Saturday Off Alasasin Pt. Another bombless day at Corregidor with the swallows laying eggs over Mariveles in groups of 3,3,5,3,3,3, Finally, late in the afternoon around 6:30 we saw 4 dive bombers making a wide circle to the southward and westward. Suddenly we saw them come out of the sun over Mariveles and drop bombs.… Read More »April 4, 1942

April 4, 1942

HQ, Bataan     The Americans in HPD are burning their papers. Others are packing their maps and clothes. They are transferring to Corregidor. This is a clear indication that our days here are numbered. Courier boats leaving for Corregidor are packed with high-ranking officers transferring to the Rock. Personally I prefer to stick out… Read More »April 4, 1942

April 4th, Saturday

Holy Saturday. Situation same. 31st Inf not yet committed by Il Corps, 57th Inf PS moving from I to support Il Corps. Front of Subsector D pushed back to original reserve line. Estimate 120 pieces of solid Nip artillery in front of Il Corps. 73 mm artillery on barges in Manila Bay softening our right… Read More »April 4th, Saturday

April 2-4, 1942

In Melbourne.

April 4, 1942

A quiet day in the Red Cross office. We hear that the bank will not permit cash withdrawals. There are rumors that the camp will be reduced in size by allowing more releases. Show at night not so good.

April 4, 1942

Additional dope wanted by Gen. W.

4 Apr. ’42

Not so much concentrated bombing activity toward Bataan today. Azuma and Tanaka celled for some supplies for Pasay School camp and said they would investigate Lambert’s report of no care for our transferred patients. Arthritics sleeping on the floor and no diets for the diabetics, etc. No word of our moving, so hope It’s a… Read More »4 Apr. ’42

April 4, 1942

The Japanese are trying hard to take Bataan. There are planes dominating the skies of this unfortunate Bataan province. Artillery shells reaching now as far as K.P. 149. Last night Japanese l[a]unches appeared in North of Lamao and shelled, but there balls could reach us far as the middle of the bay only.

Wernitznig

April 4th, 1942

Left late in AM for Gen. Hosp. # 1 at Little Baguio. Had supper at 4:00 P.M. Received word we were to move from signal hill for Trail 10 North of Limay.. Started to move at 9:00 P.M. Our 50 day stay at SIGNAL HILL is over and we go out to face the enemy,… Read More »April 4th, 1942

April 4, 1942

A captain, the G-2 of the Division Headquarters, came to inspect our unit. As he inspected our car, he sat down and talked familiarly with us. He asked our names and then told us that the Second Corps had called him up by phone saying that the Bren Gun Boys, as we were known, ran… Read More »April 4, 1942

Saturday April 4, 1942

118 days Good Friday was the most horrible of the whole waz for me. We spent 10 hours in an open trench under the worst shelling I’ve ever heard of. Tojo threw an average of 30 shells a minute during most of that time. We had some very close calls. There were 15 or so… Read More »Saturday April 4, 1942

April 4, 1942 

Bombers around most of the day. Up most of the night, alert in case of attack and bring plane in and out. John Posten and Ray Gehrig brought the two P-35As in at Bataan Field from Mindanao at 7:15 a.m., the two ships loaded with candy, cigarettes, quinine, cigars, brandy, and mail. 

April 4, 1942

Commencement of NARIC purchasing operations in Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac and Pangasinan. Said Col. Uzaki on this occasion: “I wish to impress upon you the heavy responsibility that rests on your shoulders as the vanguards of your organization. It is incumbent upon each and every one of you to do the best to purchase a… Read More »April 4, 1942

4/5/42 Day 119 (Easter Sunday)

After another heavy air and artillery preparation, the Japanese resume thelr offensive in the Il Corps area, concentrated on the 21st Division (PA), which yields Mt. Samat and is left totally Ineffective as a fighting force. II Corps prepares to counterattack on the 6th with all available forces.

Invasion force of almost 5,000 troops sails from Lingayen Gulf toward Cebu, in the Visayan Islands.

After dark, the submarine SNAPPER delivers a load of badly needed food to Corregidor and evacuates some more of the oldest military personnel on the island.

General Wainwright and Major Dooley return to Bataan for conferences with Generals King and Parker.

Executive Secretary Manuel Roxas and Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos part ways in Dumaguete.

Mass is held in the naval tunnel on Corregidor, April 5, 1942 U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo

April 5, 1942

We went to sunrise services and communion in the Father’s garden, and it was like no other church I had attended on Easter Sunday. The hibiscus bushes around us were in flaming bloom, and it was a gay contrast to the two gloomy buildings which flanked the Fathers garden on either side. As we sang… Read More »April 5, 1942

Sun. Apr. 5/42

Nothing much happening here. We still eat three times a day. I have great fun trying my hand at Philippine dishes. When made right, they are sometimes really delicious. Japs are making a terrific onslaught on Bataan bombers. Life is fairly quiet here in Manila but hunger is showing his evil face at the doors… Read More »Sun. Apr. 5/42

5 April 1942

0120 One friendly plane took off. 0252 Ft. Frank firing. Heavy artillery fire noted, on front lines. Heard report later that landings had been attempted on both flanks but had been driven off. Considerable activity reported at front. 0400 One friendly plane took off. 0705 – 0720 Two seaplanes and two light bombers attempted rescue… Read More »5 April 1942

April 5, 1942

Attack on Bataan is causing us a considerable amount of worry. Japs have pushed in against 41st and 21st Divisions and have pushed in some distance on left of II Corps front. P.A. troops are not holding well at present. Elements of Philippine Division—31st Infantry and 45th Infantry— have been ordered in to stop the… Read More »April 5, 1942

April 5, 1942

Sunday Off Alasasin Pt. Happy Easter – and no eggs! Nevertheless, the wish is there. The Easter bunny only laid one egg and that was last evening. A quiet day, as days go. The artillery fire and bombing of Bataan are continbous nowadays. I’ve given up trying to count the bombers – it’s a hopeless… Read More »April 5, 1942

April 5th, Sunday

No change.

April 5, 1942 – Easter Sunday

I attended Mass at the President’s house. Then the President asked me to go with him on a picnic, at 10:30 a.m. It was a very cold morning and the President decided to stay home, and asked Colonel Nieto and I to accompany his children. We drove to a place called Olinda. It was very… Read More »April 5, 1942 – Easter Sunday

April 5, 1942

Easter Sunday. We had a hot meal from home including pie. Falek also sent a pie and Swish some hot cross buns and coffee roll. Dr. Foley had the vesper service. Eileen Aaron joined the church.

April 5, 1942

Bataan     Dead men everywhere. Uniforms red with blood. Guns red with blood. Bataan is a sea of blood. Some troops still fighting but contact with the main line has been lost. Most of the boys are retreating, firing, retreating, firing –dying. Saw hundreds and hundreds of unkempt, disheveled, bewildered troops dragging their swollen… Read More »April 5, 1942

April 5, 1942

Still waiting. Rather monotonous.

April 5th 1942

I have just returned from an inspection trip up the west side. All of the truck parks, Gas dumps, all ammunition and ration dis. points. All of them have suffered from the bombers. I finally arrived at 1st Corps Hq where I saw a lot of old friends: Gen. Jones, Perkins, his A.D.C. and Bob… Read More »April 5th 1942

April 5, 1942

I got out of hospital April 5-1942 had hard time finding my outfit all armys were taking a beating scattered everwhere.

5 Apr. ’42

A strange Easter Sunday and homesickness magnified. Special dinner arranged today at five PM, with fried chicken and ice cream special order through the welfare fund. Cur first Ice cream. Very warm. Good Easter sermon by Chaplain Brewster. Very little flying today, but formation bombers started something towardBataan at four PM, Wonder when conditions will… Read More »5 Apr. ’42

April 5, 1942

The Holy Week is over. Secretary Vargas issued a statement on Maundy Thursday saying that the Military authorities have authorized the traditional processions. But there were no processions. Nobody was in the mood or had the time to organize them. All the images we had in Santo Domingo had been burned, so even if we… Read More »April 5, 1942

April 5, 1942

At about 2 p.m. Japanese barges come again. They shelled the bay area of Limay and Lamao going northward. Perhaps they’re now attempting to make a landing here. So everyone is ready and alert. I guess I shall engage the flock ‘em Japs soon.

Wernitznig

April 5th, 1942 Easter Sunday

Arrived at junction Trail 8 and 10 at 4:00 AM. Enemy took Mt Samat at 12:30 PM; this gives them observation for artillery fire. I do not know how long the Fil-American forces can hold out in the face of enemy aerial power. Our troops are suffering from malnutrition.

Sunday April 5, 1942

119 days. Eeater Sunday and I’m a sick child. My head is splitting and I’ve been running all night with dysentery. Mostly I’m just exhausted mentally and physically. After our classlc withdrawal we returned too close to our old locality. The Jape had movod in so we were assigned a new position. Tojo located us… Read More »Sunday April 5, 1942

April 5, 1942 

Sunday. Easter. No rest from bombers all day. Evening a large thunderhead full of lightning up north put on quite a show. Really was something to watch. A bunch of new pilots came in in evening.

April 5, 1942

Easter Sunday, but no celebration. Ration cards for rice will soon be issued to the public. Rice will be distributed through 19 public markets. This system is in preparation for the releases of the increased quantity of rice for sale daily to the public. Under the new plan, a ration card which will be good… Read More »April 5, 1942

4/6/42 Day 120

II Corps counterattacks north toward the reserve line In Sector D but meets the enemy attack head-on and falls back. On the corps’ east flank, the U.S. 31st Infantry and what’s left of the 21st Division (PA), who have been directed to drive north in the region east of Mt. Samat, are unable to teach their line of departure. In the center, the Philippine 33rd Infantry, followed by the 42nd and 43rd Infantry, tries to drive north between Catmon and the western slopes of Mt. Samat, but the 33rd is surrounded and presumed lost and units to the rear are routed. The headquarters of Sector D and the west flank troops are thus separated from the rest of I! Corps.

On the west, the Philippine 41st Infantry, followed by the 45th Infantry, makes limited progress, but the 45th Is unable to overtake the 41st and the 41st thus becomes isolated. The U.S. 31st Infantry and a battalion of the 57th Infantry (PS), are assigned to Sector C, where the main line of resistance is withdrawn to the San Vicente River.

The Japanese receive very effective air and artillery support throughout the entire day.

April 6, 1942

HQ, Bataan     More men retreating, more stragglers, the rear area has become the front. Japs keep on following their gains, bombing, shelling, blasting, burning, shooting, bayoneting. They have been waiting for this hour. Blood is flowing freely… Evacuee area is a most pitiful sight. Saw women and children gathered around the cinders of… Read More »April 6, 1942

April 6, 1942

A three-hundred-pound teen-age girl came to our room this morning with a pair of shoes that she wanted to raffle off at twenty centavos a chance. As I looked at her misshapen body, I wondered if glands or food were the cause of her obesity. Time alone would tell. We enjoyed the sacred concert given… Read More »April 6, 1942

6 April 1942

0205 One friendly plane took off. 0615 One Jap observation plane sighted. 0858 – 1615 Twelve air attacks by groups of 2 – 9 planes on Section Base, Army hospital, front lines and reserve positions. Evening. Heard reports right center of front lines was in trouble due to dispersal of 41st Div. (Philippine Army) by… Read More »6 April 1942

April 6, 1942

Situation doesn’t look good in Bataan tonight. Philippine Army troops have been bombed and strafed so much that their morale is not good. In addition, they’re getting about one-third ration—or total of one square meal a day. Doctor says that they are getting about 1000 calories, which is just about enough to keep a man… Read More »April 6, 1942

April 6, 1942

Monday Manila Bay I don’t know whether we should call this the Battle of Manila Bay or not. In many respects it was exceedingly unsatisfactory. At 2 o’clock in the morning as we were heading north with the OAHU we picked up 11 launches or barges in the moonlight. We decided to let them keep… Read More »April 6, 1942

April 6th, Monday

Situation no change. Troops in Subsector D have completely disintegrated. I Corps lines withdrawn in order to reform.

April 6, 1942 – Monday

Nothing special.

April 6, 1942

Went with T.J. Wolff and [Charles. W.] Franks to Red Cross meeting at headquarters. [Charles H.] Forster not there. Saw Swish and went to keg room. Later drove Swish to corner and went with Wolff past our and his houses. A very desolate town. Sacred concert in evening.

April 6, 1942

Nothing new.

6 Apr. ’42

The Japanese Pharm. Haraota called to say that tomorrow they would come for a part of the property inventoried starting with the dental unit, X-ray and laboratory, also surgery. I protested the things that would wreck us so they said a part of each would be left for the present. Another case of harassing, but… Read More »6 Apr. ’42

April 6, 1942

Early at dawn Japanese over Pampanga to Cavite made there activities of fire crackers and flares more active this day. Also their artillery’s and Air Force. They make their attacked more intense. Some of troops in the firing line retreated. They can’t resist the Japanese shells and bombs.

Wernitznig

April 6th, 1942

Today seemed the longest day I have lived. Planes and artillery firing heard all day from dawn to dark. Believe it or not we had cherry pie for supper. 2 cases of Class C rations put in my command car. The irony of it all no one ate the rations issued. Helped take care of… Read More »April 6th, 1942

April 6, 1942

Soldiers by the hundreds, tired, haggard and hungry, passed by our command post. They gave the report that the front lines were already pierced and all was in chaos. Reports were made that Generals Lim and Capinpin were surrounded in Mount Samat. In brief, there was no more resistance in any point between the front… Read More »April 6, 1942

April 6, 1942 

Bombed Bataan Pen. all day, spent day running to holes. Don’t do much damage but it is very annoying. Bad on morale.

April 6, 1942

I am wanted in Fort Santiago. Mr. Duran called me up by phone and said that Fort Santiago wants me to report there on Wednesday, April 8 at 11:30 a.m. Shall I tell my wife?

April 6, 1942

For the past week there has been much bombing of the rear areas. Many AA shells exploding around hospital. Wounded coming in rapidly. The big push is on & it looks like tap city for our side. The undernourished soldiers will be unable to stem the tide & the line will break. Have 4000 patients… Read More »April 6, 1942

4/7/42 Day 121

Early in the morning, General Wainwright receives another message from General MacArthur In Australia, in which he states: “When the supply situation becomes impossible, there must be no thought of surrender. You must attack!”

The Japanese, attacking again in the Il Corps area with air and artillery support, force the entire corps’ main line of resistance back to the Mamala River line. This line also becomes untenable, and during the night, under cover of darkness, the American and Filipino troops withdraw to the Alangan River. The 26th Cavalry (PS), released to corps reserve, establishes a holding position while the new line is formed along the Alangan.

