In commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of World War II in the Philippines, we have compiled the diary entries for May, 1942, the fifth month of the war, along with other interesting material, in the hope that this will help interested readers to get a sense of the of that conflict.
Each date contains the relevant entries as well as materials culled from different sources of information:
- Battling Bastards. A Diary-Type Account of the First Days of World War II in the Philippines, by J.G. Doll (The Merriam Press, 1989), which provides the American military perspective on events. These entries are in italics. These provide a fair summary of the American point of view.
- The World War II Timeline prepared by the Official Gazette; these entries are in bold. these give an indication of the Filipino point of view.
- Various documents and photographs from the Quezon Family Collection.
- War and resistance in the Philippines, 1942–1944, by James Kelly Morningstar (Naval Institute Press, 2021). This is in underlined bold.
May 1942: “Do not cry, Pepito. Show these people that you are brave. It is an honor to die for one’s country. Not everybody has that chance.”
5/1/42 Day 145
On Mindanao, the Japanese force driving north along Route 1 gains control of that highway as far north as Lake Lanao and virtually ellminates the 61st Infantry (PA). Other forces continue east unopposed toward the Sayre Highway at Kabacan.
The fighting in east Mindanao continues to be indecisive.
Japanese planes and artillery begin their final phase of the pre-invasion bombardment of Corregidor.
The Japs are really beginning to get rough since the 29th, and it appears that they have settled down in earnest to pounding this island until it is a total wreck. The heavy artillery bombardment and bombing attacks were continued today. We were almost continuously under air raid alarms during the day, and it was… Read More »May 1, 1942
Friday Ft. Hughes I learned upon my arrival at breakfast, that the Captain and I had received orders during the night detaching him and directing me to assume command. They are undoubtedly the most unique orders in the history of the Navy. I have been ordered to command a sinking ship. We had neither bomb… Read More »May 1, 1942
Still very hot. Tempers are getting shorter. In Althea’s room great discussions regarding space. Reading detective stories also—The Sun is My Undoing and Mildred Pierce. We have less to do with the outside Red Cross so work is slack.
Conditions have improved & little, Mainly due to our own efforts, the food has been improved by the issue of a little wheat flour. Some native beans and a small issue of cocoanut oil, about once every 10 days, 3 or 4 small calves are brought in. Our strength is about 8000 – 9000 with… Read More »May 1st 1942
Today was very productive of rumors. There is a hospital ship in Mariveles harbor. Pure nonsense! Germany’s spring offensive has failed and Japan will have to pull out of here by July 1 (came from Jap officer to American, thru about six people, and then to me). Also, pure nonsense! All walking patients and all… Read More »May 1, 1942
Many of the young belles of the camp wore hibiscus leis and flowers in their hair to celebrate May Day. My two Spanish and Dutch roommates, with their fresh, dark beauty, looked enchanting with the scarlet blooms in their black hair. It was the last day of school for the camp kids. To show their… Read More »May 1, 1942
This is a heck of a May Day. Last night we learned that a large Japanese force was moving east from Lagangilang toward Balbaang, probably got there yesterday. This is only about 36 miles from here. With one half of Co A, 43rd Inf (PS) at Nanning and one half at Balbalan we will probably… Read More »May 1st, 1942
Listened to the Voice of Freedom. At the end of the newscast, the announcer said: “Corregidor still stands.” I wonder why he said “still stands.” Does he foresee an eventual inability to stand? Does he know that in the course of the Japanese attack Corregidor will someday fall? “Corregidor still stands” brought tears to my… Read More »May 1, 1942
The Japanese have kept us in the Hosp Area with their Artillery all around us and bombarded Corregidor and of course a great many shells came over from Corregidor. It is actually a living hell with nothing but musty and moldy rice to eat. We have moved all supplies from Depot Area to the Hospital… Read More »May 1, 1942
Taken by truck to San Fernando & there stripped of razor, small knife, silver pencil, flash light, cigarette case, Compass, etc whistle & letters from Helen. Had plenty of rice, opened the can of tomato soup — Spent the night & at 8:30 had rice & misua to a train for ride to Capaz. Marched… Read More »May 1, 1942
5/2/42 Day 146
On Mindanao, the 73rd Infantry (PA), reinforced with stragglers of the defeated 61st Infantry (PA), attempts to stall the enemy advancing north along Route 1, Unable to hold at the southwest corner of Lake Lanao, the 73rd withdraws north and establishes a line from Lake Lanao across Route 1, and delays the enemy very briefly.
The Japanese detachment from Cotabato continues east toward Kabacan. Brigadier General Joseph P. Vachon, commanding general of the Cotabato-Davao defense sector places all available forces at Kabacan. The Digos defense force, now ordered to withdraw to Kabacan, starts Its movement during the night of 2-3 May. The Cagayan defense sector is alerted as an enemy convoy, heading toward Macajalar Bay, is sighted.
Chief Justice Abad Santos is executed by the Japanese at Malabang, Lanao.
We have taken a terrific beating most of the day today. We had many heavy bombing attacks—how many I don’t know yet, and part of the time they were rocking this tunnel. They hit all around us. The Jap artillery was also very active and delivered a heavy volume of shell fire most of the… Read More »May 2, 1942
Saturday Ft. Hughes The captain left us again today and I assumed the command of the ship. Or did I? Fact of the matter is that the ship sank at 0730 this morning. That’s probably the shortest command in naval history. My ship sinks the day I take command. Actually the sinking didn’t make me… Read More »May 2, 1942
Japanese having successes in Burma. American planes and men reported in Australia in large numbers. No confirmation of situation in Germany, but heavy bomb attacks continue. The Commandant and MPs seem to be having difficulties and passes are hard to get.
A day of no rumors. Still do not know when we are going to leave. If it is not soon most are going to be unable to make the trip, for everyone is beginning to get weak. A diet with no protein is not to be recommended for anyone. A few have already developed malnutritional… Read More »May 2, 1942
Battery Geary sustained a direct hit and was blown up. One of the gun barrels weighing fifty tons was lifted 100 feet and drifted laterally about 200 feet to the middle of the golf course Topside. Of one hundred men only seven survived. The shock could be felt at my battery which is half way… Read More »May 2, 1942
No more bread was to be served in the line. This spelled hardship and hunger for those who had no money to buy the bread from the camp vendors.
Like the man who brought the cat home by the tall we’ve had a great many experiences that will never become dim or remote. For many days at the Hospital we recuperated thru rest. Chow was meagre but good in quality. We supplemented with coffee and bacon furnished by the Japanese. The guards were firm… Read More »May 2, 1942
Supervising Overseer Larrabaster arrived later in the morning and I have him instructions on the handling of the affairs of the Norala district. I advised him to take measures to precent possible Moro lawlessness within the district. I told him to get in touch with all the Moro Datus around the district and warn the… Read More »Saturday, May 2, 1942
Getting rattled a bit. Three meals of rice –1st with sugar, second with squash, 3rd with comotes– plenty to eat but we need proteins & vitamins, quite a bit of sickness in camp — Diahhrea, Dysentery, Malaria etc & little medecine of any sort. Back still very painful.
Must call Goyo Anonas. I was told his son is with Philip in Capas. Told Lolita to inform Mrs. Jose Meily that her son Joe was seen alive on the day of surrender in Mt. Mariveles. My cousin Nena Lopez-Rizal is very worried. There is no news of her son Andring. Mrs. Gruet met Lolita… Read More »May 2, 1942
My sewing machine was brought in tied to a long bamboo pole carried by two men. Machine and men covered with dust. Several new and expensive electric machines were at the Central. No good here. This treadle machine was given me by a family moving to the States two years ago. Little sale yalue then… Read More »Sat., May 2, 1942
5/3/42 Day 147
At 0100 hours, the Japanese amphibious force from Panay goes ashore on Mindanao at Cagayan and at the mouth of the Tagoloan River in Macajalar Bay, and presses south along the Sayre Highway. Troops of the Cagayan defense sector (the Philippine Army’s 102nd Division, formed from the 61st and 81st Field Artillery and the 103rd Infantry) oppose the landing but are unable to halt the enemy. In a desperate effort to hold the Sayre Highway, reserves (consisting of a 2.95-inch gun detachment and the Philippine 62nd and 93rd Infantry Regiments) are committed, but these, too, fall back under the pressure of the Japanese attack. During the night of 3-4 May, General Sharp orders a withdrawal. Meanwhile, other Japanese forces gain control of the foad to the north shore, routing the 73rd Infantry, which withdraws into the hills north of Lake Lanao. Still other enemy forces arrive at Kabacan after the Digos force has made good its escape, but are halted there.
The pre-invasion bombardment of Corregidor continues without let-up.
Late in the day, General Wainwright sends General MacArthur a mestage in which he says: “Situation here is fast becoming desperate. With artillery that outreaches anything we have except two guns, the enemy keeps up a terrific bombardment as well as aerial bombing.”
At 1945 hours, the submarine SPEARFISH evacuates the last group of people to leave Corregidor. These 25 people are now on thelr way to Australia.
The last B-17 flight from Australia arrives at the Del Monte Plantation on Mindanao. Finding the alrfield already occupied by the Japanese, the pilot turns around and heads back to Australla–etll carrying the load of rations on board.