Late in the morning, General Wainwright sends this message to Washington:

“Superior enemy forces, supported by tanks and artillery, continue to attack the center of the line in Bataan. The Japanese have thrown fresh reserves into the fight and have made some progress. Heavy losses have been sustained by our forces and by the enemy. Japanese dive bombers are assisting in the attack, dropping bombs and machine-gunning our front-line soldiers. The enemy again bombed one of our field hospitals, inflicting heavy casualties among our wounded soldiers undergoing treatment. The attack was carried out this morning by three flights of heavy bombers. This same hospital was bombed only a few days ago, after which the Japanese High Command broadcast an apology. Today’s attack on this plainly marked hospital, following #o closely on the first attack, tends to prove that both raids were intentional.”

Meanwhile, attempts by unite of the Philippine Division to form a continuous line prove futile. The Philippine Constabulary regiments defending the many beaches are ordered Into the line. I Corps is directed to withdraw south to the Binuangan River line.

By mid-afternoon, Wainwright radios General Marshall the following:

“Continued heavy enemy pressure, constant bombing, strafing and shelling of front line units forced all elements of the right half of our line in Bataan to fall back. A new defensive position is forming on the high ground south of the Alangan River. The left half of our line, due to an exposed flank, withdrew on orders and is taking up a defensive position south of the Binuangan River. Fighting is intense, casualties on both sides heavy.”

Late in the afternoon, Brigadier General Arnold J. Fink, chief of staff for General King, comes to General Wainwright on Corregidor and tells him that General King feels that
he must surrender.

Later in the evening, General Wainwright sends another message to General Marshall in Washington:

“Fresh Japanese troops are continuing thelr drive in Bataan with great vigor. A heavy attack on our new position is now in progress. Dive bombers and attack aircraft are bombing and machine-gunning our front line continuing their attack on our rear areas near the southern extremity of the Bataan Peninsula. The present Japanese attack is the longest sustained drive of the enemy since operations began In Bataan. Waves of shock troops have attacked almost continuously, without regard to casualties, which have been heavy on both sides. Our forces have stubbornly resisted every advance.”

Time is running out on Bataan.

General Funk confers with Wainwright and Beebe on Corregidor concerning the hopeless situation on Bataan.

Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos arrives in Cebu City.

April 7, 1942

Situation in Bataan today is getting worse. Gen. Funk came over today and proposed for Gen. King (C.G. Luzon Force) that possibility of surrender be considered. Gen. Wainwright gave him two orders: 1—That under no circumstances would the Luzon Force surrender, 2—That an attack was to be made in an effort to regain the M.L.R.… Read More »April 7, 1942

April 7, 1942

During the night we were awakened by the roaring sound of many planes speeding toward the west. How could we sleep after that? We knew that our hopelessly outnumbered and ill-equipped men were about to catch hell. How long could they hold out? Yesterday Margo received a smuggled note from her husband in Bataan, and… Read More »April 7, 1942

7 April 1942

0214 – 0423 Friendly planes took off. 0730 Jap observation plane sighted. 0840 – 1800 Twenty-three attacks by groups of 2 – 0 planes on Cabcaben, front lines, and reserve positions. 2103 Night air alarm. No bombs dropped.

April 7, 1942

Tuesday Off Alasasin Pt. This is another of those quite (not so quiet, at that) days which are rather discouraging. in spite of our high hopes last night, nothing happened. And so we end the fourth month of conflict with no aid whatsoever. And day after day the Jap planes bomb the daylights out of… Read More »April 7, 1942

April 7th, Tuesday

Situation the same. Another had penetration in front of Il Corps. Subsector C just falling back in center. Two of our division are demoralized. Many captured. Hospital No. 1 has been hit again by heavy bombers. 50-60 havebeen killed and many wounded. General Parker has moved his headquarters back to GHQ. Il Corps, along its… Read More »April 7th, Tuesday

April 7, 1942 – Tuesday

The Vice-President asked me to accompany him to the tailor and shopping.

April 7, 1942

Talked economics with Calhoun and Fred in a.m. in Fred’s shack. Meeting of [NCB] staff in evening—more economics. Problems to be met after the war are many and weighty. Japanese have presented a set of questions to determine public opinion regarding start of and duration of war and nature of peace. Answers not compulsory as… Read More »April 7, 1942

April 7th 1942

Gen. Funk went to the rock to confer with Gen. Wainwright last night. His mission I know. Gen. King has had a terribly hard decision to make and he had made it alone without any attempt to share it with his advisors (U.S.). He is a man of high ideals and great personal integrity. I… Read More »April 7th 1942

April 7, 1942

Received my colonelcy today. No more pay, tho.

April 7, 1942

Can’t write. I feel lost.

7 Apr. ’42

Phar. Haraota with two trucks arrived at nine All to haul away our property. No response from medical officers as expected, so they loaded equipment from the store room. Part of surgery and the laboratory. Got my teeth looked over before losing the dental unit and cleaning; five were filled, so now can carry on… Read More »7 Apr. ’42

April 7, 1942

Japanese forces have advanced to north of Limay. Everybody in the sector become lonesome about our bad situation. We were all at alert and ready for any eventuality.

Wernitznig

April 7th, 1942

Bombers overhead shortly after dawn. Ceaseless flying of enemy observation and dive bombers. Regt CP moved forward about 300 yds on south slope of hill. Foxhole digging took up greater part of morning. Small arms firing near CP at 2:00 PM. General retreat at 5:30 P.M. At 1:00 AM Apr. 8th received permission from Lt.… Read More »April 7th, 1942

Monday 4-6-42 Tuesday 4-7-42

Sunday being a hectic day of dizziness and much running around and riding in trucks thru collecting stations plus a couple of bombings and some shelling, news was scarce. At 3:00 AM Monday I arrived at the Base Hospital (#1). A couple of hours sleep and a fair breakfast and I felt better. All day… Read More »Monday 4-6-42 Tuesday 4-7-42

April 7, 1942

Since six this morning till dark tonight, we were shelled and bombed incessantly. Planes would fly over us and bomb us at leisure. Before we could lose sight of them on their way back to Manila, another flight would be sighted in the horizon. The effect of the bombs and shells was more than I… Read More »April 7, 1942

April 7, 1942 

Up early, left for Cebu before daylight. Spent day there in Civilization [sic], it doesn’t seem possible, good food, no bombers. I felt like a kid with a new toy. Left for Del Monte, arriving at dusk. Burns doesn’t indicate how he got down to Cebu and Del Monte, but he was probably a passenger… Read More »April 7, 1942 

March 31-April 7, 1942

On Mar 31 & April 7 Little Baguio hospital was bombed. Two nurses, Misses Hozen & Paliner had shrapnel wounds minor injuries. Sgt. Spielhofer lost one leg (or foot?) we wondered when they might bombed #2. At another bombing Cole Vanderboget was injured & Capt Kloskey was killed.

April 7, 1942

Maj Swanson, Lts Nardini & Langdon (USN) Lt Rose arrived to Lelpant. All in confusion. 4700 is census & they are turning in by the batallion. The M.R.R. has broken & the troops are falling back. Hosp 1 again bombed apparently intentionally this time. Some 50 pts killed. Hospital emptied & transferred here. The patients… Read More »April 7, 1942

April 7, 1942

Asked Duran if he knows why F.S. wants me. He said: “Sorry Vic, I don’t know. Major Nishimura was in my house last night and he told me to tell you to be there on Wednesday.” Stayed in the office until eight. Gave final instructions to Valdezco. “Goodbye, doc,” he said with a sad voice.… Read More »April 7, 1942

4/8/42 Day 122

Il Corps disintegrates completely under sustained enemy attacks from the air and on the ground. The Japanese quickly discover gaps in the Alangan River line, held by the U.S. 31st Infantry, the 57th Infantry (PS), the 26th Cavalry (PS), the U.S. 803rd Engineers, the 14th Engineers (PS), and Constabulary troops, and stream south at will. In a final attempt to halt this advance, the Provisional Coast Artillery Brigade (AA), serving as Infantrymen, forms a weak line Just north of Cabcaben, but the other units ordered to extend this line are unable to do so. General Wainwright sends General Marshall a message which says In part:

“The tactical situation on Bataan Is fast deteriorating and the men are so weakened by hunger and disease that they have no power of resistance left. It is with deep regret that I am forced to report that the troops on Bataan are fast folding up.”

General King decides to surrender the Luzon Force and orders all equipment destroyed during the night of 8-9 April. He telephones General Wainwright but speaks to General Beebe. He tells him:

“Tell General Wainwright that I have decided to surrender Bataan. This decision Is solely my own, no member of my staff nor of my command has helped me arrive at this decision. In my opinion, If I do not surrender to the Japanese, Bataan will be known as the greatest military slaughter in history.”

Of the 78,000 men of the Luzon Force, about 2,000 succeed in escaping to Corregidor.

After dark, the submarine SEADRAGON delivers another load of food to Corregidor, and then evacuates a few personnel who are too sick or too old to fight.

A magnitude 7.8 earthquake hits Mindoro in the evening.

Gen. Wainwright sends Cols. Galbraith and Irwin to Bataan to confer with General King, and orders Col. Romulo to leave.

Welcome Speech of Jorge B. Vargas to His Excellency, Major General Akira Muto, April 8, 1942

December 29th, 1941 to April 8, 1942

First raid on the Rock—unknown number of HBs and 13 DBs—How many HBs shot down-one to No. 1 gun of James. From then on raids at same time of day; day in, day out—Me lying in the pit spotting planes, chewing tobacco, unconcerned and Minnis and Aprai down there on a visit—Thank goodness Ramsay wasn’t… Read More »December 29th, 1941 to April 8, 1942

Wednesday April 8, 1942

Things don’t look good at all — that is they just look worse. News from up front is that most sections are in a confused withdrawal. Shelling and bombing and superior man-power have us over a barrel. I feel like a slacker being here but am too weak to do much but stay. We had… Read More »Wednesday April 8, 1942

8 April 1942

[Marginal note:] Bataan fell! A new day which I hope proves to be no worse than yesterday. The II Corps pulled back during the night to a line approximately thru Lumao. All Filipino troops have disintegrated except about one regiment. The I Corps will have to pull back to conform. They (the Nips) continue their… Read More »8 April 1942

April 8, 1942

Nice day. Air raids right after breakfast. Things are bad! Many, many patients all day. Few casualties, but mostly malnutrition, exhaustion, nerves, and gold-brickers. Census 6500. Nurses sent to Corregidor about 10:30 P.M.We are to stay to run hospital. No front line! We are sunk!

April 8th, Wednesday

The army cannot attack. It is impossible. Area is congested with stragglers. I tried to go up the east road and was unable to drive because of the overturned trucks and struggling men, moving to the rear areas. With observation from balloons and from Mount Samat, the Nips are beginning to drop shells into the… Read More »April 8th, Wednesday

4/9/42 Day 123

At about 0100 hours, a severe earthquake shakes the Bataan Peninsula. The tremors last for more than a minute and are so violent that the submarine SNAPPER, more than 100 miles to the south, feels the Impact. Its captain thinks that they have run aground.

At 0300 hours, emissaries of General King start toward the Japanese lines under a white flag to arrange for the surrender. General King surrenders all of the Luzon Force (76,000 men) unconditionally at 1230 hours and a grim march begins (later to be called the “Death March”) of prisoners to Balanga and then on to San Fernando, 100 miles away. The known human statistics of the Death March are: 70,000 men started the march; 54,000 men reached Camp O’Donnell; 10,000 died on the march from various causes such as sickness, beatings and executions of whom 2,330 are thought to be Americans; and 6,000 either escaped or are still listed as missing.

General Wainwright sends a message to General MacArthur:

“At 0600 this morning, General King, without my knowledge or approval, sent a flag of truce to the Japanese commander. The minute I heard of it I disapproved of his action and directed that there would be no surrender. I was Informed it was too late to make any change, that the action had already been taken. Physical exhaustion and sickness due to a long period of insufficient food Is the real cause of this terrible disaster. When I get word what terms have been arranged, I will advise you.”

General MacArthur states:

“No army has done so much with so little, and nothing became it more than its last hours of trial and agony.”

The final fall of the Bataan Peninsula permits Japanese aircraft that have been used to pound it, to now devote thelr full attention to Corregidor.

In the Visayan Islands, the Cebu Island garrison Is alerted as the enemy attack force heading toward the island is spotted.

Of all nights, the SNAPPER returns with a load of canned goods and other non-perishable rations. As it is being unloaded, It is spotted by the Japanese and is forced to leave with much of Its cargo still on board.

Bataan, the last holdout of United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) in Luzon falls to the Japanese. General Wainwright learns at 6:00 a.m. of General King’s decision to surrender Bataan forces. The Bataan Death March begins.

Speech of Major General Akira Muto on the occasion of a courtesy visit paid by the members of the Executive Commission, headed by Jorge B. Was, Chairman of the Executive Commission, April 9, 1942

April 8, 1942 (April 8-9)

Morning After the general heard my report, I took the field telephone and asked for Bat 108 –Manny’s code name in Corregidor. “What’s up, Primo?” he asked. I said: “the line in the east sector won’t hold. By tonight, the Japs will be here. Tell Leonie to stay there.” Manny didn’t believe me, but I… Read More »April 8, 1942 (April 8-9)

April 9, 1942

Captured with General Blummel in command of remainder of 28th Material, 57th Inf., 31st Inf., 26 Cav. and mics. outfits. The Air Corps was under Lt. Col. Maverick and Lt. Col. Sewell. Will never forget the next few days – had been without adequate food for months and since evacuating front lines on 7th had only had one can of tomatoes and… Read More »April 9, 1942

Thurs., Apr. 9, 1942

“the Voice of Freedom” from somewhere in the Philippines, broadcast last night at 7:30, and news from KGEI, San Francisco, at 8:00 were both gloomy and contained chilling reports of fighting on Bataan. “Jap dive bombers and fighter planes are bombing and machine gunning our front lines, causing heavy losses. Bombing attacks on our rear… Read More »Thurs., Apr. 9, 1942

Thurs. Apr. 9/42

“Bataan fell today”. This little peninsula, the one separating north Manila Bay from the South China Sea has been the scene of terrible fighting the past ten days or more. It has held out ever since the USAFFE forces left the central part of Luzon Island. It was greatly out numbered – at least 8… Read More »Thurs. Apr. 9/42

April 9th, Thursday

Col Williams and Major Hurt raised white fag through the line at Lamao, this morning and arranged a conference with the Jap CG, a Lieutenant General Homma. Later, General King. Major Cothran, and I went forward thru thelines with Col Collier and Major Hurt. Col Willams was kept by the Japs as a hostage. We… Read More »April 9th, Thursday

9th of April 1942

Day of the 9th Severe bombing and straffing of roads and areas all day. Amm. dumps active all day. Pappy explains continued aircraft activity. Night of the 9th Lawler, Mayor Herrera.

Night of 8th-9th April, 1942

Returned to Hdqts after futile attempt to clear North, South Road. Told of decision to surrender. 2:25 AM. Destruction of ammunition dumps. Force of explosions. 3:00 AM Col. Williams started out under white flag.

April 9, 1942

Much air and artillery activity this morning. White flag hoisted at 10:00 A.M. Don’t like it at all. Red Cross flags hung all over hospital. Japs came in after dark. No more washing in creek, no smoking after dark, must use blue colored flashlight at night. Death penalty if not complied with. Few admissions today.… Read More »April 9, 1942

9 April 1942

Continued evacuation operations during the night. Pumped remaining CANOPUS fuel into lighter for further transfer to Corregidor, wrecked all machine tools, radio equipment, etc. on board, and removed breach-blocks, sights, etc. from guns. Placed remaining provisions and personal effects in lighter. About 0410 backed CANOPUS out of Cove into 14 fathoms of water, anchored, and… Read More »9 April 1942

April 9, 1942

Thursday Off Alasasin Pt. My, My! What a day! We stood by all night getting ready to get underway. Meanwhile we noticed many fires being started among the hills of Bataan. Apparently it was ammunition. We didn’t know it at the time but things were crumbling on Bataan. It was the beginning of the end.… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

Rumors are that Bataan is having very heavy fighting. Plenty of bombers headed that way and there seems to be no opposition. It is even said that Bataan is surrendering but there are also reports of heavy Japanese loss.

April 9, 1942

During an air raid, we arrived here on Corregidor at noon. There are One hundred ten of us from the two Bataan Hospitals; ninety of us are nurses; the rest civilians; some of them are wives of soldiers and officers, the rest camp followers. ‘The trip has left us exhausted and nerve wracked. The roads… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9th 1942

Ed Williams (Col. F.A.) and Marshal Hurt (Maj. Inf) went forward at 2:30 with the white flag. We have surrendered. I am of course anxious as to all of our futures. P of W are a low form of beings and no one can even guess what will be our fate. As to our campaign… Read More »April 9th 1942

April 9, 1942

Gilter, Harris, OBrien, Nagel and Greer came up this afternoon. Had a large crowd for dinner.

9 Apr. ’42

Wakened at one AM with a heavy earthquake lasting nearly a minute. Thought it was bombing or heavy gun fire. Tremors again at two AM and four AM, nine AM and two PM. Active firing at Corregidor all last night. High bombing over Bataan today. Finished reading “The Harvester” by Porter.

April 9, 1942

Got some sleep in the car. No one had come along. It was very quiet. Eustacio and I started walking toward Mariveles. We had water in canteens but nothing to eat. About noon or thereafter, we met two Jap soldiers. Their bayonets were fixed. They pointed their rifles at us. Put our hands up. They… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

This was the day of our Surrender to the Japanese. Oh, how plenty and strong they are? There’s no question about their might. They were kind and helpful to us. This day I was taken by them to drive a truck up to Mariveles.The officer I went with was kind and friendly giving me food… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

Adding to the tension caused by the almost constant zoomings of the giant flies that sweep towards Bataan, were the earthquakes which caused as much terror as did the bombings. I have experienced some of them in my twenty-three years stay in this country, but never so much in one day. According to the observatory,… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

This has been a terrible day. At 6 a.m. Gen. King sent a flag of truce with Col. Williams through the lines to make preliminary arrangements for surrender. I was up most of the night talking with people on the Bataan side, and with Gen. Wainwright. Gen. King had indicated indirectly that he wanted to… Read More »April 9, 1942

Wernitznig

April 9th, 1942

Bataan forces have surrendered however fighting continues in isolated spots due to all unit being unaware of the surrender. Heard nurses had left Mariveles for Corregidor at 6:30 AM. Order came out no one was to leave Hospital # 2 area. Unable for Francis and me to rejoin the 57th. Heard from Pvt Ortencio, Dental… Read More »April 9th, 1942

Ranson

April 9, 1942

A little after midnite left Supply Depot and went down the hill to Gen Hosp #2 with Organization as Col. Kempf left last nite for Corregidor without telling me his intentions. Bataan surrendered today bombing and machine gunning died down around noon and e welcome peace and quiteness prevailed.

Thursday April 9, 1942

This as a sorry day for the USA. Tojo and hie boys walked In about 12:30 and took over. We spent a very hectic morning with bombing raids before that. One bomb of good size was close enough to throw dirt all over our area and bunks. The road out front was strafed continually. The… Read More »Thursday April 9, 1942

April 9th 1942

The enemy is busy mopping up, dive bombing roads and gun positions, We understand that Gen. King went through enemy lines with an offer of truce and surrender. Machine gun bullets poured through hospital from some unit on ridge back of us. No one injured. At about 10:30 am, all firing had ceased, and we… Read More »April 9th 1942

April 9, 1942

Ottly’s birthday. Wrote letter to her. Bataan folded. At about 3 PM. the Japs opened artillery fire on the Rock from Bataan.

April 9, 1942

The day of surrender. The first we knew of the surrender, was shortly after 2’oclock. We received orders to:destroy our guns and positions, which we did in quick time. At 3:30 P.M. we had chow; the cooks prepared every thing we had on hand. It was the first time I’d been full in a long… Read More »April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942 

Rested all day. Reported in morning that things are very bad at Bataan. In evening reported that Bataan has fallen. Corr. Still holding though. Those poor guys there. I wonder how long it will be here.

Mar. 15 — April 9, 1942

On March 15, 1942, three Japanese dive-bombers attacked Marveilles [Mariveles] Field. They flew right over our positions, and one of the men on a 3 0 cal- gun, shot one down. The other two came back and raised hell, bombing and strafeing. The plane that was shot dow landed in the harbor, and a launch… Read More »Mar. 15 — April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

Have been near phone all nite & last we hear the nurses have not passed hospital no 1. They were held up by the demolition of our ammunition dumps. The phone finally went dead at 5:00 a.m. While sitting up in Hqrs during the nite a terrific earthquake came on & was almost impossible to… Read More »April 9, 1942

Thursday, April 9, 1942

At 7:30 I went up to the house of Overseer Laurel to listen to the radio news and it was then that the Voice of Freedom station broadcasted the almost heartbreaking news that Bataan had fallen. Mr. Tiongson who had heard the news from the house of Dr. Velasquez, immediately came to see me. The… Read More »Thursday, April 9, 1942

April 9, 1942

Must order the refumigation of about 400 bags of corn-rice in our Oriente warehouse. This stock is eight months old. It came from Cebu. Rumors that Bataan has fallen. I doubt it. Will listen over KGEI or “Voice of Freedom.”

9 Apr. 1942

Surrendered at Lamao. Kept at Balanga all afternoon where I was questioned. Taken to Orani where I was imprisoned in mortuary. Dinner with Col. Takasaki. Williams, Cothran, Tisdelle with me.

8 April 1942

[Marginal note:] Bataan fell! A new day which I hope proves to be no worse than yesterday. The II Corps pulled back during the night to a line approximately thru Lumao. All Filipino troops have disintegrated except about one regiment. The I Corps will have to pull back to conform. They (the Nips) continue their… Read More »8 April 1942

4/10/42 Day 124

The Japanese invade Cebu Island, garrisoned by about 6,500 troops under the command of Colonel Irwin C. Scudder. The bulk of the enemy 12,000-man assault force goes ashore on the east coast at Cebu City, while the rest land on the west Coast in the vicinity of Toledo. The Cebu Military Police Regiment at Cebu City and the 3rd Battalion of the 82nd Infantry (PA) at Toledo, fight lively delaying actions before withdrawing inland from both towns under very heavy pressure. General Chynoweth, the commanding general of the Visayan Force, whose headquarters Is on Cebu, sends the 3rd Battalion of the 83rd Infantry (PA) to defend Cantabaco, where the cross-Island highway branches.

Two submarines (the PERMIT and the SWORDFISH) from Cebu surface off Corregidor. They are both loaded with food and are quickly unloaded onto a minesweeper.

The 27-day Bartle of Corregidor begins.

Wainwright issues proclamation to his besieged forces on Corregidor: “Corregidor can and will be held.”

Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos is advised to depart Cebu City by the USAFFE commander in the area. He transfers to Naga. Japanese troops begin landing in Cebu City.

Brig. Gen .Clinton Pierce April 10, 1942 interrogated by the Japanese

April 10-11, 1942

P.T.F. 1 Day Fr. S. Fern. prior to this. (P.A.B.) Left (K.P. No) Hour & Date Arrived at (K.P. No) Hour & Date Remarks: Events 167 10:50 AM 4/10/42 154 4/11/42 2 AM Men frantic for water. One Filipino went hormentado [juramentado] and was beaten at Cabcaben. Road cluttered with troops and vehicles. Marched off… Read More »April 10-11, 1942

April 10, 1942

Though we refused to believe the Nishi-Nishi headline, Troops ON EASTERN FRONT OF BATAAN OFFER SURRENDER, We were unreasonably depressed. One could see small groups gravely discussing the headline throughout the campus. But a note to Margo from Kay, who was still outside with her ailing sister, convinced me that it must be true. She… Read More »April 10, 1942

Fri., Apr. 10, 1942

The things that go through one’s mind in a crisis. During the long hours last night, I recalled standing on the deck of the Greystone Castle, Junior, dressed in navy blue with crisp pique piping, a cocky white felt hat with 3″ navy band and streamers down the back. That was the style then. Ship… Read More »Fri., Apr. 10, 1942

April 10, 1942

Morning came, and we were ordered to stack our guns and disarm. The white flag was raised on top of the highest hill. All Filipino troops in Bataan were going to surrender together. It was already nine o’clock… but still there were no Japs. We knew we were completely surrounded, but they were taking their… Read More »April 10, 1942

Tenth of April 1942

First appearance of Japanese soldiers. Nearly missed getting out. Assembly on Hdqts feeder road. Lose our general. Next seen in O’Donnell. March to O. Donnel starts led out by Col. James (my equipment). Description of march to Bataan. Lack of food and water. A crazed Filipino. Guns of Corregidor. Guides assigned and paper given Col… Read More »Tenth of April 1942

4/11/42 Day 125

On Cebu, the 3rd Battalion of the 83rd Infantry falls to stop the enemy at Cantabaco, and the Japanese drive rapidly eastward from Toledo with very little difficulty.

At 1400 hours, the first group of American POW’s stumble Into Balanga, the capital of Bataan.

Chief Justice Abad Santos is advised to evacuate to Toledo. He is captured by the Japanese in Barrio Tubod, in Barili.

Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State ( Welles ) to the Adviser on Political Relations ( Hornbeck ) April 11, 1942

Statement: President Quezon on the Fall of Bataan, April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

A vegetarian who has been allowed two tins of milk a day is now having this cut off due to shortage. She went direct to Nakamura about it, saying It was against her religion to eat meat. so Arthur blew up on religion again. There should have been no special privilege from the beginning in… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942 

Day quiet. At supper time 10 B-25s and 3 B-17Es came in. Going to do a bit of bombing then back and chance to move on south. I hope I get it. Was a wonderful sight to see them come in. At about 5:00 that afternoon, the personnel at the Del Monte Field were startled… Read More »April 11, 1942 

April 11, 1942

All Manila is quiet. Sad. I can feel the loneliness in the streets. A woman reading the Tribune in a newsstand burst into tears. Her husband was a soldier. The boy who skates on the pavement near the entrance to my office was sitting on the sidewalk, dejected. His elder brother was a soldier. Met Mrs.… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

Seven civilians were brought in from Bataan today! All their stories were the same. Hardships, malaria, dysentery, inadequate equipment and food. While hungry and exhausted men waited, fought, and prayed for reinforcements, the Japs hammered at them from land, sea, and air. People were slowly beginning to believe that Bataan had fallen. Those with men… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

A black day for the enemy. The Americans must admit they have evacuated Bataan. They now have nothing more to defend in the Philippines except Corregidor…. The whole United States is in turmoil. The halo they gave MacArthur is is fading. We are naturally going to seize upon this opportunity. This much overrated character, whom… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

There was a flash report that Japanese transports have been sighted off of three points – Capiz, Dumangas (next town to Barotac) and Antique. After hearing such bad news, we decided to leave Calinog at once. Josephine Porras invited us to go with them to their farm in Barrio Bingawan, 81 km from Calinog and… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

Bataan, symbolic of hope for the Fil-American forces and a thorn and yoke for Japan, has come to an end. Its spirit and history, however, represent something that will not end with its surrender. Allied radios carried the official release from the USAFFE that General Wainwright had sent General King with a white flag, and… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

Capt. Webster C. Sayers, Medical Corps, joined my battery from Bataan.

11 Apr. ’42

Our 100th day under guard. What does the next 100 days hold for us? Little air activity now and the hours are long with no certain news. Four months now with no certain news. Four months now without mail or any information, so the days pass in the same monotonous routine. Read “Countess to Boot”… Read More »11 Apr. ’42

April 11, 1942

Back to Lubuagan. Phoned Capt Heinrich with the echelon at Bontoc to get the Bn Cmdrs. together as I would come down immediately to make arrangements for the final organization.

April 11, 1942

Civilians evacuated from a part of Bataan and some Americans came to camp. Laphams with two children, and monkey—telling dire stories. Other reports say Bataan holding. Also Indians to fight for Great Britain. Chin up!

April 11, 1942

Saturday Ft. Hughes Things were relatively quiet today. The Japs shelled us a little but the bombers left us alone. We spent the most part of the day getting organized and getting some of the Philippine civilians out from under our feet. I must write all about this place one day but for now I’ll… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942

Things are beginning to straighten out here a little after the sudden influx from Bataan. A lot of people came over here who were not supposed to come. They used all kinds of means to get here, and I heard that some of them swam part of the way and were picked up by boats.… Read More »April 11, 1942

April 11, 1942 – Saturday

The President called a Cabinet meeting at 3 p.m. Present were the Vice-President, Lieutenant Colonel Soriano, Colonel Nieto and myself. He discussed extensively with us the war situation. The various radiograms he sent to President Roosevelt and those he received were read. All together constitute a valuable document of the stand the President and his… Read More »April 11, 1942 – Saturday

April 11, 1942

More Japanese around hospital. See many of our (were ours) cars being driven by them. Work at R.C. is practically nothing now. Colonel North doesn’t show up.