Civilian evacuees from Bataan report that the Japanese are hastily building large bamboo stairs to scale the cliffs of Corregidor. Barges are also being constructed rapidly, probably for landing operations. Artillery has also been emplaced on strategic points of Mt. Mariveles overlooking the surrounded fortress. No news as to when Filipino war prisoners will be… Read More »May 3, 1942
Eating good portions of rice and at times camotes or squash is not a bad diet. We need protiens to build up our strength and unless we get some soon I fear for what little strength we have left. Our camp is located in a flat country with no shade except the shacks. The sun… Read More »Sunday May 3, 1942
Still at Hosp # 2 Not much more to eat than plain rice with occasional brown gravy. Carabao twice during this period. One can of salmon, 1 can corn beef given to me by one of the Japanese guards in exchange for small trinkets and cigt. lighter, old $1.00 pocket watch, 25¢ automatic pencil. Still… Read More »April 15-May 3rd, 1942
Shocking and horrible stories were being repeated in the camp about the suffering of our captured forces. Forced marches without adequate food and water! Atrocities and brutality! I saw several of the smuggled notes that had been written to wives by the captured men. Their stories were all the same. Hunger! Brutality! Death! For quite… Read More »May 3, 1942
Sunday — went to church with Dixon — went to see Col G in the afternoon. Tex Hill Dixon, Miles & I had the last of my Chesterfields & then we had ½ a duck egg — my first protein in a long time. Times of stress sure bring friends close together.
Another hot day mixed with dust, flies, weariness, and falling shrapnel. Artillery duel started at about 8:00 A.M. and went on till noon. Shrapnel like hail in lower part of hospital, especially around Receiving Office. We kept toour fox holes, Food unchanged, except we tried vinegar on our rice. I didn’t like it and it… Read More »May 3, 1942
Father Provincial offered me a seat in the car bound for Baguio to transport supplies. This trip which we used to make in four hours now took us nine, aside from the four days of preparation and securing of permits. What delayed us most were the stops and inspections at the police outposts. They examined—without… Read More »Baguio, May 3, 1942
A submarine left tonight taking twelve nurses. One of my best friends left on it; she will write to my family, also to Bill’s sister.
Last night was particularly hot. Gregorio sent in a nice chicken curry and cornbread. Swish sent real butter. Still no news from the new Red Cross. Our Red Cross cash is getting low. Rumorists build a good one regarding H. and 24 hours.
I just finished making out our reports. Have six blanks to fill out. I am getting a little bit fed up on so much red tape. Leo got along all right in the hospital and came home on Thursday, the 6th day of his stay there. He was very weak and still feels the effect… Read More »Sun. May 3/42
Sunday Ft. Hughes Up early this morning for the 4-8 watch. Saw the sun come up, looked around and then dropped down to the lower level where “the powers” seem to think we are safer although the observation positions themselves are far inferior. This is all an offshot of yesterday’s bombing which apparently threw a… Read More »May 3, 1942
We are still taking a beating from the Jap artillery. Bombers came over several times today and dropped their loads, but the real military damage is done by the artillery on Bataan. The Japs are just as accurate with their artillery as they are with their bombs, and they seem able to place their fire… Read More »May 3, 1942
5/4/42 Day 148
The Philippine units complete thelr withdrawal to a new defense line on Mindanao and begin organizing it in anticipation of Japanese attacks, The 102nd Division (PA), now reorganized to include the 2.95-Inch gun detachment, the 62nd Infantry, the 81st Fleld Artillery, and two Philippine Scout companies of the 43rd Infantry, is stationed in the Dalirig sector and the 61st Field Artillery and the 93rd Infantry are in the Puntlan sector. The 103rd Infantry, isolated from the rest of the force, is to defend the Cagayan River valley. Japanese planes are active all over the Islands, but the front is otherwise quiet.
The level of the Japanese pre-invasion alr and artillery bombardment of Corregidor reaches the peak of intensity.
As a result of a request received from Washington, General Wainwright sends General Marshall his last estimate of the situation.
Heavy trees being felled on mountain side to build another bodega for camp. First bodega built already full of unshelled rice, unrefined sugar, unrefined salt—which is very necessary in tropics where people lose body salt in perspiration. These are all products of this island, Negros. Flour, milk, and other imported products are not available. All… Read More »Mon., May 4, 1942
Chaplain Wilcox desk outside civilian lateral. Playing 500 Punimy with Helen Hennessy, Catherine Nan. Conrado, little Filipino boy from Mariveles Miss Nan’s charge. Walking to main tunnel to QMC Col. Elms to Finance office.Sitting outside under camouflage before things got too bad. Then standing with crowd just inside entrance for fresh air. Crowd quickly getting… Read More »April 26-May 4, 1942
Mr. Fukada thinks I should organize a group to visit wounded Japanese soldiers in the various Army hospitals in the city. He said: “If you help Japanese soldiers, the High Command may permit you to also help Filipino soldiers.” Told this to my wife. She will refer the matter to Mrs. Vargas. Mr. Isagii, assistant… Read More »May 4, 1942
Upon arriving in the poblacion of Banga, from Barrio 7 where I went to inform the evacuees about our experience on the road, I found Mr. Morrow already there and he told me that his was the car we saw. This chagrined but relieved me a great deal. Mr. Morrow made a verbal report of… Read More »Monday, May 4, 1942
Yesterday the assigment was to patrol the water hole. The pumps can’t supply enough water for all purposes and most of the cooking is done with water from the river. Our job is to see that the Filipinos move in and out orderly and do not drink the water without boiling It. They Insist on… Read More »Monday May 4, 1942
Catesy was promoted from his garbage detail! He now helped at the front gate by handing out packages brought to internees from the outside. For just a moment today he saw and talked to Catalino as he brought our package. Catalino remarked about Catesy’s thinness, and he didn’t think we were getting enough to eat.… Read More »May 4, 1942
Gave Col G. half of my soap & half (2) of my cigarettes. Hill sent a cigar for me I gave the Sp Troops gang 1 Vita-Kap each. Next issue May 7.
Terrific bombardment of Corregidor last night for about two intervals of 15 minutes. No return fire. Very heavy bombardment again this A.M. with Corregidor replying and much shrapnel all over hospital, especially R.N. Considerable fire right now. Rained hard this A.M. Everybody and everything got wet. Just a hint as to what the rainy season… Read More »May 4, 1942
I have started gathering information from actual witnesses about the changes and developments which have taken place in this summer capital since the beginning of the war. The people of Baguio first came to know about the war when the Japanese planes dropped bombs over this city in the early morning of December 8. When… Read More »Baguio, May 4, 1942
No action regarding our move with no one calling. Will have to ask for food soon as they hauled all away except for ten days supply. Not once have they ever asked us how our food was holding out or if we needed anything.It’s been all out and nothing in so far. Good thing we… Read More »1-4 May ’42
Helped clean the room. Hot. Had some of Tim Knight’s coconut ice cream and George Koster’s cake. Our rolls from Gregorio had a little cornmeal in them. Supplies are getting scarce. Japanese say no American planes—no more blackouts .
Monday Ft. Hughes In spite of my late bath last night just before turning in, I was hot and stinky when I got up this morning. If I had roused myself a little sooner I could have attended Mass which was being said in our mess space. It did me good just to hear such… Read More »May 4, 1942
Another day of heavy bombing and shelling. The Japs really poured on the artillery today, and bombed us fourteen times. They also fired on boats in the south harbor and hit a couple of them. At the present rate we will soon be out of boats. We are rapidly losing them. The artillery continues to… Read More »May 4, 1942
5/5/42 Day 149
On Mindanao, the Philippine troops continue to organize the defence line.
At 2230 hours, the order goes out to prepare for a possible attack landing on Corregidor. Finally, at 2315 hours, after a full day of intense air and artillery bombardment, the Japanese start thelr invasion of Corregidor, landing at North Polnt. The Beach Defense force inflicts heavy losses on the invading troops. (Later, captured Japanese reports show that of the original 2,000-man assault force, only 800 actually reached the shore.)
Japanese from Bataan make amphibious landing on Corregidor.