Morning of April 11, 1942

Started North on our own. Bill my Striker along. Gave me some Quinine. Road congested (Ped. Civ. and Mil.) Trucks and artillery persecution. Arrival at Lemay [Limay], after attempt short cut. Water! Pappy and myself get can corned beef. Mayor of Belanga [Balanga] there. Gave us cup of coffee. Continued march to Lemao [Limay]. Stopped… Read More »Morning of April 11, 1942

Saturday, April 11, 1942

Sent letter to Captain Leonard Cairns asking about Jim. Asked him to telephone me as I could not call him. Letter to him by messenger. Mail now takes a week for 50 kilometers, and then uncertain. Tried to send cable to Jim’s mother but Cebu radio dead. We shall go to the hills Tuesday. Recommended… Read More »Saturday, April 11, 1942

4/12/42 Day 126

Since the Japanese now control the cross-island highway on Cebu, General Chynowerh retreats into the mountains of northern Cebu, where he organizes the remnants of his garrison for guerrilla warfare.

The Japanese, employing heavy artillery on Bataan and Cavite, intensify thelr bombardment of Corregidor. Also, enemy aircraft continue to pound the Island.

April 12, 1942

I would like to know the conditions in Bataan and how our surrendered troops are being disposed of. We have heard nothing except over the radio from Tokyo and from Manila. Mention was made of Generals King, Jones, and Capinpin. Life is settling down to routine here again. Our new troops have been assigned to… Read More »April 12, 1942

Sunday, April 12, 1942

Formation of eleven bombers flew directly over the Central. We are having at least two air alarms daily now. Five towns have been occupied by Japs on Cebu Island, which is very close by. One town, Toledo, across strait from San Carlos, Negros. Only reason to occupy Toledo would be in preparation for occupation of… Read More »Sunday, April 12, 1942

Sun. Apr. 12/42

We had a little excitement today. Cecil and I were at Cinco de Junio for Meeting. The first testimony was being given when four explosions were heard and felt. I say, “Felt” because with each blast the house shook and the wall at my back seems to bulge indefinitely. Immediately there was confusion. One in… Read More »Sun. Apr. 12/42

April 12, 1942

Sunday Ft, Hughes I’m still sweaty and smelly. They assure us that our bombers bombed in this area today and the Japanese evening broadcast verified it for us. Starting a little before noon our gang, With the help of a few Army men, took over two 12″ mortars and we fired 26 rounds having to… Read More »April 12, 1942

Day of April 12, 1942

A blistering sun. Attempts at cleanliness and sanitation. Disease rampant, hunger. Thirst. Canteen of water priceless. Gen King and staff nearby. Pappy visits them. Filipino soldier gets under shade of Hosp. fly. Absolute despair and suffering, Start of the famous hike of the lost. Continued all day. No water or food. Helping Col James. Continued… Read More »Day of April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

Rice and salmon to eat. More patients leaving. Continual stream of Philippine refugees going down road. Many will never make Manila, as also many patients who are leaving won’t. Japs giving Corregidor hell with artillery andbombs. Probably just a sample of what is to come. We get shrapnel from Corregidor guns in hospital. Dangerous place… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

Trying times with pros and cons on Bataan situation being presented—rumors improve in evening. It is amazing where the reports come from but it is disappointing if each day does not bring something cheery.

April 12, 1942

Back to Bontoc. Had conference with Heinrich, Stephens and Johnson about the organization. Johnson takes the 1st Bn. n the southern part of the Mt. Prov. Stephens has the 3rd Bn around Langangilang. Peryam will have the 2d Bn around Angaki. Will probably raise only the Hqrs. and Serv Co in Kalinga, with Capt Brown… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

Today we heard something over Nichols Field—bombing everyone insisted. I get so irritated at these rumors of bombings, landings, convoys in the bay, etc., etc., that I put on one of my better mads and lashed around at servants and guests alike, saying that since the President of the United States himself had said we… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942 – Sunday

Attended Mass in the house where the President was staying (25 Albany Rd., home of Norman Myer) and we were asked to stay for breakfast. At 10 a.m. the meeting of the Cabinet was resumed until 11 a.m. when Colonel Nieto and Colonel Soriano had to leave for church. 7:30 p.m. Attended dinner at the… Read More »April 12, 1942 – Sunday

12 Apr. ’42

Surprise bombing of Nichols Field at 10:00 this morning. Six bombs dropped in rapid succession, but the planes too high to see. Hangars set afire. High patrolling this PM over Nielson Field, but no action; but American planes must be near and disturbing to Japanese. Mass Japanese bombing on Corregidor this AM. Finished reading the… Read More »12 Apr. ’42

April 12, 1942

Private Plank [?] from Battery [?] committed suicide at 8 AM.

April 12th, Sunday

On the morning of the 12th, the General and General Jones were taken by automobile to Camp O’Donnell. During the two days General King was at Orani, General Jones, General Brougher, General Lim, and General Capinpin together with other staff officers, were separated from the prisoner marchers as they passed by underneath our windows and… Read More »April 12th, Sunday

April 12, 1942

We intercepted news from Radio Corregidor that Japanese troops have landed in Cebu. This morning the papers confirmed it, adding that the landings were made at three points in the island. The first capital of the Philippines is now engulfed in the Co-Prosperity Sphere which we have already been “enjoying” for several months now. Suddenly… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 11-12, 1942

Had my milk all drank up in two days time. Made up to K. 129. Water was hard to get.

Sunday April 12, 1942

We moved to Bingawan at 8:30 p.m., our baggage carried on 29 “carrosa’s” (a sled-like vehicle without wheels. It is dragged along the ground on two bamboo poles) drawn by caraboas (water buffalos) across the hills, and we walked by lantern light. Can you imagine we had the three dogs, two birds and two angora cats… Read More »Sunday April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

The Nishi-Nishi had this cheerful information: “F.D.R. in his press-conference speech admitted the impossibility of sending aid to the Philippines to relieve the critical situation facing the USAFFE.” The paper also confirmed the news I heard last night that “68 army nurses have been evacuated to Corregidor.” Not even the good food that Catalino sent… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

Japanese have moved in artillery around the hospital & are firing at Corregidor. The return fire occasionally sends fragments into our area. Hope that Corregidor remember that we have a hospital in this area. The Japanese soldiers are still living in our headquarters. We are eating red rice twice daily. Nutritional edema showing up in… Read More »April 12, 1942

April 12, 1942

First reports on the fall of Bataan. Said a newspaperman who was allowed to view the fighting areas: Once thriving communities that lay in the path of the fighting are now mere shambles and blackened debris. Guagua, Samal, Hermosa, Balanga, Lamao where fighting was protracted bore the brunt of furious shelling and the fighting that… Read More »April 12, 1942

12 Apr. 1942

Taken with Maj. Gen. A.M. Jones in motor car to Camp O’Donnell where I found Funk, Collier & many others.

April 12, 1942

Some shoe soles have been made for the children out of old pieces of rubber fire hose nailed onto the shoe. Another rubber sole was wired on. The purple Jacaranda tree has two lovely blooms beside the guardhouse. Daphne brought practically no clothes when she was ordered from the Club. She has only slacks and… Read More »April 12, 1942

4/13/42 Day 127

The attacks on Corregidor continue.

From Australia, General MacArthur sends a message to General Marshall, in which he says:

“The life of this fortress is definitely limited and its destruction certain unless sea communication can be restored. You must be prepared for the fall of the harbor defenses.”

April 13, 1942

Had a report from the Air Corps on their attack yesterday, but it wasn’t worth a darn as it contained no information as to results. However, I am not surprised if no results were obtained, for the bomber crews were talking in the clear all the way up from Australia, and consequently were unable to… Read More »April 13, 1942

April 13, 1942

Monday Ft. Hughes I didn’t think I would fall so far behind in writing this, Three days. This is such a helluva life, though, that I don’t particularly care about writing about it. I never felt so loggy so long in all my life – there just isn’t any life in me – I’m tired.… Read More »April 13, 1942

4/14/42 Day 128

The Japanese continue to bombard Corregidor.

“Royce’s raid” twelve bombers stationed in Mindanao attack Japanese targets in the Philippines. Damage is negligible.

Successful raid of Manila, Cebu, and Davao is reported to President Quezon.

April 14, 1942

A truck drove in with Florey and Loddigs who have been in jail for questioning, unheard of for three months, Grey was not with them. They looked well in spite of pallor and they say that thanks to murderers and other prisoners who shared outside chow, they managed to get along. Late in the evening… Read More »April 14, 1942

April 14, 1942

Received a phone call from Joe Escaler, Jr. He came from San Fernando, Pampanga. He said he saw my son Philip with several thousand captives. My Japanese supervisor, Mr. Fukada, was beside me when I received the news. He congratulated me and I thanked him. I asked him if he could secure a permit for… Read More »April 14, 1942

April 13-14, 1942

Left (K.P. No) Hour & Date Arrived at (K.P. No) Hour & Date Remarks: Events Orani 4/13/42 4 PM San Fernando, Pam 5 PM 4/14/42 At Guagua I was kicked and beaten. One guard started to shoot but changed his mind.

April 14, 1942

On previous occasions we had witnessed Japanese flogging Filipinos whom they had brought into the camp. This afternoon several Japanese tied a young Filipino to a tree near the front gate and beat him unmercifully, while internees in stupefied shock stood and watched like wooden dummies. After stabbing him with their bayonets, they untied him… Read More »April 14, 1942

Tuesday, April 14, 1942

Dr. Porras came to visit and he told us that the invasion was expected that night or the following night.

April 13-14, 1942

I just got through Cabcabaun [Cabcaben], when Corregidor opened fire on the Japanese there. Some of our own men where killed there in the artillery exchange. I made Balanga the day of the 14th. We were all lined up there, and given rice. I had no mess kit, so all I got was a handful.… Read More »April 13-14, 1942

Wernitznig

April 14th, 1942

Weight today — 149 lbs. Tired and weak.

April 14, 1942

Reports about the desolation of all the towns of Bataan abound. Not a house, building or church remains standing. Everything has been pulverized by deadly fires from both sides. The inhabitants who escaped death, sickness and bullets are starting to come out from their hide-outs in the mountains, looking squalid and ragged after three months… Read More »April 14, 1942

April 14, 1942

I wake up feeling weak and exhausted in strength. Given 2 rations of small lugao this day. We were organized to Companies. I am in Co A, I sleep twice at daytime. Now I feel stronger.

14 Apr. ’42

Few planes out today. We continue to wait and wonder. Usual routine of walking and reading. Temperature around 97 each day. Not as hot as Pensacola. Sun baths one hour each day, and am obtaining a good tan.

April 14, 1942

My wedding anniversary. Paris seems another world. It must have been in some other era that I lived in my gay little house on the banks of the Marne just outside Paris, dashing back and forth to town, bent on a million projects, more or less. The last time I saw Paris in 1939 war… Read More »April 14, 1942

April 14, 1942

Made final arrangements for Heinrich to carry on with the forward echelon. Have a lot of messages I want to sent to USFIP.

April 14, 1942

Quiet over head. Very Hot. Swish not coming in. Camp Murphy hit this a.m.? Busy time in Cebu. Blood test showed improvement. Leaving other half of liver (extract—for shots) for a while in hospital refrigerator. Los Banos people came in.

April 14, 1942 – Tuesday

We received word that the raid over Davao, Cebu, Nichols Field and Nielson Airport had been successful. Our bombers (three B-17’s and eight B-25’s) had destroyed Japanese planes on the ground at Nielson Airport and at Nichols Field, had sunk two transports at Cebu and destroyed some enemy seaplanes and sunk one transport in Davao.… Read More »April 14, 1942 – Tuesday

April 14, 1942

Few more patients left. Most here now are bed patients. Wards are being moved and consolidated. Most had quite a let-down after the surrender, and many have not got back into the swing (officers, I mean; also detachment men). Much shrapnel again today.

April 14, 1942

…so loud we must shout to be heard. We’re in a tight spot, but can move. Pray we come through safe.

April 14, 1942

Tuesday Ft. Hughes Nothing much doing today either. Went up to the top of the hill to Battery Gillispie after dinner to look at the sunset. During the day we ran for cover every time we saw that goddam observation balloon go up over at Cabcaben. I think the use of that damn thing should… Read More »April 14, 1942

Tuesday, April 14, 1942

Left Central at 7:00 a.m. for evacuation to camp in the hills. In the group: six women—Mdmes. Woods, Conant, Brown, Gibbs, McMaster, Vaughan; five children—June (age 21), Charlene (7), Beth (3), Clay (2), Douglas (6 weeks); three men—Mr. White, Mr. Conant, Mr. Brown. The animals included six dogs, four cats, 75 chickens. There were twelve… Read More »Tuesday, April 14, 1942

April 14, 1942

Shelling from Bataan and from south shore continues—also bombing. It is surprising how little damage is done with all the bombing and shelling. Some guns have had near misses and were out of action temporarily, but the ordnance always seems to be able to get them back in action again. Heard a rumor today—or rather… Read More »April 14, 1942

4/15/42 Day 129

The air and artillery attack against Corregidor continues.

Wainwright requests MacArthur to assign a Navy seaplane to ferry personnel between Corregidor and Lake Lanao on Mindanao.

The Bataan Death March ends. All the surviving captives reached Capas, Tarlac.

Lieutenant Colonel Keisuke Inosuka, a staff officer under General Wachi, was sent to Cebu with instructions from General Hayashi to remind Kawaguchi to execute Abad Santos.

April 15, 1942

Life here is a little monotonous these days, as we have to stay rather close to the tunnel. They are either shelling or bombing us most of the time so it isn’t very pleasant to stay outside. It is difficult these days to get out long enough to have a smoke, and since we can’t… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

Wednesday Ft. Hughes Rumors today that Tojo had said an American convoy was bound for here to arrive today but that it would find no one here. Now he says he will have these forts by the end of this month. I hope he’s wrong but I have a feeling that he may not be.… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

No sugar. Rice and buggy oats. Many artillery shell duds from Corregidor. No news of any kind since last news broadcast on night of April 9. No Japanese brought in as patients so far, although am treating a few ambulatory ones at the Receiving Ward.

April 15, 1942

Yesterday 99.3 degrees. Wolff went out today. Japanese claim Cebu City in their hands. Corregidor guns demolished. Reports of bombing in various spots. Quiet overhead for the most part except for patrols.

April 15, 1942

Back to Lubuagan. The road is in very bad shape. There have been a lot of slides that were only partially removed. As soon as the rainy season starts this road will be well blocked. Hope it starts soon.