The intense enemy activity of the week preceding the fateful night of May 5, 1942, presaged a “Big push” at an early date, and the moon was right for a night attempt, being on the wane-and rising about 3:00 pm. So when the enemy artillery preparations for the attack began about 8300 pm,’ that night,… Read More »May 5, 1942
Venison again today for camp. All eat the same thing the same day due to jealousy. Each houseboy was going into hills to bargain with Negritoes. Some houseboys were more successful in bringing back supplies than others, so due to complaints this practice stopped. Now boys who find anything for sale must report it to… Read More »Tues., May 5, 1942
We listened to the happy and gay music of Gilbert and Sullivan recordings in the plaza. Usually, their music and rollicking lyrics cheered me, but tonight the music aggravated my depression and loneliness. Yes, I was lonely, though Catesy sat beside me. Tonight he was far too low in spirits himself to cheer me with… Read More »May 5, 1942
A Jap battery on Bataan fired all afternoon. I finally got a fire mission and was able to reply with fifty rounds during the early evening. One of my men was killed during the encounter, Pfc. Cavo. Enemy fire stopped about 6 PM. I was later told in prison camp that the Nip battery had… Read More »May 5, 1942
— Rumors too numerous to record — All false but one is wild enough — to merit writing down. Some driver reported that Manila papers say an exchange is under way & that the Japanese internees are already on their way to the Coast to boats!! Whether the deal includes us or not is an… Read More »May 5, 1942
Corregidor did most of the firing last night. No shrapnel in hospital area so I stayed in bed. Looked like rain again this A.M., but didn’t. Same food today. Many are beginning to develop malnutritional edema. Everybody complains of weakness. Much artillery fire today with lots of shrapnel. Corregidor did more firing than for several… Read More »May 5, 1942
This summer the city is deceptive. Its external appearance has remained the same. The streets are always wide and clear, and its buildings—almost all of them newly constructed—are free from the devastation of war. But it is a dead city. The soul and life that animated it before are sadly missing. Most of the stores,… Read More »Baguio, May 5, 1942
BOLERO is supposed to have the approval of the President and Prime Minister. But the struggle to get everyone behind it, and to keep the highest authority from weakening it by making additional commitments of air – ships — troops– elsewhere is never ending. The actual fact is that. not one man in twenty in… Read More »Tuesday, May 5, 1942
Hot nights—prickly heat. New Red Cross board has Alejandro Roces, Vicente Madrigal, Camus, Jacinto, Sison, Paez, Luz and Aguinaldo with Madrigal (not Marabut) as treasurer. T.V.T.[Tribune, La Vanguardia, Taliba] says 30,000 American troops surrounded in Mindanao. Anniversary on the 6th.
It looks as though the Japs intend to keep pounding away at us until they have pulverized all the defense weapons and installations and will have little trouble in taking Corregidor. It is amazing to me that they are able to keep up their ammunition supply. They are throwing over thousands of rounds each day,… Read More »May 5, 1942
5/6/42 Day 150
On Mindanao, the Japanese resume their attack, moving into Tankulan and pushing on toward Dalirig, which is brought under heavy fire.
At 0400 hours, with the Japanese troops now on Corregidor approaching Denver Hill, asmall rise that girdles the island between North Point and Malinta Tunnel, General Wainwright receives a message from President Roosevelt.
The Japanese continue thelr landings on Corregidor. General Wainwright decides to surrender the island and has the code words EXECUTE PONTIAC broadcast to all subordinate commanders throughout the islands to inform them of his intention.
Promptly at 1030 hours, Brigadier General Lewis C. Beebe goes on the alr and broadcasts [an offer of surrender] message over the facilities of the “Voice of Freedom” radio station on Corregidor.
At 1100 hours, General Wainwright sends his final messages, one to President Roosevelt and one to General MacArthur.
At 1200 hours, General Wainwright orders Colonel Paul D. Bunker of the 59th Coast Artillery, to raise the white flag over Corregidor.
The Japanese land additional troops and advance to the entrance of Malinta Tunnel. The garrison of 11,000 surrenders.
War and Resistance in the Philippines, 1942–1944
At 2345 hours on 6 May 1942 a white flag flew over the headquarters on Corregidor. Five minutes later, over the Philippines broadcasting network from Manila, Wainwright instructed all U.S. commanders in the islands to lay down their arms.
General Wainwright makes decision to surrender at noon. Conference with Homma at 5 PM at Cabcaben. Homma refuses to accept Wainwright’s surrender unless it includes all forces in the Philippines. Wainwright is forced to return to Corregidor and to surrender all forces in the Philippines.
Corregidor unconditionally surrenders to the Japanese forces. The island fortress of Corregidor, called “The Rock,” falls to the Japanese thus, ending formal resistance in the country against the Japanese.
No peace nor order in Pangasinan. Rosales in turmoil. Two hundred men entered the municipal building armed with revolvers and rifles. They threatened the municipal treasurer with death: “Open the safe or we will kill you!” The treasurer decided that life was better part of valor. He gave them the key. Rumors that the NARIC… Read More »May 6, 1942
Corregidor capitulated tday & were we relieved. Purely personal but is doubtful if a more prolonged resistance would be warranted. Ed. Wern. & I have buddied up o things since capit. & have cooked a little rice at noon each day which is some-what more palatable. Cigarettes (camels in cans) which was very kindly left… Read More »5-6-42*
As the night wore on the machine gun fire slacked off, and after 1:50 pm only an occassional bursts was heard. The battery turned in to get what little sleep was possible. Most of the men slept fittfully in their foxholes, fearing to sleep above ground because of the danger of a sudden artillery barrage… Read More »May 6, 1942
Visitors at camp today. A patrol of eight Filipino armed soldiers just “looking around” and refusing to tell from whence they came or where they were headed, spent an hour chatting with Filipinos in camp and finding some were from provinces on the other islands. Said they left their headquarters early this morning and had… Read More »Wed., May 6, 1942
Manila Occupacion de Enero 2 1942Rendicion Bataan Abril 9 “Singapore Feb. 15HongKon Dec. 25, 41Java Feb. 24Wake Dec. 23, 41′Tarakan Jan. 11Belikpapau ” 25Ambon Jan. 31Makassar Feb. 10Monemar Jan. 31Corregidor May 6
The attack came last night at 11:15. The artillery began to pound us heavily again and the Japs landed at North Point, on the tail of the island. For a time it seemed that we might hold them, but by daylight it was apparent that they had landed in too great force to be ejected… Read More »May 6, 1942
We moved from Topside to Middleside and spent four hours in Middleside Tunnel. At daylight we moved to Malinta Tunnel. Bob Glassburn’s battery was ahead of me and it sustained five or six casualties just before daylight. Corregidor surrendered at noon. We were still in the Tunnel.
— Many versions of the “exchange” are floating around. We pay little attention but they are good to listen to despite the part that there isn’t any logic in the whole thing. The Rumor has now reached its peak — 30,000 on the way out here & we are to be out by May 23!!!!… Read More »May 6, 1942
I was surprised when I heard this afternoon that Corregidor had fallen. The news came from Radio San Francisco. All our hopes for an early recapture are waning. According to the War Department in Washington, General Wainwright is negotiating the surrender with the Japanese High Command. Radio London announced this morning that the Japanese forces… Read More »Baguio, May 6, 1942
Heavy artillery fire all last night, but none from Corregidor. Early in A.M. there was much machine gun fire. Then this A.M. there was no firing of any kind. We were told that Corregidor had surrendered and that only Ft. Hughes and Drum were holding out. During the day there were many planes flying over… Read More »May 6, 1942
Early in the morning I instructed Overseer Laurel to send Assistant Overseer Cariaga to Banga via the trail which the Moros claim to be better than the one which was taken by Assistant Overseer Datu when he made the trip to Lamian. I told Overseer Laurel to send Cariaga either Thursday or Friday and instruct… Read More »Wednesday, May 6, 1942
The fall of Corregidor. Was due to go out when they told Captain Shank about the fall of the Rock.
This morning I attended a committee meeting on “Landing Craft™ at which were discussed questions on which I begged the answers last February: Who is responsible for building landing craft?What types are they building? Are they suitable for cross channel work? Will the number of each type be sufficient? etc? How in hell can we… Read More »Wednesday, May 6, 1942
Today I went out in the main tunnel just before the surrender; it was packed with dirty, hungry and exhausted men. Some asked for water; some for food; and the pity of it is that very little is to be had. Some of them were swearing; some were staring into space. I tried not to… Read More »May 6, 1942
Corregidor has fallen and our flag is hauled down in the Philippines, We feel or at least hope that we will be treated better now that the hostilities are over here. Strong rumor that we are to be moved. The dope is out that the Gen. and Col. are to be moved to Tarlac, As… Read More »May 6th 1942
At camp permitted to go inside the line & talk to the folks. Everybody well. They are better off there than the ones on the outside. No worries over meeting expenses, having nothing to do, etc. Much cooler there than in the city. We need rain very badly. Will make some doughnuts, & take them… Read More »Wednesday, May 6, 1942
Meeting called by Don Alejandro today at headquarters. Earl Carroll, T.J. Wolff, and myself left camp at 8:30. At meeting Alejandro Roces presided—80% of funds for Internees balance for general relief and administration. Had drinks at J.A. [Jai Alai] and shopped at E.D.S. [Ermita Drug Store]. Lunch and R & C at MCD [?]. Reports… Read More »May 6, 1942
Wednesday Ft. Hughes As the day commenced we were throwing 12″ shells toward Manila Bay & Bataan. We remained on the alert until 2 a.m. and then they told us the crisis was over and that the Corregidor troops were mopping up the few who had landed. At 0530 we were called again and resumed… Read More »May 6, 1942
5/7/42 Day 151
The Japanese remove General Wainwright from Corregidor to Manila and force him to broadcast the terms of surrender to all the American and Filipino forces still holding out throughout the Philippines. He does this from Radio Station KZRH.
On Mindanao, the Japanese break off all ground action but continue to employ alr and artillery bombardments.
I was sick all last night and most of today. However, I am better this evening. I was to have gone down to Mindanao in a Japanese plane today to insure that Sharp surrendered, but was too sick to go. Instead, Gen. W. sent Traywick and Pilet. They were given a letter to Sharp instructing… Read More »May 7, 1942
Fall of Corregidor—More reports regarding Corregidor fall. Food and supplies committee at T.J. Wolff’s office started operating. Cullens resigned. News from outside good regarding Europe and other points. Rumors no doubt. Avocados now very good—40 cents a kilogram.