April 9-15, 1942

Then on April 9-1942 General King of Air [Artillery] Corp surrendered troops of Bataan to Nips. Then started on hike to O’Donnell. Hiked 4 days an[d] nights without a bite to eat stoped over night in Balanga took bath in river got on road aga[i]n stoped aga[i]n at some little tow called Lubao next morning… Read More »April 9-15, 1942

15 Apr. ’42

Temperature 98, no air activity, and little interest in this sector. Finished reading “Raleigh’s i^den” by Fletcher. Excellent Carolina Revolution story.

April 15, 1942

We listen to KREI [KGEI] each night. The platitudinous nothings mouthed by the commentators about “China’s brave fight” make me sick. Why in the hell, didn’t we give them the help five years ago that they need to fight the Japs instead of selling Japan all the materials she wanted with which to fight China?

April 15, 1942

Condition of the day is fair. We cleaned our barracks and its surroundings this morning. I still feel weak due to the little rations we ate, but it is better now ’cause it is 3 rations. There are new arrivals again among our brothers who were in Bataan.

April 15, 1942

Marched from K. 111 to K. 81, and got same sugar cane. One fellow was shot. Received food from the Filipinos.

April 15, 1942

Almost no hopes are entertained for Corregidor. Even the Americans admit they can hold out for only a few days more. The situation there must be simply horrible. Meanwhile General MacArthur sits in Australia and issues fervent appeals to his troops – a thing that is possible only in America. We should by now be… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

The morning headline filled us with dread. Bombs DEMOLIsH CORREGIDOR GUNS. We felt the heat more than ever today as we dragged mattresses and other bedding into the sizzling sunshine to air. It was general house-cleaning day in Santo Tomas. Barbed-wire fences and clothes lines sagged with sheets, blankets, mosquito nets, and wearing apparel. After… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

Left (K.P. No) Hour & Date Arrived at (K.P. No) Hour & Date Remarks: Events San Fernando Pamp. 4/15/42 3 AM Camp O’ Donnell 11 AM 4/15/42 Traveled in closed box cars to Capas. Hiked from there to camp.

April 15, 1942

The Japanese soldiers have left the hospital. None here. A Japanese soldier rapes our woman wd 6. Reported to Maj Sehizuchi (M.C.) who will have investigated. Have had to turn in rosters of everyone in the area. Some job detailed me about medical personnel. Cannot tell if is of any importance as type of roster… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

A Spaniard was called to Fort Santiago. While waiting for his investigator, he started cursing a Japanese soldier in Spanish. He thought the Japanese could not understand him. It so happened that the Japanese spoke fluent Spanish, having been in South America. The Spaniard left Fort Santiago black and blue. Submitted a report on the… Read More »April 15, 1942

April 15, 1942

Someone asked one camp member to help out with vegetables. She was furious, says she has two children to look after. She is too good to do hard work. However, her older daughter helps her in everything, even the washing. Like so many others they wash too often and as many clothes as they would… Read More »April 15, 1942

4/16/42 Day 130

General Wainwright places General Sharp in command of the Visayan garrisons and orders him to reorganize the Visayan-Mindanao Forces for a last stand on Mindanao. Cebu Island is thus conceded to be lost.

A Japanese force of 4,160 troops invades Panay at dawn, with most going ashore at Iloilo and the rest at Capiz. The landings are unopposed by Colonel Albert F. Christie’s Panay Force of about 7,000 which retires to the mountains to wage guerrilla warfare.

April 16, 1942

Capas, Tarlac Filipino Concentration Camp   Am still alive. Have been here for two days. How long I will stay only God knows. Many are dying here. Right now, somebody just died. He is Teofilo Yldefonso, champion-swimmer, thrice captain of the Philippine swimming team to the world’s Olympics. The wound he sustained in Bataan developed… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

Mauricio Cruz told my brother that a certain captain stated that he saw my son Philip 3rd embarking on a boat for Corregidor. On the other, Jorge de Leon, Jr. called me up and stated that together with his uncle, Luis Dizon, PASUDECO’s secretary, he was able to talk to my son, in San Fernando,… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

A long line of elderly and ill-fed American men filled the front lobby of the Big House. They had come from the outside to register in accordance with the Japanese regulations. A few of the Sunshiners had been old patients of mine at Sternberg Hospital, so I stopped to talk with them. Most of the… Read More »April 16, 1942

Thursday, April 16, 1942

Coné came early in the morning, and while he was with us Dr. Bernas arrived very excited and agitated saying that the Japanese were in the city (Iloilo). They came in very silently at night and the people did not know until they saw them on the streets. Many civilians were caught unprepared for the… Read More »Thursday, April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

Finally arrived at San Fernando. My feet were sore. Shoes all worn out, and I was so weak, I couldn’t have gone much farther. It seemed heaven when we hit there. We were fed rice and brown sugar while at San Fernando, and got all the rice we could eat. I helped the sick fellows… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

The morale of the people is very low. After the shock of the first days, those who were still hoping for the arrival of American reinforcements are losing all hope. Before, they felt so confident that they believed that Bataan and other points of resistance could serve as bases for the early recapture of the… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

Condition as usual. Ration the same, that is 3 time a day of ball camote and rice, Little work about improvement of sanitation arround barracks. Took hold of a paper “The Tribune“ all good news. My bodily health is fair but I feel very weak and dizzy. Perhaps due to no bath. We lay on… Read More »April 16, 1942

16 Apr. ’42

No activity today. Temperature 99 so the hot season is on. Finished “The Crossing” by Churchill. Haven’t had a visit from the Japanese Navy for two weeks. Guess they have milked us dry and I hope we are not moved. Food is holding out with economy of two meals per day and spending 500 pesos… Read More »16 Apr. ’42

April 16, 1942

Back to Batong Buhay.

April 16, 1942

Reregistration of released internees began. Everyone is being checked up. Hottest day so far—101 degrees. Japanese arranging to take over Red Cross. Wolff has a touch of bacillary dysentery.

April 16, 1942

Weather continues nice, but there are again great numbers of flies. Are fixing up nurses’ busses to evacuate hospital. Everybody hopeful of getting to Manila soon. Rice, salmon and gravy, and four olives for supper. Very good. A white woman patient on Ward 6 raped last night by two Japs. She has a three months… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

Thursday Ft. Hughes Not much to talk about today. We did fire a few more rounds today and had a load of bombs dropped on us and underwent a little shelling. The dirt and dust continue to whistle and swirl around our heads. Phew! Everytime we shoot or the Jeeps shat we are covered with… Read More »April 16, 1942

April 16, 1942

The Japs are gradually taking this place apart. I don’t like to believe it but the facts are indisputable. Every day some of the guns are hit and communications are disrupted. It is being done by the artillery on Bataan, and not by the bombing. Several batteries are out of action now, but most of… Read More »April 16, 1942

Thurs., Apr. 16, 1942

Report Japanese have landed on Negros. Someone suggested we go still farther into the hills. If we do we’ll be out of hiding and back near the coast. Combination amah and lavendera fled, also one of the carpenters left, to go back to the Central, when news was out that Japs were on Negros. Stove… Read More »Thurs., Apr. 16, 1942

4/17/42 Day 131

The alr and artillery assault on Corregidor continues.

April 17, 1942

Capas, Tarlac, FCC     There is only one faucet for our regiment. At nine o’clock today, the Japs opened the main water switch. The boys rushed with their canteens. Some boys were badly hurt in the mad dash for the faucet. Then suddenly, the Japs turned it off again. Col. Alba has organized the… Read More »April 17, 1942

April 17, 1942

It was a little more quiet today. There were fewer air attacks and also a relatively small amount of artillery fire. Yesterday we caught a lot of high explosives, so the change today was all the more marked. However, the rest is a good thing for it gives time to get some of the batteries… Read More »April 17, 1942

April 17, 1942

Friday Ft. Hughes This morning they bombed us again, killing 2 men and injuring 6. Bombs fell all over the flat end of the island. All small boats were wrecked yesterday except one. Our NAD launch and white pan were made into scraps and kindling – absolutely unsalvageable. And speaking of salvage. Damn if the… Read More »April 17, 1942

April 17, 1942

Cracked wheat, rice, and bacon for breakfast. Very good! Little artillery or aerial activity. Planes have sort of disappeared the last few days. Fewer visitors today.

April 15-17, 1942

In Melbourne.

April 17, 1942

Charlie Harris came into camp for registration, also Swish for Scotty et al. She had lunch with us. Hank Carpenterhome from hospital. We are quietly awaiting results in South and elsewhere. Very few planes.

April 17, 1942

Keep rather busy send the dope to the General.

17 Apr. ’42

Nothing doing here except the temperature going up to 101.5. Cooler last night. Finished “Not Without Peril” by Marguerite Allis.An early history of Vermont.

April 17, 1942

Ration as usual. Water the greatest problem we have here in the camp. I took a bath this morning when I went to take water in the creek west of our camp. This creek is where we take drinking water for bath, for washing. Oh how dirty. I help in the making of Identification papers.… Read More »April 17, 1942

April 17, 1942

News about the fate of Bataan’s defenders are coming in trickles. Father Provincial, who had just made a visit to Sta. Rita, Pampanga, related that he saw thousands of prisoners, mostly Filipinos, being led to San Fernando. They were travelling on foot, in groups of about 500-1000, guarded by around half a dozen armed soldiers.… Read More »April 17, 1942

April 17, 1942

Corregidor Resistance Weak. A Nishi-Nishi correspondent at the Philippine front gave the following description of a fierce raid on Corregidor: I had the thrill of seeing parts of the fortress being blown to bits when I accompanied a squadron on a raid over the island. Unfolding in clear panorama under me as we started out… Read More »April 17, 1942

4-17-42

American soldiers discipline has gone by the board. Have asked for Japanese guard to be posted in hospital for protection from our ow people as well as others.

April 17, 1942

Meeting on rice-production at the Legislative building under the auspices of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce, Rafael Alunan. Main problems discussed: (1) Emergency plan for encouraging production of rice and other food crops to meet the present emergency: (2) Long-range program for increased rice production; (3) Methods for increasing total production; (4) Methods for… Read More »April 17, 1942

Fri., Apr. 17, 1942

Wife of one of carpenters came to wash children’s clothes today. Surprised to find she spoke a little English. She set own wage, 6 pesos monthly, about $3.00. Hours 7:00-11:00 and 1:00-5:00. When not washing or ironing she will look after the children. Applied in native sarong which mountain women wear. Said she could not… Read More »Fri., Apr. 17, 1942

4/18/42 Day 132

In Australia, General MacArthur assumes supreme command of the Southwest Pacific Area with the USAFFE becoming inactive.

In the Visayan Islands, the Japanese make another unopposed landing on Panay, at San Jose.

General Wainwright receives a message from General Marshall in Washington. It cays:

“This continued demonstration that you and all members of your command are giving to the world of hardihood, courage and devotion to duty is worthy of the finest traditions of American and Filipino soldiery. We are immeasurably proud of every individual serving in the fortifications of Manila Bay. 1 request that you convey the special commendation and gratitude of the War Department to the nurses on Corregidor whose service is a source of inspiration to all of us.”

Elsewhere: Tokyo is jolted as it undergoes its first alr attack when B-25’s under the command of Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle make a surprise raid, The planes are launched from the deck of the carrier U.S.S. HORNET, a first In naval warfare.

April 18, 1942

Commissioner of Agriculture, Rafael Alunan, gave a speech before the rice-production conferees. He said in part: With the closing of the sources of imported rice and the disruption of the normal life in our rural districts, a situation already bad has been aggravated. The country imports an annual average of 1,500,000 cavans of rice which… Read More »April 18, 1942

Saturday, April 18, 1942

At 5:00 p.m. while we were eating we heard two shots and we all ran out to see where they came from. We always thought we were far enough from the main road, but as we looked across the hills in the direction of the road, we clearly saw a line of trucks, tanks, cavalry… Read More »Saturday, April 18, 1942

April 18, 1942

Radio San Francisco announced the Japanese landing in Panay. The press confirmed the news, adding that a similar landing was effected at three points in Cebu. The three capitals of the three provinces of Panay were occupied without even a shot. As usual, the Fil-American soldiers fled to the mountains, leaving behind them a trail… Read More »April 18, 1942

April 18, 1942

The temperature early this morning was biting. It was very cool. This noon it is fair and this afternoon windy and cloudy. 3 men were added to our bedding. They’re Pangasinan people. I was made in charge of my seven other companions. Barracks condition improving a little. Some of the sick were brought to hospital… Read More »April 18, 1942

18 Apr. ’42

Very little plane activity. Corporal at the evening muster was irritated over officers and slapped Dr. Morgan because he didn’t have his shirt on. Although we had been informed by Lt. Yoshida that evening muster could be informal. Another instance of our being under the whim of an enlisted sentry. He came storming through our… Read More »18 Apr. ’42

4/19/42 Day 133

The Japanese claim all of Cebu Island and the bombardment of Corregidor goes on.

April 19, 1942

Concentration Camp Capas, Tarlac Great day. Dr. Escoto of the Red Cross was able to enter our camp. He was called by the Camp Commander because the Jap guard is sick. He passed our quarters, gave medicines for the boys with dysentery and malaria. He left bottles of quinine and sulfa-thiasol to the medical officers.… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

It has been relatively quiet most of the day, although the artillery opened up this afternoon, and for a time we received a lot of shells, and passed out a lot as well. There hasn’t been much air activity today, although we had a couple of raids, and this afternoon the Japs tried dive bombers… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

Sunday Ft. Hughes Today was quiet but not on a par with yesterday. The Japs shelled us for a little while but without apparent damage. Many reports of varied Japanese activity. Today the rumor of the bombing of Tokyo was confirmed to some extent. At last! Not much else today. All my love.

April 19, 1942 – Monday

Attended Mass at President Quezon’s house. He asked us to stay for breakfast. At 10 a.m. I went to General MacArthur’s Headquarters to finish some important matters. Returned to Chevron for luncheon. At 1:45 p.m. Mr. Robertson (Robby) picked me up and we drove to the Victorian Tennis Club where I was the guest of… Read More »April 19, 1942 – Monday

April 19, 1942

Same old routine. Very little work at R.W. No news of any kind. Very few rumors even. Had better meals today, but they are sure not very good. Rice just isn’t good the may it is prepared, and besides it doesn’t stick with one. Rice, of course, is brown rice and there are many husks… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

Sunday. We had cold fried chicken from home, very warm still. More air activity in p.m. Rumors say Bataan has not all been taken. We expect to go out to Red Cross swan song meeting in a.m.

April 19, 1942

Nagel, Ziegler, McPhail, Bowen, OBrien, Ziaga, Harris, Crosby, Ellett, and Bucey were made 2d Lts. A great many of the Airwarn Co. were made Sgts and Cpls.