Stayed at home, baked rolls, made doughnuts & santol preserves, roasted peanuts, etc., for camp tomorrow. Went to the boulevard for the sunset & fresh air. Came back & called on Mrs. Elmer. Heard officers from Corregidor were here in conference.
Corregidor falls. My feelings to a new low. We are informed today that we move to Pasay on the 9th except the eight tubercular patients who stay here a week with Dr. Silliphant, Pfeiffer, two cooks and three corpsmen and after the patients go to a civilian hospital the rest of the personnel will join… Read More »7 May ’42
Many planes again, all flying low. A few artillery shots. Corregidor pretty definitely has surrendered. Seems like probably some one of the forts is holding out. Rumors from the Japanese say that the Medical Detachment took up arms and fought to the last man on Corregidor. They also make signs that they cut many throats… Read More »May 7, 1942
After breakfast I left for Norala where I held a meeting with the settlers of the poblacion. The Overseer, Assistant Overseer and the Barrio Lieutenants were also present. I apprised them of the war conditions in the Philippines. Some inquired as to whether the Japanese would be able to conquer all the Phil-American forces in… Read More »Thursday, May 7, 1942
When the commanding general of the Fil-American forces surrendered, he ordered his subordinate generals in the Visayas and Mindanao to lay down their arms. Guarded by Japanese gendarmes, and probably prodded by them, General Wainwright read a radio message filled with pathetic sadness. With tears, listeners accepted the General’s announcement that the war had ended… Read More »Baguio, May 7, 1942
— Will begin a log of rumors in order to amuse myself. Cooler last 2 days. Gen. Brougher inspected Casual Area this morning. Back still very uncomfortable — great loss of sleep from trying to sleep on the floor.
No other topic interested us. Had Corregidor fallen? On my way to get breakfast I stopped when I saw five men grouped around another man who was holding the morning paper. They stared in a dazed manner at the headline. I looked over their shoulders and saw what we had dreaded and feared the last… Read More »May 7, 1942
Why don’t we fire on the long streams of trucks and men going up the roads behind Mariveles? Why? Why? Why?—Bataan has fallen-boats coming around from tip of Cochina firing at them—God they must be soldiers trying to escape from Bataan to the Rock—No identification of them—We can’t take any chances—boat landing at Mona—three soldiers… Read More »April 9-May 7, 1942
Corregidor finally surrendered today. The surrender was supposed to take place yesterday, but due to some misunderstanding, they kept fighting until today. The hospital was in a bad position during the seige of Corregidor. Many shells and pieces of shrapnel from Corregidor’s guns landed in hospital, killing several and wounding many others. Our food during… Read More »May 7th 1942
Corregidor has fallen! America’s last stronghold in the P.I. Islands has had to surrender due to exhaustion of food and ammunition supplies and a complete blockade by Jap forces. In the same news brought in, in typed form from KGEI broadcast taken down in shorthand by Central office stenographer, was a lengthy report of increased… Read More »Thurs., May 7, 1942
Thursday Ft. Hughes As the day started we learned that there were Japanese landing boats off our eastern point. They fired 1 pounders to see if we would resist and then came on in to a landing. At 1 a.m. they were in the “wardroom”, While the officers negotiated the men took what watches they… Read More »May 7, 1942
5/8/42 Day 152
General Wainwright dispatches messages to all Key officers in the Philippines, urging them to surrender thelr forces. Colonel Jesse T. Traywick is sent to General Sharp’s headquarters on Mindanao. Colonel Nicoll F. Galbraith is sent to the headquarters of Colonel John P. Horan in northern Luzon, and Lieutenant Colonel! Theodore Kalabuka is sent in search of Colonel Guillermo Nakar, also someplace in northern Luzon.
On Mindanao, the Japanese renew their attack during the evening.
The defeated 62nd Infantry is pursued toward Dalirig.
Elsewhere: During the period of 4-8 May, the historic naval battle of the Coral Sea takes place with the United States as the decided winner. The Japanese advance in the Pacific is halted!
War and Resistance in the Philippines, 1942–1944
Brigadier General Christie obeyed Wainwright’s orders to surrender the Americans of his 61st Division (Philippine Army), but he granted his Filipino soldiers permission to leave.
I had not yet gotten up when an interpreter came and said that I was wanted for questioning. I dressed at once and went with the Jap soldier. Col. Cottrell went also and I also took Col. Sledge. We waited for quite a while at the barrio market building before we were questioned. We were… Read More »May 8, 1942
T:V.T. headline—Corregidor falls. Gen. Wainwright surrenders all American and Filipino troops in the islands. Much conjecturing as to fate of internees. Are we to be sent to Tokyo, Formosa, South Africa, Portugal, Australia, Wake?
To camp. Mr. Hobbs got permission for Eliz. to come under the ropes & talk to me. Slipped & went down the steps. Didn’t bother me much until I got home from camp, then discovered hip bruises & a bad ankle so I guess it’s “Stay at home” for me for a few days. So… Read More »Friday May 8, 1942
Inspection of all baggage by the Japanese Warrant Officers who could not speak English. Concentrated on all of my golf balls, tees and golf sticks. Those of others not taken except clubs.
Early in the morning I conferred with Assistant to the Manager Tiongson and Overseer Ybiernas of Banga about the surrender of Gen. Wainwright, and the conditions under which the surrender was accepted by the Commander in chief of the Japanese Army, as broadcasted by KZRH. We agreed that inasmuch as the matter of complete occupation… Read More »Friday, May 8, 1942
“Went over the hump” today as this ends the first day of my second year in the P.I. No way to celebrate it, and as far as that goes I can see very little to celebrate under the present circumstances. Rumor today that Germany has surrendered to Russia. This is too fantastic to even believe.… Read More »May 8, 1942
At sea. Our ship and the cruiser are zigzagging continuously. The temperature is much cooler.
The Religious Branch of the Japanese army last night gave a banquet at the Pines Hotel in honor of the ecclesiastical officials of the city. About thirty of us attended, including Msgr. Taguchi of Osaka, and Col. Naruwasa, Chief of the Religious Section. General Nagasaki, new commander of the region, was also invited as a… Read More »Baguio, May 8, 1942
— Arrived Manila one year ago today. Wiley, Ed & I here out of 5. Rumors good but nothing confirmed — Back very mean in rain.
Corregidor Fars. Despite the morning headline, people still refused to believe. But when on the next page of the Nishi-Nishi they saw a picture of General Wainwright broadcasting from KZRH studio and ordering the USAFFE forces to surrender in the Philippines—then they realized it was true. Like robots, we went about our work. The rich… Read More »May 8, 1942
At sea — DAMORTIS (Evening). Last night, I heard of the fall of CORREGIDOR and felt encouraged. Were scheduled to enter LINGAYEN Harbor in tie morning, but about noon, anchored off LINGAYEN. Moved slowly and then stopped off LINGAYEN Harbor. Some six transport ships from JAPAN were at anchor. When the group of interpreters bound… Read More »8 May 1942
The evening of May 5 we were all told to get dressed, that the Japanese were already on the island. All army nurses slept in one lateral that night while civilian women in another. Our gas masks beside us. Nothing happened in tunnel however. The next morning May 6 bombing & shelling continued. I was… Read More »May 5-8, 1942
Friday Ft. Hughes They got us up at daylight — but there was no breakfast. The working parties started out early. Our worst need is still water and it’s making the men almost wild. There are 732 of our men and 42 of our officers here. We had a casual inspection of our gear during… Read More »May 8, 1942
Heard Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright’s voice over KZRH. It was a lonely voice—the voice of defeat. He ordered all USAFFE forces to lay down their arms. He agreed to an unconditional surrender to save the lives of the soldiers in Corregidor. At times, the General’s voice faltered. He had to clear his throat and several… Read More »May 8, 1942
5/9/42 Day 153
General Sharp receives a message from General MacArthur in which he says: “Orders emanating from General Wainwright have no validity. If possible separate your force into small elements and initiate guerrilla operations. You, of course, have full authority to make any decision that immediate emergency may demand.”
On Mindanao, the Japanese take Dalirig and rout the defenders. Although the forces defending the Puntian sector are still intact, their position is now untenable and the Mindanao campaign te virtually over.
General Sharp sends his final message to General MacArthur in Australia saying: “North front in full retreat. Enemy coming through right flank. Nothing further can be done. May sign off any time now.”
President Quezon arrived at San Francisco Harbor at 7:00 a.m.
Nothing noteworthy has happened today. We are all confined to lateral #10 and a guard is at the entrance. Last night they brought over a bunch of naval officers and stated that they also were to remain in lateral #10. Since there were only 13 bunks in the main room, and they were all occupied,… Read More »May 9, 1942
Tired. Lonely. Defeat makes one weary. It saps the strength. Good news gives vigor. Sad news depresses. And when there is nothing you can do, when you are helpless, the situation becomes worse. Corregidor has fallen. What can any of us do? Shall we continue waiting? It is torture to wait when one is anxious.… Read More »May 9, 1942
Several naval units came into the Bay. Japanese fly “War is over” banners. Gen. Homma enters the city in triumph. Gregorio sends in stuffed green peppers for lunch. Heavy bombs continue in Germany.