19 Apr. ’42

Corporal cooled off this AM and is very courteous. Axe fell when Azura and Tanaka come at nine and said this place was to be closed and we were to be moved the twenty-fourth, but we could take all of our personal belongings. Refused to say where we were to go, but it would be… Read More »19 Apr. ’42

April 19, 1942

We had considerable amount of antiquated armament on the Rock and contrary to public opinion, we also had some very capable if not brilliant officers. An ordinance Captain attempted to fire 12 inch coast artillery mortars from Battery Geary in an anti-aircraft role. The attempt was unsuccessful because of the inherent characteristics of the guns… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

this day is as usual. We wake up early for physical checking and prepared for inspection. But the inspecting officer failed to come. We ate our little breakfast of rice alone about 9:00 a.m.

April 19, 1942

Armed robberies in band are increasing at an alarming rate, not only in the provinces where lootings followed by burnings and killings have become the order of the day since the defeat of the USAFFE, but even in the capital, where the Japanese-Filipino police are keeping watch and are punishing the culprits with an iron… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

Left Sen Fernando at 9 o’clock this morning, by train. On our way to Conception, Tarlac, where Camp O’Donnell was at. At all the stations, the Filipinos threw candy, rice, bananas, etc., into the box cars. I was lucky, and got some. We arrived at Tarlac at 1 o’clock and marched about 21/2 K. to… Read More »April 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

The Japs had always been camera-crazy, but here in camp they had gone completely shutter-happy. Every day was a field day for them, as officers, soldiers, and civilians snapped our pictures at every opportunity. They took our pictures at the chow lines, at the gates while we waited for our packages, and in the corridors… Read More »April 19, 1942

4-19-42*

Still have had no food brought in. Hating rice only is tantamount to starvation. Everyone is very hungry. We hope to be moved away from here sometime to avoid shelling from Corregidor. C. catches heavy bombing in addition to artillery. *erroneously dated “4-9” but corrected.

April 19, 1942

Four-page pictorial on this Sunday’s Tribune regarding the historic defeat of the Fil-American defenders of Bataan. In the front page is a candid shot of Lieut. Gen. Masaharu Homma, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces. Ironically, the background of the picture is Jose Rizal’s monument. On the lower portion of the page is a picture… Read More »April 19, 1942

Sun., Apr. 19, 1942

I am drunk today, as drunk as one can be and still be aware of the world about me. Beth and Clay need their faces washed and I don’t care. Sejio is already complaining at having to bring water so far for drinking and bathing, and anyway why do children’s dirty faces matter now? Two… Read More »Sun., Apr. 19, 1942

April 19, 1942

A four-motor Flying Fortress went over to the north, steady and beautiful, the first we have seen from this camp. Some of sourse saw red circles under the wings. There is always an argument but it was a thrill. A life like this could be interesting if the group had similar ideals and tried to… Read More »April 19, 1942

4/20/42 Day 134

The Japanese conquest of the Visayan Islands is virtually completed. Cebu and Panay are in the hands of the enemy although some guerrilla units continue to hold out in the mountain areas. Small garrisons now in the hills of Negros, Samar, Leyte and Bohol are all much too weak to Interfere with the Japanese plans.

The Chief of Staff (Marshall) to the Acting Secretary of State, April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

F.C.C. Capas, Tarlac Found a good friend, Toots Rivera. He is in charge of one of the kitchens. He gave me two “camotes.” It was a feast. We talked about the long walk from Bataan to this place. He estimates that about 18,000 perished in that bloody march. Someday I intend to write about it,… Read More »April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942 – Monday

I went out with Vice-President Osmeña to the center of the city. Left him there and went to the President’s house. At 10 a.m. I went to General Sutherland’s office. Discussed with him important matters. 11 a.m. Rushed to Chevron Hotel, Mr. Pick, President of the Victorian Tennis Association called on me. We drove to… Read More »April 20, 1942 – Monday

April 20, 1942

The Japs have left us fairly well alone today for some reason. We had an air raid alarm a couple of times but I don’t believe any bombs were dropped here, although some were dumped on Fort Hughes. The artillery has been quiet today also. Possibly our artillery did more damage to them than we… Read More »April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

Monday Ft. Hughes Today I did more work than in the past week – I toted stores up the hill – it’s exhausting work. I drove the men all afternoon with the feeling that we got pretty well squared away, at least in A Pit. Got myself shaved – my, my. Served the first meal… Read More »April 20, 1942

Mon. Apr. 20/42

Yesterday Cecil and I were at Misos for meeting. Right after lunch I went to find Leo. He was better but still weak and must stay six days in order to pass test for cholera. | returned in time for p.m. meeting. We heard today that five large Cities of Japan had been bombed. I… Read More »Mon. Apr. 20/42

April 20, 1942

No sigos of leaving yet. Patients are no longer permitted to leave. Quite a few think we are being kept here for a purpose, and will not leave until Corregidor surrenders. I don’t think so. Very little artillery activity. Rice and oats for breakfast, and rice and gravy for supper. How I am beginning to… Read More »April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

Reports of Tokyo bombing. Wolff and I went to Red Cross for meeting to prepare answers to Vargas letter regarding new Philippine Red Cross. We have no legal authority to transfer assets. Saw Falek, Gutierrez, and Mrs. L. [Lauritsen]. Back in camp at 12:30.

April 20, 1942

Capt Calvert and Lt Murphy are reported to have escaped from within the enemy lines and are now enroute north to join us. Thanks heavens they were neither captured nor killed. I could never look Rilla Calvert in the face again if I felt that I was even indirectly the cause of the Cpt’s death… Read More »April 20, 1942

Monday, April 20, 1942

MacArthur is getting rid of Quezon – apparently he no longer needs the President. Have had some difficulty answering MacArthur’s message due to absence of President (Hyde Park). He approves but wants Ickes and Welles to concur. The Generalissimo – Stilwell – A.V.G. – 10th Air Force question has been in somewhat of a mess.… Read More »Monday, April 20, 1942

20 Apr. ’42

Azuma and Tanaka called to see that all was ready to transfer the rest of the property and see If we had any questions. Got permission to take one refrigerator and some biologicals. They say they have 60,000 prisoners in Bataan, but Corregidor is still holding. No news where we are going, but It’s a… Read More »20 Apr. ’42

April 20 ,1942

We’re put into companies, and bedded dow in old bamboo barracks, full of lice and bugs. Fed sweet potatoes, and margerine, three times a day. Couldn’t eat mine. Saw the fellows from my outfit, that were left. Many more were dead. Had a couple of bad attacks of malaria. Last one, I went to the… Read More »April 20 ,1942

April 20, 1942

I was told a few days ago that some magazine in the States wanted an article of the nurses escape from Bataan; and that it would be sent out on a submarine. I have written my story. Now Miss Davison says that we should not sent out any information. I shall abide by her wishes… Read More »April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

Pura, my little nurse friend, was still permitted to come in and out of the camp. If there ever was a harbinger of good cheer, she was the number one of them all! She delivered messages to friends on the outside, and she shopped for us. But this morning when she lifted my net, I… Read More »April 20, 1942

Mon., Apr. 20, 1942

Motherhood is a strange phenomenon. Today I gave myself entirely to my children, responding to their every whim and wish. In the afternoon I gasped for breath after having chased Georgia Miss with them. Back in the house I let them ride my back, glanced in the mirror expecting to see my face aglow with… Read More »Mon., Apr. 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

Isobel is all upset over the rumor that the officers are considering moving us to Camp Holmes. Ray says they were talking it over and have been to inspect it and we might as well start packing. Nakamura told the garden workers to pick all the vegetables as we would be moving day after tomorrow… Read More »April 20, 1942

April 20, 1942

I did not sleep well last night. This day is very warm. I could’nt rest and was not able to have a nap at all. Ration 3 times a day of fist-like balls of rice and little salt only. This noon I help distribute our rice, so I got more. My section is detailed to… Read More »April 20, 1942

4/21/42 Day 135

The enemy bombardment of Corregidor continues. Supplies on the Island are now totally non-existent.

President Quezon sails for the U.S. from Australia on board the USS President Coolidge at 1:00 p.m.

April 21, 1942

Capas, Tarlac F.C. Camp Joined the grave-detail. We buried those that died this morning. Some of the graves yesterday were not dug deep enough. The bodies buried yesterday have been unearthed. The sand here is clayish because the cemetery is too near the river. One of the boys we buried had a little piece of… Read More »April 21, 1942

April 21, 1942

I have been hoping for rain in Bataan, but it remains clear there all the time. We had a little rain there about six weeks ago, but none since. I believe that rain will seriously hamper the activities of the Japs in Bataan, as the roads in the southern end will soon be impassable. Once… Read More »April 21, 1942

April 21, 1942

Tuesday Ft. Hughes This was a fairly quiet day. I stayed down at the foot of the hill on the Whittler’s beach for the first dive bombing attack and the first high level attack. That kept me down there until 1130 and made me dive in the foxhole about 3 times. The dive bombers dropped… Read More »April 21, 1942

April 21, 1942 – Tuesday

Got up early, finished packing, paid my hotel bill and rushed to house of the President. 9:30 a.m. returned to Hotel Chevron, to pick Vice President Osmeña and we drive to the dock. Boarded the President Coolidge. I was given cabin 207. The Vice-President 208. At 11:30 a.m. General MacArthur and his staff arrived to… Read More »April 21, 1942 – Tuesday

April 21, 1942

Rumors are that Germany is being heavily bombed and asking for truce, that Italy is asking for non-combat status. Russia declares war on Japan? Baguio evacuated? Fred Satterfield’s 43rd birthday. Jim Rockwell and Joe Thomas visited wives today. [They have been held at the Meralco plant. ]

April 21, 1942

Tues. Finished my work at BB and back to Lubuagan. Brought a dandy cook back with me to help out in the Mess. Sgt. Brazelton came down with me for overnight. First time out since three months ago.

21 Apr. ’42

Japanese hauling away final dregs of Canacao. We are about packed up for the twenty-fourth. Three meals today and will take ten days supply of food and drugs to last until the Japanese army gets us organised. We pass from the Navy jurisdiction after moving.

April 21, 1942

Very little activity today. Food the same, flies the same, everything the same. Would sure like some news, but I guess that is wanting too much when you are a prisoner of war. However, we are assured that all medical men are not prisoners and that we will recelve much better treatment and that the… Read More »April 21, 1942

April 21, 1942

U. S. Is No Match For JAPAN! “Japan is about to secure full contro] of the Indian Ocean and consequently will be able to meet her Axis partners at the Suez Canal as a result of the fall of Singapore and Java.” How dearly the Nishi-Nishi loved to crow! This time they stretched out too… Read More »April 21, 1942

April 17-21, 1942

When we heard the shelling on the outside usually directed at the batteries we would soon receive the casualties. Bombs dropping on the Malinta Hill above the tunnel sounded as though they might crash right through. Electricfan would stop & sometimes mirrors etc. would drop from the wall. Once a bomb dropped right in front… Read More »April 17-21, 1942

Tues., Apr. 21, 1942

Negrito women in camp to sell vegetables today, dressed in rags resembling American dresses, necks open to waist, revealing with unconcern large drooping breasts. In native dialect they told Miss Ganahan they would fight to protect Americanos if Japanese came to camp, if we treat Negritoes right. (By “right” they meant pay good price for… Read More »Tues., Apr. 21, 1942

4/22/42 Day 136

The attacks on Corregidor are now becoming round-the-clock events.

April 22, 1942

There is increasing evidence to indicate that the Japs are planning an attack on Corregidor or other fortified islands in the near future. In addition to motor boats and barges which they have assembled, they have raised several inter-island steamers and other tugs and have a fair sized fleet of power vessels of various kinds.… Read More »April 22, 1942

April 22, 1942

Arrived at Camp O’Donnell – There was a shortage of food, 800 to 2000 men were arriving daily – Disease was rampant and water was a luxury. We had to stand in line for hours to get a drink – I organized the “mess” and had to send 100 to 200 men to river to… Read More »April 22, 1942

April 22, 1942

Wednesday Ft. Hughes, P.I. Today they assigned me another job. I don’t know how long it will last but I feel that I’m contributing a little to the cause anyway. I am an observer-sort of like the Officer of the Deck of the Ship. My station is a little room with a spotting glass. To… Read More »April 22, 1942

April 22, 1942 – Wednesday

Nothing unusual . Trip rough but comfortably cold. The only inconvenience is the black out which is a real “black out” from sunset to sunrise.

April 22, 1942

Fred, George White and I joined on a cake for Room 26 for our birthdays (George is on 26th, 28 years) for tomorrow. Ordered some supplies from Roces fund. We expect Japanese will forcibly take over the Red Cross. Cash situation bad.

April 22, 1942

Radio announce somewhat ominously “Corregidor still holds.” Sounds somewhat dubious as it they expect soon to fall. Brazelton back to the Mts.

22 Apr. ’42

Packing continued for moving and Japanese hauling away remaining property. Finished reading “Queed” by Harrison. Quite good after many years.

April 22, 1942

No more coffee, but this doesn’t bother me too much. Cigarettes are getting very scarce, but I still have some, and anyway I don’t care even if I do run out. Oats continue wormy and buggy. Same food every day. I guess we should be thankful for that, but I still wish for more and… Read More »April 22, 1942

April 22, 1942

FASTER-THAN-SOUND PLANES IS AIM OF THE JAPANESE SCIENTISTS. The morning rag certainly loved to startle and impress us. Another one of my roommates was Jane, a civilian nurse who used to work with me at the Sternberg Army Hospital. Four months ago she nursed, swam, rode horseback, played tennis, and danced. Now she was exhausted… Read More »April 22, 1942

4-22-42

Last nite (Mess 4 & ward 14 shelled by 1550 from Corregidor. 5 pts killed 12 wounded. We all stay close to fox holes now as shrapnel rains all over the hospital most of the time. Almost too uneasy to go eat our rice. It is amazing that more people have not been killed.

April 22, 1942

Received information that there is plenty of camote in Pangasinan, particularly in the municipalities of Bautista and Gerona; mongo, in the municipalities of Bautista and Gerona; mongo, in the municipalities of Urdaneta, Villasis and Binalonan; corn is almost all municipalities. There is no outlet for these products at present because of the dislocation of transportation… Read More »April 22, 1942

4/23/42 Day 137

The bombardment of Corregidor continues. Elsewhere, the Japanese are now consolidating their positions.

April 23, 1942

I noticed some rain on Bataan this noon. I had gone outside to burn some papers [classified documents] and as I looked across to Bataan I could see it raining heavily near the top of Mt. Mariveles and less in the direction of the coast. The sun was shining along the coast. However, it is… Read More »April 23, 1942

April 23, 1942

Thursday Ft. Hughes, P.I. I can’t bitch about there being nothing going on because as long as that condition exists we’re all right. 18 Jap bombers flew over this afternoon and indulged in most unusual operations – circling, etc., and dropping only a few bombs. Also there were one or two dive bombers which set… Read More »April 23, 1942

April 23, 1942 – Thursday

At 11 a.m. the destroyer left us and an Australian Cruiser escorted us. Sea quite rough. Mrs. Quezon and daughters sea sick.