Ankle worse. Mrs. Bosch giving me treatments. Beaty here. Baking rolls for camp. So disgusted I have to lie around. Miss Polley called. Thinks we have been betrayed. So unlike War. Quiet. not very busy streets. Practically no cars. Carromatas, & bicycles & pedestrians. Once in a while, Jap airplanes over-head. War trucks or a… Read More »Saturday May 9, 1942
Moved to Pasay Elementary School, known as the Japanese Accommodating Place. Over three hundred present with one hundred sick with Malaria, Dengue and Beri Beri. Quite a skid from Scholastica with open kitchen, two toilets and one shower. Corpsmen doing the cooking over pits In the ground. Same food three times per day, namely soup… Read More »9 May ’42
In the afternoon I received a note from Supervising Overseer Larrabaster in Norala reporting that the Moro datus of Danzuli, north of Norala was holding meeting with the datus of Daguma, Tacurong, and other Moro communities around Buluan for the purpose of banding together with the aim of driving all the Christian Filipino homeseekers and… Read More »Saturday, May 9, 1942
The days still drag on but aside from poor food and boredom, not too unpleasantly. The flies are still bad, but me are missing all the hot weather in Manila. This is a break, for the rainy season will come soon after our return, if not before. The evenings are delightful and the nights monderful… Read More »May 9, 1942
Arrived San Francisco Harbor 7 a.m. Colonel Stillinger U.S. Army and a commander were sent by the War and Navy Departments, to be the Military and Naval aides of President Quezon. Courtesies of the post having been extended to us we landed at 9 a.m. Lieutenant General De Witt, a Brigadier General and an Admiral… Read More »May 9, 1942 – Saturday
Breakfast cut & no sugar. Lunch good, dinner weak on rice — broth good. Heard that W.O. Anderson is dying. Gave Col. G. the watch he gave ME.
At 9:40, we caught a three-coach gasoline train in front of DAMORTIS Station, bound for MANILA. All the other passengers were soldiers. On the way, five or six local people, bound for MANILA, got on. Each coach was like a streetcar. At each station along the way, we were bothered by people selling fruit, drinks,… Read More »9 May 1940
Saturday Ft. Hughes We’re still in the Old Barracks. We had a few bad moments during the morning when it was announced that 150 cans of prunes had disappeared during the night. All who owned up were not touched. Those who did not admit it and were later found to have some were smacked around… Read More »May 9, 1942
5/10/42 Day 154
At dawn, Colonel Traywick meets General Sharp at his headquarters at Malaybalay on the Sayre Highway and convinces him to surrender his force. At 1915 hours, General Sharp announces his decision to General MacArthur. In his message he says: “I have seen Wainwright’s staff officer and have withdrawn my order releasing commanders on other islands and directed complete surrender. Dire necessity alone has prompted thie action.”
General Sharp directs the Visayan-Mindanao Force to surrender. These, as well as small units holding out on Luzon and Palawan, are reluctant to yield but do so gradually during the period from 11 May to 6 June.
Major General William F. Sharp Jr., commander of the Visayan-Mindanao forces, surrenders to the Japanese in Malaybalay, Bukidnon.
President Quezon announces the forthcoming establishment of the Government-in-Exile. President Quezon boards a special train to Washington at 10:00 p.m.
Last night, Radio San Francisco announced the arrival of President Quezon in that city. And to prove the veracity of such assertion, it also announced that the dead Quezon who was “killed” by Radio Tokyo was going on the air. True enough, Quezon spoke over Radio San Francisco. His voice and energetic diction were unmistakeable.… Read More »Baguio, May 10, 1942
We were taken down to the barrio market again today for questioning— seventeen of us on the USFIP staff. This time the questioning was done by a younger officer—probably a member of the G-2 section. I was taken first and questioned at some length about the strength of troops on Mindanao and the Visayan. Also… Read More »May 10, 1942
We were saddened to hear the news that a woman whom many of us knew had committed suicide on the outside. At the hospital we had a young woman who made her third attempt to take her life. She failed again. The Japanese Navy was in! A large number of Japanese naval officers made a… Read More »May 10, 1942
Listened to Radio Tokyo. Heard that the Japanese forces operating in Burma have occupied Myitkina, northeastern terminus of the Burma railway. I wonder if the Burmese are wholeheartedly cooperating with the Japanese. The Coral Sea naval battle seems to have taken quite a heavy toll of ships from the U.S. Navy. The Japanese claim the… Read More »May 10, 1942
Seems that I do quite a bit of writing in this on Sunday evenings. The reason is that I get out my typewriter to make out the church reports, and so I continue with my diary. Last week the Japanese made an all-out attack on Corregidor. With no aerial defense, the big guns were put… Read More »Sun. May10/42
A month ago today we surrendered Bataan on your Wedding aniversary Today has been cloudy with a breeze coming from the east, it is hot & sultry though the thunderheads are hanging over the mountains on practically every side as they do everyday & I can hear thunder every now & then, Last night after… Read More »May 10, 1942
After the meeting Bilaan Datu Saluk arrived and I talked to him about our plans of defense against the Moro aggressors. I advised him on patrol work and light signals. I also ordered from him as many bows and arrows and spears as he could have made for us. He promised full cooperation with us… Read More »Sunday, May 10, 1942
Mother’s Day! Doesn’t seem like Sunday or any other day special. News today that we start evacuating bed patients to Little Baguio tomorrow A.M. — Next A.M. all walking patients start for Manila. Then all medical detachment and chaplains go to Little Baguio; and I guess there me sit for the duration. No other news… Read More »May 10, 1942
— On detail at Stotsenburg — Didn’t get to buy a thing due to misconduct of soldiers beyond my control. Returned to Camp at 6 — General and Colonels left in Am. Rumors thick & fat on my return. None sound possible. W.O. Anderson died — 32 others.
By communicating with ths Line of Communications Office, got a passenger ticket to go by train tomorrow to the force to which I am attached in BAGUIO, as well as lodging and meal tickets. After lunch, went by horse carriage to the house of Mr. (TN Blank), a lawyer and former member of the PHILIPPINE… Read More »10 May 1942
On May 9 Japanese put note in Japanese writing on curtain of nurses lateral evidently saying to “keep out” but still Japanese would came in and at night also would look around. So on May 10 another note went up. This was more effectual. Japanese soldiers would sometimes give cans of peaches to Filipino nurses.… Read More »May 9-10, 1942
Kept busy shopping. Visited Mr. & Mrs. Toni Bayot at their house. Drove with the Broadlents to Berkeley. At 10 p.m. Left San Francisco for Washington on a special train.
Removed to Prison Camp at Tarlac with general officers & colonels. Separated from Cothran & Tisdelle.
I learned today that even if Gen. Jonathan Wainwright attempted to surrender only Corregidor and the surrounding Fortresses at Caballo, Carabao and El Fraile Island, (Forts Mills, Frank, Drum & James) he was forced by victorious Gen. Masaharu Homma to surrender USFIP all over the Phil. Accordingly, the hapless vanquished commander issued surrender orders to key USFIP Commanders… Read More »May 10,1942
5/11/42 Day 155
Sharp received word from MacArthur: “Orders emanating from General WAINWRIGHT have no validity. If possible separate your forces into small elements and initiate guerrilla operations.” …Then Wainwright reported that Homma threatened the prisoners on Luzon if all U.S. forces in the Philippines did not surrender. Sharp radioed MacArthur that he would follow Wainwright’s instructions. His decision to surrender, Keats wrote, “was so complete and sudden that civilians and army remnants were stunned and demoralized.”…Many men refused to follow Sharp in surrender.
The morning paper had this to say about Corregidor: LUXURIOUS BEYOND WORDS. In the editorial section entitled “Corned Beef and Corregidor,” the Japan Times commented on the American excuse that the fall of Corregidor undoubtedly was caused by lack of food. The correspondent who explored the Rock after its capture described the underground stronghold in… Read More »May 11, 1942
Well, I just lost $120 in 15 games of solitare. Got up rather early this morning as the floor seemed quite hard, and my boil needed to be opened as it was hurting like the dickens. It must be around 10:Ali now maybe later. Tom is on his cot resting and Bill on his A… Read More »May 11, 1942
Busy all morning keeping sick call going and getting things evacuated and ready to be evacuated. Rode up on bus to Little Baguio with load of patients and equipment. What a scene of ravage and desolation along the road. Skeletons, stinking to hell, strung along. Guns destroyed, crater holes everywhere, cars and trucks in all… Read More »May 11, 1942
Since Manila is the only place enjoying the media of press and correspondence, our only source of information in this wide and mountainous habitat is the radio. There is a heated contest of broadcasts between the warring radio stations as to whether the defense of Bataan and Corregidor by the USAFFE forces had been heroic… Read More »Baguio, May 11, 1942
— Back raising H — Very warm today — Expect river detail tomorrow — Wiley doesn’t look too well. In fact he looks pretty ill.
5/12/42 Day 156
What a day! For today I evacuated to Little Baguio. Rode up on a bus with Major Berry. Got everything belonging to me brought along. Also everything in the R.W. so I can continue to hold sick call. We will be a separate detachment, camping in the bodegos [bodegas], belonging to the Ordnance. They are… Read More »May 12, 1942
One of our bird-brain internees was found stretched out in his shanty in a drunken stupor. From hoarded leftover cracked wheat saved from breakfast, he had made a highly potent brew. When aroused by internee guards, he became loud and abusive. After being subdued, he was led to his room, and the following day his… Read More »May 12, 1942
Mr. Ueno, Japanese supervisor in Pangasinan was killed. The following is a report I received from Tranquilino Tongson, Provincial Inspector of Pangasinan. “At half past 12, on May 10th, Mr. Ballesteros and Mr. Villanueva arrived from Tarlac to inspect our station. They left between 2 to 3 o’clock. After their inspection, Mr. Ueno, Mr. Villasanta,… Read More »May 12, 1942
As I was leaving for Banga, Supervising Overseer Larrabaster showed me the defense plans which he had drawn for the Poblacion of Norala in case of an actual Moro attack. The plan was made in consultation with the leaders of the evacuees, and I think that if they carry out the trench work and barbed… Read More »Tuesday, May 12, 1942
No change; Wiley much better — he must get back to his wife & Baby. I am so sorry for young married couples!! — Almost happy I am single!!
The old guards let the garbage detail go on a shopping spree before they departed, knowing full well that the new guards will be tough for awhile. In our better moments, they liked us and we liked them when not under pressure from above. The gold-tooth boy, the huge fellow with big teeth in an… Read More »May 12, 1942
Has been fairly pleasant since fall of Corregidor at least we don’t have to worry about being shelled. Still have nothing to eat but mouldy red rice. Bed patients moved to hospital 1 at Little Baguio. *erroneously written as “5-12-43” in original; corrected here
5/13/42 Day 157
President Quezon arrives at Washington, D.C. and is received by the U.S. President Roosevelt at Union Station.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets the Pacific War Council and afterwards welcomes President Manuel L. Quezon and family to the White House. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt invites President Manuel Quezon over a luncheon at the White House to discuss the situation in the Philippines and the Pacific.
DAMORTIS — BAGUIO. Clear. Had breakfast at a nearby ration issuing place. While I was lying down, a message came from the Line of Communication Headquarters that there was a truck going to BAGUIO, and to come to the Line of Communications Headquarters by 1300 hours. Therefore, immediately after finishing lunch, went there. There were… Read More »13 May 1942
CORREGIDOR April 8-May 6, 1942* [*Entry dated to May 13 to include information in the entry] Bataan had been in many ways a fortunate tour of duty for us. We had the invaluable experience of our own command and we had been the only Marines so far to fight Japanese and we had fought their… Read More »April 8-May 13, 1942*
Left on truck driving detail today. Before I left, I won 475 pesos and a 15 jewel Hamilton wrist watch. All I had left, when we left on detail, was 65 pesos, a $20 bill, and the watch. At 1 o’clock in the afternoon, we left O’Donnell on trucks. There were 68 of us in… Read More »May 13, 1942
Moved by marching from General Hospital # 2 area to LITTLE BAGUIO into Ordinance Bodega area. Assigned to # 14 with rest of majors. Everything was done to make us comfortable; we had showers, work benches, etc. Found lots of purico and flour. Pancakes quite often during this period. Carabao oftener than normal. Appointed Provost… Read More »May 13th, 1942
Water detail in the afternoon. No rumors. No doubt we are here for the duration. Out of 7000 Americans our daily death rate is about 50. This worries all of us.
4 p.m. Arrived in Washington, where President Roosevelt and members office cabinet were assembled to receive us at Union Station.
Siegrist added to those living in out bodego [bodega], number 13. The majority of of people arrived from #2. Thus, 13 people moved into #13 on the 13th. Too bad for the superstitious.I have worked very hard today, getting the hospital tent and dispensary set up. Didn’t accomplish much, but am extremely tired. It appears… Read More »May 13, 1942
When it rains, it pours. Another attack against Naric men in Pangasinan. This time Ramon Villasanta, special cashier and disbursing officer in Rosales was held up. ₱5,000, office funds, was taken from him. The following is his report: “On Sunday night, May 10th, I slept in Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija. The following morning, I went back… Read More »May 13, 1942
Mothers, wives, sweethearts, and friends eagerly scanned the five-page typewritten list of captured American and Filipino soldiers compiled by the Red Cross. The names were listed under exhaustion, dysentery, wounded, and heart attacks. With Bataan and Corregidor gone, there was a lessening of the exhausting and emotional strain such as we had experienced in the… Read More »May 13, 1942
5/14/42 Day 158
General Wainwright is forced to prepare an evaluation of the Japanese efforts against his troops.
Between 14 and 25 May, Japanese planes flew Wainwright’s staff to Cebu, Panay, Leyte, Negros, and Samar to coordinate their surrender. Imperial army garrison units followed.
Two more men assigned to Naric by Col. Uzaki “in view of the increasing activities and the consequent enormous volume of auditing and accounting.” They are Messrs. R. Ishibashi and T. Tegai. Ishibashi will be Chief Auditor and Tegai will assist him. Pertinent points of Executive Order No. 40 signed by Chairman Jorge Vargas of… Read More »May 14, 1942
Another very busy day. John and I walked up to the reservoir. Much equipment lying around everywhere. I picked up two pair of shoes. Neither fit quite right, but maybe I will find one that does. No rumors of any news. The idea persists that we may move soon. Am very tired again. Three meals… Read More »May 14, 1942
After these two gentlemen had left I received a message from Overseer Nograles of Norala that the Japanese were already in Tacurong and that he was waiting for Supervising Overseer Larrabaster with whom he planned to go and meet the Japanese in Tacurong to report to them the Moro atrocities. This was in accordance with… Read More »Thursday, May 14, 1942
“Exchange” Rumor weakening — It never had much sense — But hope is wonderful for Morale — So is the Holy Bible. Although weak I feel better mentally today. Sort of resigned now to the duration of the war. If the folks at home have the Courage I pray for them to have. I can… Read More »14 May 1942
Major TAMAKI took us to see Lieutenant—General NARA, but when we saluted without saying anything, he lectured us about not having learned how to greet superiors. He gave us instructions on five points. Submitted all the documents from the War Ministry and finished reporting,
5/15/42 Day 159
A courier from General Sharp arrives at General Chynoweth’s headquarters on Cebu with a copy of Wainwright’s message to Sharp. Chynoweth decides to surrender his force.
5/16/42 Day 160
On Cebu, General Chynoweth surrenders the 61st Division (PA) to the Japanese.
Homma sent two battalions of the 10th Independent Garrison Unit and the Miura detachment to Mindanao to relieve the Kawaguchi and Kawamura detachments for other theaters. The Nagano detachment moved to Negros, Bohol, Leyte, and Samar.
In Central Luzon, Walter Cushing took command of 121st Regiment troops.
Eleanor Roosevelt, “My Day,” May 16, 1942
For the last two months amateur gardeners have worked several hours a day, planting, weeding, and hoeing, and now these gardens were supplying the camp with greens. Shanty owners started their own little gardens around their shacks. Grandma, Daphne’s mother, was always furiously busy. She had been saving pineapple tops for the last few weeks,… Read More »May 16, 1942
Not much news to add today. Usual routine. Another foraging detail. Fairly successful. Everybody now prizes a can of food very highly. We certainly eat to live these days. Many cans of food found which have been stabbed with a knife so contents will spoil. Probably done by Americans to prevent it falling into Japanese… Read More »May 16, 1942
Stomach upset today. Hope it is not the start of something. Rumors also upset with orders to repair buildings for rainy season. Profiteering checked a little — Cigarettes down to ₱1 jar pk & chow profits limited to 100% instead of prices like ₱15 for a 50 Centavo bar of Candy. Saw a can of milk being… Read More »16 May 1942
At the outbreak of the war, when the JAPANESE shops were closed, all the merchandise was looted, but now just the reverse has occurred, and the merchandise of the private shops has been taken from the others.
5/17/42 Day 161
President Quezon stays overnight at the White House.See: The Quezons At The White House
Japanese troops marched into Bohol’s capital Tagbilaran and seized the manganese mines on Panglao and Guindulman islands. Captain Victoriano Blancas surrendered his USAFFE garrison, leaving Bohol governor Agapito Hontanosas to the Japanese.
BAGUIO. This group went on mopping-up operations in the BONTOC region.— About 40 kilometers distant, remnants of defeated troops are agitating, and recently, four wireless personnel were killed. Now that the fighting is finished, they are saying that it is a foolish thing to die.
Sunday — To church with Gouman & then rest then lunch & to duty at the River. Rumors at night were good — chow excellent — Malaria & Dysentery still worry all of us. Death rate up to 40 a day & no help.
First day taken off by hospital group since the war started. I had sick call as usual, however, and then in afternoon went on a food detail. Was quite successful. Day as a whole really sounded and seemed like a Sunday. American we met on road said that everybody in Manila is talking of Germany’s… Read More »May 17, 1942
According to the paper, today was the hottest day in 57 years. Because of the unbearable heat, I joined some of my roommates who sat on the school benches in the corridor. Like sad and neglected wall flowers at a dance, we sat stiff and straight on the benches lined against the wall. “Here we… Read More »May 17, 1942
5/18/42 Day 162
The Philippine Commonwealth Government-in-Exile is established in Washington, D.C. For the duration of the occupation, Washington, D.C. is declared the official capital of the Philippines by the Commonwealth government-in-exile. It will remain as such until the capital is moved to Tacloban, Leyte, in October 1944. President Quezon establishes his official residence at the Shoreham Hotel, whereas the Office of the Resident Commissioner of the Philippines at 1617 Massachussetts Avenue becomes the office of the government-in-exile.