April 23, 1942

A cake day. Mrs. Falek sent three single layers to Sam and we received through Mrs. Wolff the P10 cake for Room 26, very good. Called on Frank Corliss, George Bissinger, and Barney Brooks in hospital. Curtis Brooks also there and J. [John] Aaron.

April 23, 1942

Chaplain Nagel and I went down to Pesao to spend the night in conference with Major Glitter. He had heard that Lt. Col. Warner had left Jones and wanted to go over to take over the cmd.

23 Apr. ’42

Azuma and Tanaka here saying part of us go tomorrow and the rest in a few days. Guess they want a party to get the place ready. Will send half of Medical Officers, fifty corpsmen, cooks and etc, making 72 in all. No word of where we are going but to be an independent unit… Read More »23 Apr. ’42

April 23, 1942

Slept well last night after 11:00 P.M. Up until that time we were under quite an artillery barrage from Corregidor. Shells landed in hospital. Five killed and fourteen wounded. Everybody, mainly patients, wanted to leave today but were not permitted.

April 23, 1942

Just as I gathered my frying-pan, dishes, and other utensils from under my bed in preparation for lunch, three American men entered the room, armed with a steel tape measure. As they measured the dimensions of the room and recorded them in a notebook, I became suspicious. “How do we stock up for space with… Read More »April 23, 1942

Thurs., Apr. 23, 1942

Letter by messenger from Mr. Woods that Japs are on Guimeras [Guimaras] Island scouring each inch for food for army. Japanese women are fighting along with men in Iloilo and some Jap soldiers are mere boys, evidently boys and their mothers shooting and killing, living like wild animals and as ferocious. Nauseating smell and taste… Read More »Thurs., Apr. 23, 1942

April 23, 1942

The trucks came soand fast that it took only five hours to move the 800. The Japanese wanted to move their soldiers right in as we left. At Camp John Hay the barbed wire was cut and we walked right out the front. When | stepped through to attend to my group, I did not… Read More »April 23, 1942

4/24/42 Day 138

The enemy bombardment of Corregidor continues, It Is accepted by all that it is now Just a matter of time before the garrison will be forced to surrender.

April 24, 1942

We have a gasoline tin cut down, with wabeen binding and handles around the top, to use for laundry and bath water. Enid announces at breakfast the rules about using water. No shower baths, only bucket baths. No laundry or baths at all for a day or two until we see how much water there… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

Made a guide on how to apply for rice ration for provinces short of supply. 1. Take an accurate census of your provinces. 2. Based on 300 grams milled rice (uncooked) per person per day, make an estimate of the needs of the provinces per day, per month and for the whole period of scarcity.… Read More »April 24, 1942

Fri., Apr. 24, 1942

Mr. Thompson came today with much news. Only two white families were caught in Iloilo, Mr. and Mrs. Kerr, with two small children, and Mr. and Mrs. McCreary, whose children are in the hills with other American and British families of Iloilo. Mr. Woods, according to Mr. Thompson, had heard that Col. H. B. Carlton… Read More »Fri., Apr. 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

The Commandant finally consented to a nine o’clock curfew. How happy and grateful we were to be able to stay in the front ground and plaza where the breeze was cool and the space was less congested than the high-walled patios! When the shrill police whistle signaled us to start moving toward the buildings, we… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

Nights are becoming moonlit as moon is about ½ full. Lovely evening, partly because flies cease to annoy us. No news of leaving. No news! Talk is all of food any more. Certainly rice and gravy becomes monotonous. Much artillery activity this afternoon, with much shrapnel. My prickly heat is very bad. Am doing a… Read More »April 24, 1942

24 Apr. ’42

Full AM of baggage inspection by Japanese Navy officers, also inspecting their rooms. Confiscated flash lights, binoculars, batteries, helmets and gas masks. Cigarettes were excluded In excess of 500 and 100 cigars. Departure of draft of 72 began at one PM. Officers allowed to take beds, but thick mattresses refused as they appeared better than… Read More »24 Apr. ’42

April 24, 1942

I’m on duty in the operating room and we are kept busy with the casualties from the bombing and shelling. We do not use linen but rubber sheets on the table. Since there is not adequate equipment or space here in the tunnel it is extremely difficult to have the essential linens laundered for operating;… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

Glitter and I had a lot to talk about as to future plan of operation. He went back to Bontoc and I came on here. Received a radio from Gen. Wainwright that Lt Col Warner had pulled out and had left for parts unknown. His departure was unauthorized. He was sent for by runner, but… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

Swish and Charles came in for the day. The Baileys had lunch with Fred and Co. in shantytown. Received a can of Granger from Roces fund. Sam got canvas fly. We hear new contingent of Japanese coming to our house and they will not allow Felipe and dogs to remain. Swish will tell Felipe to… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

Friday Ft. Hughes Today we took our most severe shelling to date. The Japs have apparently moved in about 9″ guns for the purpose of knocking our mortars out and they were pretty good. For 23 hours they dropped a 9″ shell in the near vicinity every 23 minutes. One landed in each pit and… Read More »April 24, 1942

April 24, 1942

I thought for a short time this afternoon that the Japs meant business. They started throwing metal at us at about three o’clock and kept it up for about three hours. I believe it was the heaviest concentration of artillery fire they have placed on the island thus far. It was also quite generally distributed… Read More »April 24, 1942

4/25/42 Day 139

The Japanese seem to have an unlimited supply of bombs and artillery shells as the bombardment of Corregidor goes on without any let-up.

Sat., Apr. 25, 1942

Mr. Woods came to camp today and named it “No Belly Ache.” Its real name is Binagsukan, or, The End of the Road. Sejio returned from trip to the Central. He left yesterday. He brought back new two-toned yellow and brown shoes in his hands. Also brought children’s tub, serving cabinet, and clay water jug.

April 9-25, 1942

There was no more news from Bataan Gen’l King who surrendered to the Japanese was not again heard from. Later at Sta Tomas we learned from Domei news reporter he & other generals & colonels were taken to Taiwan (Formosa). We were all sorry to have left our patients in Bataan but as it turned… Read More »April 9-25, 1942

April 25, 1942

Usual stuff. Nothing new. Very little activity. Have read “In Calico and Crinoline”, “When the Living Strive”, “Keys to the Kingdom”, “Oliver Wiswell”, “Mr. Glencannon”, “Poetry of Flight”, “Jamaica Inn”, “Berlin Diary”, “The Rains Came”, and probably some others. “Oliver Wiswell” is excellent.

25 Apr. ’42

No action today.. A Major called looking over electrical outlets and discussing his opinion of Americans for bombing hospital ships, etc. Lonesome without draft that left yesterday. Told to get ready all property we do not need before our transfer.

April 25, 1942

[Fay C. Bailey’s 45th Birthday]: A very nice B’day in STIC. Presents from Althea toilet supplies and Granger tobacco. Tobacco and matches from the Hamiltons. A jar of Fred’s jam. Cakes from many of the “boys”. Valles, Gutierrez, Ygoa, Romero, Candelita Carvajal. Felipe and Gregorio sent ice cream and cakes. Rumors persist regarding bombings in… Read More »April 25, 1942

April 25, 1942

Everyone seems rather optimistic over conditions. American planes have bombed Tokyo and several other cities in Japan.

April 24-25, 1942

At sea moving north east.

April 25, 1942

Saturday Ft. Hughes Boy, do I feel lousy this morning – all day in fact. I have one of the nastiest colds of my career. I took all sorts of medication but none of them seemed to do any good. My nose ran like a hose, I sweated, I felt lousy and devoid of pep… Read More »April 25, 1942

April 25, 1942

The days pass rather uneventfully, although it is rather stimulating to be caught outside when the Japs open up with their heavy artillery. I was outside today taking a sunbath when they opened up, and after two shells landed—one on each side of me—I decided it was time to get under cover. Tonight they dropped… Read More »April 25, 1942

4/26/42 Day 140

A Japanese detachment alls from Cebu for Mindanao. The enemy forces already on Mindanao are exerting pressure against the Digos defense force made up of the 101st Field Artillery Regiment (PA), less one battalion, and the 2nd Battalion of the 102nd Infantry (PA).

On Corregidor, General Wainwright receives a radio message from General Sir Wiliam George Sheddon Dobbie, the Governor of Malta. In it he says:

“The people of Malta send their warm greetings to the gallant defenders of Corregidor. They have watched with profound admiration the magnificent fight you have put up which has been a great inspiration to us all. You are giving untold assistance to the Allied cause. God grant you may soon reap the fruits of victory.”

Wainwright immediately replies:

“The officers and enlisted men on Corregidor deeply appreciate the sentiments expressed in your message. In our efforts to contribute to the common cause of freedom for which the Phillppine and American troops are now fighting, we are Inspired and encouraged by the historic stand which has been made by the gallant defenders of Malta. With God’s help, both our peoples shall soon join hands across the seas In celebrating the return of freedom to the democratic nations of the world.”

Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos is transferred by the Japanese from Cebu to Mindanao.

April 26, 1942

Violent quarrels have developed over space, often a matter of three inches only, but it rages back and forth. It takes just about six hours to call it home. The same people have strung up individual lights and other things just as they had at the Post. Thirty-six inches marked off; then two can sleep… Read More »April 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

The concentration camp in Capaz for Filipino and American war prisoners looks like a graveyard. Only there are no tombs and mausoleums and headstones. Instead, there are thousands of walking corpses, breathing skeletons, lying, sitting, crawling, shuffling aimlessly in a bare, treeless, sun-scorched, desert-like area. Capaz is the bivouac of the living dead. Everywhere suffering… Read More »April 26, 1942

Sun., Apr. 26, 1942

Curtains put up today. Two old scalloped blue bedspreads which, when split down middle, make curtains alreadyedged and hemmed at bottom. Also, with material from local bodega, made curtain to tie to cross beam of roof to cut off a part of bedroom for bathing. Cloth like heavy white canvas, filter cloth used in sugar… Read More »Sun., Apr. 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

The lovely strains of “Rock of Ages” floated into my room as I watched the Protestant services in the Father’s garden. To the right of the Father’s garden I watched the antics of an A. P. news correspondent with a wet sheet that he was trying to drape over the barbed wire fence. After several… Read More »April 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

A list of all walking patients to be prepared today. They are to leave tomorrow or the next day for some destination, walking, probably Manila. Maybe we are all going to get out. However, are setting up tents on the wards and getting ready for the rainy season. My, I hope we are out of… Read More »April 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

The occupation of Cebu and Panay progresses, and so does the retreat of the USAFFE troops to the mountains. Iloilo, as almost all other big towns, is for the most part devastated. Sugar is now being used as barricades, just as they had done in Cebu, and ships loaded with sugar are sunk at the… Read More »April 26, 1942

26 Apr. ’42

Busy piling food and other material in lobby Japanese came at ten Find began loading. Told us to keep ten days food, but we expect them sooner. Hard to know why we are left a few days after knowing or expecting to join therest at Pasay. This is a quiet war sector these days. Here… Read More »26 Apr. ’42

April 26, 1942

We borrowed Fred’s charcoal stove and skillet for bacon and eggs but Falek sent in roast beef and vegetables, also fruit. Althea fell on the bathroom steps. [Hon. Jorge B.] Vargas says that the Red Cross must meet and act to transfer assets to the new Philippine Red Cross. Not legal.

April 26, 1942

Sunday again. Mr. Nagel preached a fine sermon this morning. Quite a few people present including many Americans. Had a dandy dinner. The new cook is worth his weight in gold.

April 26, 1942 – Sunday

Attended Sunday Mass at 7:45 a.m. Very rough. Mrs. Quezon and the girls did not attend. At 11 a.m. The U.S.N. Cruiser Richmond arrived to escort us. The Australian Cruiser returned to Sydney. The Richmond is much bigger and has two planes on board. Being on the Date line, Sunday is repeated.

April 26, 1942

Sunday Ft. Hughes The Jeeps gave us an almost reverent Sunday. The high flyers came over during the morning and dropped a few strings on us. Luckily only 3 men had minor injuries. We shelled no one and no one shelled us although we got all set once and they called the whole thing off.… Read More »April 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

I left with a detail of 150 men for Bataan – Went to Bogac and worked there for a few weeks – I returned to O’Donnell on the 20th of May with Malaria fever – on this detail we had to send back twice and exchange 75 men each time because so many were sick and… Read More »April 26, 1942

April 26, 1942

The clouds are beginning to bank up each afternoon in the south, which is an indication of the approach of the rainy season. However, there has been no rain worthy of note in Bataan thus far. The shells which dropped at the west entrance of the tunnel last night made everyone a little nervous about… Read More »April 26, 1942

4/27/42 Day 141

The bombardment of Corregidor continues.

April 27, 1942

Nothing of consequence has transpired today. We were bombed a few times by heavy bombers, but no damage of any consequence resulted. We don’t mind the bombers, as compared with the artillery. They are easier to dodge, and do less damage, for they aren’t accurate due to altitude at which they are forced to fly.… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

Monday Ft. Hughes Boy, ain’t that something, The 20th week completed and here we are with no news and no improvement. By way of celebration we had a “test alert” at 0500 this morning. It is the first full scale “General Quarters” that Ft. Hughes has had since the war started. That is incredible, isn’t… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

Word received that the enemy is pushing north over, Belete Pass enroute into the Cagayan Valley. Hope he stays there.

April 27, 1942

Went to Red Cross meeting at headquarters via Escolta. Ran into Annette Marsh and Anne Lee. Got cloth for Althea at Pellicer’s [Dry Goods]—P9 charged. Back from meeting at 1:30 to bacon and eggs. Red Cross proclamation issued in the morning paper making the American Red Cross Philippine Branch illegal. At [ARC] meeting it was… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

List of walking patients amounts to 783. Leaves just a little over 400. However, they did not leave today. No news. Same food. Flies seem some better. Moon and evenings are cool and beautiful. Days are hot, but not as hot as it would be in Manila. Moderate amount of artillery fire.