Speech of Major General Yoshihide Hayashi, Director-General of the Japanese Military Administration to commemorate the return of the Philippines to normalcy after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, May 18, 1942
BAGUIO. Today NARA Group invited about 70 people, BAGUIO FILIPINOS and a small number of JAPANESE sympathisers to the Group Commander’s official residence (General House) at JOHN HAY Camp. Officers were also invited, and it was the first tea party to be held since they have been stationed at JOHN HAY Camp. I was given… Read More »18 May 1942
Monday — Eyes sore — hope it was from the sun. Feeling a little better due to rumors that may be in part worth something.
Food detail this A.M. Very successful. Biscuits and tea for lunch. Then shoe detail after lunch. Got every man fixed up with a new pair of shoes that we could fit. Then dinner. After dinner a flour and lard detail. Very successful. Men coulan’t carry 50 lbs. of flour each, so found an old cart… Read More »May 18, 1942
Mt. Fukada ordered an increase in the number of rice dealers. Ration at present is two gantas every four days. Chairman Vargas desires the opening of rice distribution unit at the Mandaluyong cockpit in front of his residence. Will refer matter to the Japanese Supervisor. Read Chairman Vargas’ speech after the parade held on May… Read More »May 18, 1942
Smiling and victorious Japanese soldiers and generals leered at us from the pages of the pictorial section of the Nishi-Nishi. As I gained strength and started to eat small portions of food, some of my depression disappeared. I was starting to reread The House of Seven Gables.
5/19/42 Day 163
A before-breakfast expedition in e truck from L.B. Acquired lard and flour. Then had sick call after breakfast of rice, oatmeal, and sweetened, pondered milk. Then a lunch of very good soup, biscuits, and tea. Best lunch in many months. After lunch took a detail of 24 men for shirts and fatigue clothes. Met two… Read More »May 19, 1942
— Tues — On water faucet detail this AM very warm — 43 died yesterday. I am very worried with loose Bowel movements hourly. Once again only God can help there is no medicine for Malaria or Dysentery. Meals are much better & I felt a lot stronger till stomach condition got threatening. We surely… Read More »19 May 1942
BAGUIO. This evening at tho official residence of Lieutenant-Colonel MATSUNAGA, senior staff-officer, a dinner party was held under the auspices of the senior Chief of Staff and the senior Adjutant, and I was asked to interpret. I related the greetings acting as interpreter. There were four ENGLISH interpreters, two TAGALOG, one ENGLISH interpreter, hired locally,… Read More »19 May 1942
5/20/42 Day 164
On Panay, Colonel Albert F. Christie finally surrenders his troops to the Japanese. However, about 90% of his men have already vanished into the hills along with whatever equipment and ammunition they have left.
On 20 May assemblyman Benigno Aquino wrote Vargas to call Japanese attention to the dangers of “bad elements, otherwise known as ‘the USAFFE’ in Central Luzon.”
The Japanese reached Bacolod on the north coast of Negros by 20 May.
Orders were issued for me to go tomorrow with Second Lieutenant KITAO, of the Staff Section for a week, to negotiate the surrender of the enemy in the BONTOC region, by using Colonel HORAN, North LUZON Island Commander-in-Chief (An AMERICAN officer who surrendered the other day).
Had a tough night between rain, cramps, dysentery & FEAR — No blood this morning but very weak. Rumors of moving someplace — we all pray that they are true. Joe Gouman has been very good to me. Got three D & D pills at the hospital at 11:00 Am. getting very weak. Cramps still… Read More »20 May — 1942
Was just about as near all in last night as I have ever been. Think it was cruely a salt and fluid deficiency. Could not sleep at all and woke up feeling woozy and very tired. However, made two trips this morning for food. Got 300 lbs. of black pepper. This should last us until… Read More »May 20, 1942
Lt. Col. Nakar’s unsurrendered USFIP Unit in NL were remnants of 11th & 71st Div. cut off from Bataan, reorganized per Gen. MacArthur’s order as 14th Inf. under Lt. Col. Everett Warner USA last Jan 24 to operate as guerrillas in Cagayan Valley. When Bataan surrendered, Warner and fellow USA O’s gave up so Gen.… Read More »May 20, 1942
Names of streets changed. Dewey Boulevard to Heiwa Boulevard; Taft Avenue to Daitoa Avenue; Harrison Boulevard to Koa Boulevard; Jones Bridge to Banzai Bridge; Harrison Park to Rizal Park; Wallace Field to Plaza Bagong Filipinas. Chairman Vargas explained: “The substitution, in place of the American names of certain streets, boulevards, parks and bridges in Manila… Read More »May 20, 1942
Mr. Nagy sent me a box of peanut brittle, and I was cheered and amused by his note. In describing Rags, he wrote that she was “spoiled, lovable, companionable, and capricious as a beautiful woman.” After sharing my candy with my three companions, I saved a few pieces for myself. Perhaps in a few days… Read More »May 20, 1942
5/21/42 Day 165
Tonight the head of our executive committee, an American, a British woman, and a twelve-year-old American boy were permitted to broadcast a short message to the United States. The broadcast, sponsored by the Japanese, lasted about ten minutes. We sincerely hoped that many of our relatives were listening.
Boy, did I sleep last night! Felt find this A.M. Made a trip out for clothes, food, and building supplies. Very successful. Also got a grinder for rice and our black pepper. Another trip out this aft. but found little. Located much tar paper and several kegs of nails which we will get tomorrow. Am… Read More »May 21, 1942
5/22/42 Day 166
Another good night’s sleep last night. A truck detail for building supplies this A.M. and again this P.M. Caribou [carabao], rice and pancakes for breakfast, and coffee; split pea soup, tea and biscuits for lunch; rice and gravy and dried fish and tea for supper. John and I took a walk after supper and then… Read More »May 22, 1942
No medicine today. Rumors of moving getting weaker with no evidence of a change. I am getting weaker too from Dys. Had dinner with Dixon & Miles & sardines, cocoa, catsup, mongo — They sure have been good to me. Lee gave me coconut candy — Hill gave some other candy. Tomorrow is big rumor… Read More »22 May 1942
5/23/42 Day 167
Worked in clinic again this A.M. In P.M. went on detail gathering up typewriters. Rained pretty hard late this evening. Also rained hard last night. Sure is swell to be under a water tight metal roof. We are getting pretty well set now for the rainy season. Colonel Duckworth says he has absolutely reliable information… Read More »May 23, 1942
Nothing unusual — no rumors came true. Dys still sort of mean. Most are depressed. 47 died.
June is drawing paper-doll clothes in the dining room. The fresh sergeant stops to watch it. He takes a pencil, draws kimonos showing the men’s short sleeve, the girl’s sleeve which is shorter than that of a wife. In three lines he drew Fujisan with a cloud in front of it. Later we asked him… Read More »May 23, 1942
BONTOC. With Second Lieutenant KITAO, visited a captured AMERICAN chaplain, NOBLE. Was surprised that AMERICAN missions were so thorough as to have fine churches over here, in the middle of the mountains. He is a man, just past 30, who came to this inconvenient place with his family. Besides a child about one year old,… Read More »23 May 1942
5/24/42 Day 168
The Japanese finally begin to remove prisonere from Corregidor. They are shipped to Manila where they are marched through the streets to (Old) Bilibid Prison. This is done as a form of humiliation for the defeated American soldiers.
Eleuterio Adevoso and Miguel Ver moved their headquarters into the Sumulong Rest House and renamed their group “the Hunters.”
Japanese troops landed unopposed on Leyte on 24 May and rolled over the island in twenty-four hours.
Left Corregidor at 6 AM. Landed outside Manila 30 feet off shore. Had to wade to shore and all got quite wet. We were marched 5 to 6 miles through Manila up Dewey Blvd. This was to show the Filipinos our disgrace. We were dirty, poorly dressed, almost all had dysentery and were forced to… Read More »May 24, 1942
300,000 to 75, 000 poorly equipped, ill fed men ill fed-yes, why? I don’t know. Boat after boat I helped load for the Japs of salmon, rice, beans, ham, pineapple, pepper, salt, tomatoes, sugar, apricots, peaches, flashlight batteries, ammo, you name it; it was there—yet during the fighting it wasn’t to be had—some QMC officer… Read More »May 8-24, 1942
Inspected markets with Fukada and Sulit. Mr. Nakashima took his ruler and started hitting a man who did not obey him immediately. Whenever I hear of these things, my blood boils. Told Mr. Fukada, Japanese Supervisor, to tell the Japanese staff not to raise their hands on Filipino employees. Otherwise I will not be responsible… Read More »May 24, 1942
BONTOC. Second Iieutenant KITAO returned to Group Headquarters but I am remaining with Colonel HORAN, for the present, in order to negotiate the surrender of his subordinates in MOUNTAIN province. This morning, moved with Colonel HORAN to the signal company headquarters house. HORAN said that this house was the house of the acting governor of… Read More »24 May 1942
I came down from Baguio yesterday. The trip was extremely unpleasant. The sentries at the twelve police checkpoints were trying to outdo each other in officiousness. The lack of vehicles and the difficulty of obtaining fuel made matters worse. Things are returning to normalcy although people have gone back to the towns which are starting… Read More »May 24, 1942
Colonel North, Major Sitter, Major Lentz, and I went to Maraveles [Mariveles] with Little Baguio crowd for fruit and caribou [carabao]. Japanese shot us two caribou [carabao] and we got quite a number of green bananas, and mangoes which will ripen in about one week. Also a few plums. Ate many cherries which were very… Read More »May 24, 1942
5/25/42 Day 169
With a lot of flourish, the newspapers announced the reopening of schools on the 1st of June. The University of Santo Tomas had to revise its curriculum. Repairs and renovations are being made on the old buildings, in case the prisoners will not vacate the new ones, which it seems they will not. We also… Read More »May 25, 1942
BONTOC. Upon getting up in the morning, Colonel HORAN made the bed(s). A native came in with two eggs and two pancakes made by the natives from rice flour, for colonel HORAN. This morning, went and borrowed some books from the church library. They were neatly arranged yesterday, when I met tho bishop here. Today,… Read More »25 May 1942
Up all night — Very mean. No medicine. On water detail again. Dys. pretty bad — Hope we can try the burned flour treatment Heth. Much rain each afternoon. 45 died.