April 27, 1942

The military authorities refuse to give out any information regarding the names and fate of the prisoners, most of whom are concentrated at Camp O’Donnell in Tarlac. Likewise, there is meager news about the prisoners of Bataan. Many families are getting desperate about the whereabouts of their relatives, if they are not yet dead, that… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

Our men were building large dining sheds made of wood, and soon they would be completed for the dreaded rainy season. There was an air of finality and permanence about those large dining sheds which made us uneasy. There was something permanent about everything. One hundred and fifty more civilians were expected from Bataan, and… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

The old ways of eating malagkit rice are again in vogue with the scarcity of wheat flour. There is the puto, a neat mound of boiled rice, served with sugar and grated coconut. Other popular variations: champurado, bibingka, ampaw, palitaw, maja blanca and suman. A Philippine Red Cross unit has been formed by the Executive… Read More »April 27, 1942

April 27, 1942

There is rebellion in camp though it may die. After we had clear soup and cold corm mush, many of us saw the In Group in their alley eating plates full of rhubarb. Grandma has a budding night-blooming cereus. Ted brought a wood stove which has been installed outdoors for all the women to do… Read More »April 27, 1942

4/28/42 Day 142

On Mindanao, the Japanese are particularly aggressive against the Digos defense force.

The air and artillery assault of Corregidor goes on.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt pays tribute to Bataan.

Filipino leaders call on General Masaharu Homma.

Message of Lieutenant-General Masaharu Honma on the observance of the birthday anniversary of His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, April 28, 1942

Congratulatory Message of Jorge B. Vargas when he and the members of the Commission paid an official call on His Excellency, Lieutenant-General Masaharu Honma, April 28, 1942

April 28, 1942

If the Japs are going to take Corregidor as a birthday present for the Emperor, tonight is their best chance, as tomorrow is the 29th. I don’t believe they will try it, as this place is too strong at the present stage of the game. It will require a great deal more “softening” before it… Read More »April 28, 1942

April 28, 1942

Tuesday Ft. Hughes Nothing much doing today. The Jeep dive bombers dropped a few on the east end of the fort and in the evening we fired a few rounds from our mortars. This should have been a quiet day – I understand it is the Japanese day of rest along with the 8th and… Read More »April 28, 1942

April 28, 1942

The Japs at km 102 Mt. Trail attacked out force at Mt. Data. Still holding. Big victory parade in Manila. Japs promised to immediately occupy all of Luzon. That is probably why they are attacking at Mt. Data.

April 28, 1942

The Tribune said this a.m. that the American Red Cross voted yesterday to turn over to new Philippine Red Cross all assets etc. Reported that Hitler has fled to Spain? Italy asking for separate peace? Marie Willimont took off her Red Cross veil. Marabut new treasurer, Alejandro Roces, chairman.

April 28, 1942

Much artillery fire today. Rumor that Corregidor shot down two planes. Some shrapnel in hospital. Patients still have not left. Everybody disappointed. Killed a young caribou [carabao] so had caribou [carabao] gravy and 3-4 pieces of meat. A smell caribow [carabao] divided among 1700 people doesn’t go very far.

April 28, 1942

The Nishi-Nishi was most informative and educational. For the last few days it was filled with instructions on how to make the Rising Sun flag. The people in the citv were informed that the authorities would not interfere with the Nipponese soldier whose enthusiasm might be carried away by too much sake and beer, and… Read More »April 28, 1942

April 28, 1942

Contrary to rumors, there was no military parade to celebrate the Emperor’s birthday. Nor was there any display of military power. In fact, as a matter of Japanese tradition, the Emperor’s name was not officially mentioned. The rumors, however, were well-founded. As a matter of fact, a member of the Committee on Festivities told me… Read More »April 28, 1942

April 27-28, 1942

At sea. It is quite warm as we are now near the Fiji and Samoa Islands and approaching the equator. The sea is calmer.

Tues., Apr. 28, 1942

A whole pig cooked over charcoal here at camp, was delicious. Pig raised off ground in a floored pen. Each household paid one peso, as pig cost eight pesos.

April 28, 1942

According to the Tribune, the Department of Agriculture and Commerce is forming the necessary organization with which to carry out the out the plan to increase and stabilize rice production. The different steps to be taken in this respect, according to information, will be embodied in an Executive Order to be issued by Chairman Jorge… Read More »April 28, 1942

4/29/42 Day 143

On Mindanao, the Japanese begin an offensive to clear the Island. A force of 4,852 men from Cebu lands on the west coast at Cotabato and Parang and takes both towns despite opposition from the 2nd Battalion of the 104th Infantry Regiment, 101st Division (PA), at Cotabato and the 2nd Infantry Regiment of the 1st Division (PA) at Parang. The 3rd Battalion, 102nd Infantry Regiment, is unable to prevent elements of the Parang force from establishing contact with the Cotabato force. An enemy detachment, already on Mindanao, having been relieved at Davao, turns northwest toward the Sayre Highway, which extends from Kabacan on the south to Bugo on the north. The east assault forces both have strong alt support.

Just after dark, two Navy PBY’s fly into Corregidor from Australia by way of Lake Lanao in Mindanao. Fifty men and women (including 30 nurses) are evacuated.

The Japanese pre-invasion air and artillery bombardment of Corregidor becomes intense.

Press statement of Jorge B. Vargas on the birthday anniversary His imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, April 29, 1942

Message of Jorge B. Vargas on the birthday anniversary of His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, April 29, 1942

Message of Jorge B. Vargas to the health of His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, April 29, 1942

Response of Major-General Yoshihide Hayashi, Director-General of the Japanese Military- Administration, to the toast proposed by Jorge B. Vargas, Chairman of the Executive Commission, on the occasion of the birthday anniversary of His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Japan, April 29, 1942

After-dinner speech of Jorge B. Vargas, Chairman of the Executive Commission, given by His Excellency, Lieutenant-General Masahan Honma, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces in the Philippines, April 29, 1942

Speech of Lieutenant-General Masaharu Honma, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces in the Philippines, April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

The Japs certainly celebrated the Emperor’s birthday in fitting form today. They began at 7:30 this morning, starting with the bombing attack. Then they turned their artillery loose also, and for four or five hours they rained shells and bombs on this island. It was hard to form an estimate of the number of projectiles… Read More »April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

Wednesday Ft. Hughes The Jeeps held reveille for us on this the Emperor’s birthday. Was aroused at 0730 by the shaking and commotion consequent to a dive bombing attack. And they continued thereafter hot and heavy, – shelling, dive bombing, high level bombing. At 0900 we sent them back 9 – 12″ shells, the accuracy… Read More »April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

This is the Emperor’s birthday. Our outpost at Mt. Data has been forced back to Mabay Gate, km 114. Major Heinrich lost his personal files at the Lodge. So the Japs probably know all about our organization and plans. Too bad but still think a lot of him. Just hard luck. Word received that the… Read More »April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

Japanese Emperor’s birthday (41st). We did not have Gregorio come from the house as he had no [Japanese] flag. We had bacon and egg lunch with fruit. No rolls or milk in coffee line today. Many planes flying high. Germany having riots? Celebration very quiet—no parade.

April 29, 1942

Twenty nurses left on two sea planes tonight. They probably will go to Australia. I’m glad that I”m not going for I’ll probably see Bill soon; it is obvious that Corregidor can’t hold out without help. We have had gas masks drill. The idea of the “Nips” using gas petrifies me.

April 29, 1942

This morning Corregidor sure took and gave Hell. By far the worst artillery duel so far. Shrapnel was falling like hail around the Receiving Ward. Believe me, we all kept in our covered fox holes or screened by bamboo thickets. Meals the same. No news of anybody leaving.

April 29, 1942

This is the Emperor’s birthday. Our outpost at Mt. Data has been forced back to Mabay Gate, km 114. Major Heinrich lost his personal files at the Lodge. So the Japs probably know all about our organization and plans. Too bad but still think a lot of him. Just hard luck. Word received that the… Read More »April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

We were not permitted to forget the Emperor’s birthday! The pictorial section of the Nishi-Nishi showed victorious soldiers shouting as they dramatically planted the Rising Sun flag on a high ridge in Bataan. When we gazed at pictures of our captured USAFFE forces, the ache in our hearts was almost more than we could bear.… Read More »April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942 – Wednesday

7:30 a.m. We were advised by Captain Nelson, commander of the President Coolidge that a plane had been catapulted from the Richmond to locate the St. Louis a bigger U.S.N. Cruiser which was to meet us. At 10 a.m. the St. Louis was on sight. Alarm was sounded, the soldiers rushed to their respective guns,… Read More »April 29, 1942 – Wednesday

Wed., Apr. 29, 1942

To the river for a cold bath and a hair wash. Sitting on rock, in red bathing suit, drying hair, when Jap plane flew low overhead. Rushing water had prevented my hearing it sooner. Ducked into water, then laughed at my own action. Returned to house to have old Filipino woman, wife of one of… Read More »Wed., Apr. 29, 1942

[Illegible] April 29, 1942

Upon returning to Lagao [illegible] Assistant Overseer [illegible] who [illegible] a telephone conversation with [illegible] that Japanese [illegible] at Camp Luna [illegible] I immediately left for [illegible] Overseer Vargas [illegible] with Captain Olivares, who is in charge of the farms of Lanao district. The Captain showed me the [illegible] between General Fort and Colonel Duque… Read More »[Illegible] April 29, 1942

April 29, 1942

Emperor’s birthday. All houses were required to display the Japanese flag. Gen. Homma, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Army, declared that Japan has succeeded in driving out the power of the United States and Britain in the Orient. Chairman Vargas expressed his gratitude “for the many acts of benevolence of the Imperial forces.” In Camp O’Donnell,… Read More »April 29, 1942

29 Apr. 1942

Japanese Emperor’s birthday. Party by Capt. Tzuneyosi, Camp Comdt.

April 29, 1942

—heavy artillery barrage on Rock on April 29th—26,000 rounds—took shelter in OP—over everything blown up—how no one got hurt, thank God, 24 240 mm and dozens of smaller shell holes within 25 feet of pits—Jacks starts to run. “Take another step and I will shoot you, you s.o.b.” (Would I really have shot him, I… Read More »April 29, 1942

4/30/42 Day 144

On Mindanao, the Japanese move from Cotabato east toward the Sayre Highway by way of Route 1 and the Mindanao River and reach Piket, about eight miles from thelr objective. The Philippine forces from Cotabato move north and guard aIl the trails leading north from Route 1. The Parang detachment of Japanese, having left a holding force there and moved northwest during the night of 29-30 April by boat, lands south of Malabang and at dawn attacks the 61st Infantry (PA), which is In position along the Mataling River, forcing it to withdraw four miles north. The action in east Mindanao is limited and indecisive,

The air and artillery bombardment continues without let-up.

Friday April 3, 1942

117 days “Good Friday” It is and Tojo is taking advantago of It. One bombing with our breakfast and the shelling started soon after. We are huddled together In a trench under a large tree. We’ve had another bombing in the near vicinity and the shells whistle past regularly. Some close ones make us pull… Read More »Friday April 3, 1942

April 30, 1942

In the valley near us are fine bananas. papaya, pineapples, calamansits (limes)—and we do not need to buy even native coffee in town for it is near us—but the Japanese won’t let us buy out here. It must come from the market where they can tax, put the squeeze on the stalls as well as… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Submitted to Mrs. Escoda the following list embodying the urgent needs of war prisoners in accordance with wishes expressed by officers and men now in Capaz. I. FOOD A. Organization: N.F.W.C., Girl’s Scouts, etc. B. Necessary items: 1, rice; 2. mongo; 3. salt; 4. sugar, panocha; 5. camote, cassava, gabi; 6. lime, calamansi; 7. galletas,… Read More »April 30, 1942

Thurs., Apr. 30, 1942

The things Mr. Woods thinks of First we had a supply of kerosene tins waiting for us for holding water. A few dayslater larger covered garbage cans (new) were delivered to each house to replace these. And today mud scrapers were attached to both our front and back steps in preparation for the rainy season… Read More »Thurs., Apr. 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Our troops at Mabaay Gate still holding. Tagudin force now reported at Cervantes. The bridge here is out so they will have to build feery, but that is easy. The Japs are the best carpenters and road builders in the world. The public officials at Bontoc are evacuating to Lubuagan. Guess it won’t be long… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Considerable artillery fire, but nothing like yesterday. Got some shrapnel. Put Jap tags on the busses. Hope that means we may be leaving, but there is no official news. Played bridge with Bahrenberg, Jackson, and Dorsett. Jackson and I were partners most of the time, and did we hold lousy cards. Full moon is beautiful.… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Hosp. # 1 Bataan, P.I. April 30 12:05 AM. Warned to be ready to leave hospital for PW Camp at any time — left at about 12:15 Am. Rode in truck to Balanga arrived at 4 AM Slept — had fine big serving of Rice at breakfast and noon Japanese are being very liberal and… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

For the last couple of days, aerial attacks on Corrregidor have persisted intensely. An escapee from Bataan said that they are suffering from incessant bombings by hundreds of planes coming from all directions. Bataan has a length of some 70 kilometers while Corregidor is an island of two or three kilometers in width. Therefore, they… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942 – Thursday

At sea.

27-30 Apr. ’42

Just waiting, no word on moving as any move will be bad. Finished “Walking the Whirlwind” by Bridget Knight and “This Above All” by Eric Knight. Yesterday was the Emperor’s birthday, and all Manila including the calesas were decorated with the Japanese flag. Sailed from San Francisco eight months ago today.

April, 1942— 95th to 124th Day

Shortage of salt — Bataan falls — Easter celebrated — More Chinese arrive — The tobacco crisis — We are transferred to Camp Holmes — Getting settled. The warm days and cool nights at Baguio s mile-high elevation brought colds and bronchial troubles to many, which, in some cases, developed into pneumonia although, happily, there… Read More »April, 1942— 95th to 124th Day

April 30, 1942

Swish came in regarding Mr. Harris, did not stay for lunch. Still no official action by the “new Red Cross”. Reportsfrom the north are that the war prisoners are being badly treated. Forty to fifty thousand Filipinos and seven to eight thousand Americans [captured]—50/60 dying daily. No help from the Red Cross being permitted by… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Our troops at Mabaay Gate still holding. Tagudin force now reported at Cervantes. The bridge here is out so they will have to build ferry, but that is easy. The Japs are the best carpenters and road builders in the world. The public officials at Bontoc are evacuating to Luagan. Guess it won’t be long… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

Thursday Ft. Hughes The Jap dive bombers didn’t hold revielle but they did the next thing to it——-they interrupted breakfast. They were 15 minutes late today and did some damage. About 0900 the big boys came over and dropped a stick which crossed the pits. While they put out the lights and broke some communication… Read More »April 30, 1942

April 30, 1942

One more month’s pay to my credit with the government. I hope they are paying the allotment regularly to Dorothy. It doesn’t seem possible that I’ve been here over four months, and yet a great deal has happened in that time. This island has changed radically. When I arrived all the buildings were intact and… Read More »April 30, 1942