Worked in dispensary this A.M. at sick call. In the afternoon walked over to H.P.D. and U.S.A.F.F.E and carried back some office supplies. Followed water pipe line back. Got news after supper that we were leaving at 10:00 A.M. tomorrow. Wild time getting packed. Officers allowed one foot locker or two suitcases. Enlisted men one… Read More »May 25, 1942
Lt. Col. Jesse T. Trayvick USA, Wainwright’s emissary traveling under a flag of truce accompanied by a representative of Gen. Homma, did not find difficulties delivering the “surrender orders” to Visayas-Mindanao USFIP CG, W. F. Sharp who, in turn, immediately issued written surrender orders to all his subordinates: B/Gen. Albert Christie, Panay; Col. Roger Hilsman,… Read More »May 25, 1942
5/26/42 Day 170
At Tacloban, Colonel Theodore M. Cornell surrenders the Leyte and Samar force to the Japanese. By this time, this amounts to only 11 American officers, 40 Filipino officers, and 20 Filipino enlisted men. The rest of the force disappears into the hills.
On 26 May the Japanese landed at Dumaguete, capital of Negros Oriental, the last unoccupied province.
All packed and ready for moving at 10:00 A.M. All baggage taken to #1 for loading. Finally loaded and away at 1:30 P.M. Everybody in trucks. Sure crowded. I felt sort of bad at leaving for me don’t know what we are getting into. Ride long, tiresome, dusty, and hot. Got my fill of mangoes… Read More »May 26, 1942
On flour Dys. no change as yet. Many think we may leave here on or about the 29th for Manila area.
BONTOC — MOUNTAIN Province. Am annoyed at the local rice and tasteless MISO soup here. I think HORAN eats well. The WATANABE Regimental Commander called, and so I went to the Force Commander’s office. There was a regimental flag there. He asked various things about colonel HORAN. At the beginning of the war, MOUNTAIN Province… Read More »26 May 1942
Left Little Baguio, axle broke; stopped at GUAGUA ate 6 mangos 12 bananas. Heard we were going to MANILA, everybody elated, imagine surprise when we ended Up at BILIBID PRISON.
The daughter of Consul Young of China was in the house yesterday. My children asked her if she has heard from her father ever since the Japanese arrested him. She shook her head and her eyes were red. She said: “They sent back his clothes and locks of his hair…” There is news that Filipino… Read More »May 26, 1942
Just as we had feared, a member of the Religious Section notified the Letran Fathers that their buildings would be occupied by the Army, although the members of religious congregations would be allowed to continue living in the part they are now occupying. Father Provincial, accompanied by the Spanish Consul, immediately proceeded to protest to… Read More »May 26, 1942
5/27/42 Day 171
It was a big day for the Nips! Navy Day! Many pages of the morning paper were splashed with pictures of the Imperial fleet’s successes. It was a big day for Margo! She heard from three different sources that her captured husband was well. She went about her work smiling and humming. Passes and releases… Read More »May 27, 1942
Slept well last night despite hardness of floor. Saw many Corregidor people. 27 nurses got awey by two submarines and two planes. News from there not too bad. Rumor of Germanys surrender evidently false. Rumor that India has surrendered to Japan. Fighting supposedly on German-Polish frontier along 125 mi. front, with England and Americans fighting… Read More »May 27, 1942
Not much change in condition. Rain bad — On detail in O’Donnell for wood ordered ready for outside detail.
Monthly consumption of tiki-tiki by Japanese Army is 6,000 sacks according to Mr. Kobatake. Monthly quota to be covered by Naric in the provinces: Nueva Ecija—3,000 sacks; Bulacan—2,000 sacks; Tarlac—500 sacks. Price of Tiki-tiki in Manila: Tiki-tiki No. 1 is ₱2.50 per sack of 48 kilos gross excluding sack; Tiki-tiki No. 2 is ₱2.00 per… Read More »May 27, 1942
Father Patricio arrived from Tarlac, where he went to bring clothes, medicine and food for the imprisoned Catholic priests, among them, Fr. Curran of the Dominican Order. They were able to put one over the guards, as the prisoners were allowed to leave the prison camp to pick guava leaves which had medicinal value. That… Read More »May 27, 1942
5/28/42 Day 172
Slept well again last night, but coccyx, rt. hip, and rt. ext. malleolus very sore. Eating rice three times a day. Moved today at about 10:00 A.M. to another building in prison walls. Moved back from here to original bullding atabout 4:00 P.M. Washed my clothes today. Held sick call from 1:00 to 4:00 P.M.… Read More »May 28, 1942
Then came the fall of Corregidor May fifth. I shall never forget the night before it fell, for the guns 30 miles away could be heard all through the night and I knew that it was the last desperate effort to defend itself. The horrible feeling of insecurity m the immense distance that separated us… Read More »May 4-28, 1942
We were worn out by the day’s work of transferring our things to the portion of the building allocated to us by our “tenants.” Everytime, they would commandeer more rooms and confiscate beds, tables, chairs, and cabinets. I attempted to protest, but the Japanese officer told me: “The Japanese Army occupy the Philippines. Property of… Read More »May 28, 1942
5/29/42 Day 173
Auditor Ishibashi and I agreed that any cash shortage or overage should be reported immediately to the Management by the Cashier. Col. Uzaki will write a letter to the Executive Commission regarding the use of the land at the back of the Naric. We need more space. Main building will be painted after construction of… Read More »May 29, 1942
Moved with 40 men to Tarlac. C.O. Major Chenoweth, Capt. Bubaltz, Presnell & I 200 men. (Good Chow — company — Quarters.)
Our last day in Bilibid Prison as we leave early in A.M. Usual day here. Got a package of dobies for $1.00. Got a little over one pound of sugar for taking care of a sick American. Wasn’t charged, but given in appreciation. Got a shower and shave before breakfast. Rumors of allied successes continue.… Read More »May 29, 1942
The morning Nishi-Nishi contained an eye-witness account of the shelling of the Santa Barbara coastline in California. Of course, we didn’t believe it, but we read it just the same The story was written by one of the Japanese lieutenants on board the raiding Japanese submarine. The raid was timed at night, and when the… Read More »May 29, 1942
5/30/42 Day 174
Memorial Day! I would have forgotten it if someone hadn’t reminded me. It was just another day in here, but still I had to serve something a little extra for lunch. But what? At breakfast I instructed my three companions to save part of their corn-meal mush. Then, swallowing what pride I had left, I… Read More »May 30, 1942
— Detail on lumber — Meat, catsup, beans, shrimp, fish, raisins stewed, canned raisins, fresh carabao, mongos, banana, & Vienna sausage, etc — eggs — one doz daily each officer for 4 days. Too good to last long. ₱50 —
Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C. May 30th 1942 A few days ago, Quezon had wired me at Charlottesville, Virginia, inviting me to join him as his guest at the Ambassador Hotel in New York and just as I was about to start for there another wire came stating he was coming down to Washington, so I… Read More »May 30, 1942
Left BILIBID at 3:00 AM marched to RR station placed in boxcar 101 men + 2 Japanese guards. Left MANILA at 6:30 AM arrived CABAN at 12:30 PM. Bought mangos bananas, 1 pineapple at SAN MIGUEL. At CABAN put in school yard, a filthy place. Passed out. Hadn’t had but 1 meal in last 4… Read More »May 30th, 1942
Today the truce is supposed to be signed and we are all so anxious and worried as to the outcome of it all. Coné and Capt. Alvarado left two days ago for headquarters and should arrive there today. We have heard that there are Japanese soldiers on the road, so they must walk by night.… Read More »May 30, 1942
5/31/42 Day 175
A Japanese infantry battalion established a garrison at the former U.S. Camp Keithley on the northern shore of Lake Lanao.
My roommate Margo was in a special kind of seventh heaven today. She dashed into the room with blonde hair flying and eyes shining. Then, throwing her arms around me, she squeezed me until I yelled for help. Only a letter from her husband could have brought about such wild exuberance and joy. “I just… Read More »May 31, 1942
It is reported that the transfer of the about 6,000 surviving American Bataan Death Marchers from the POW Camp O’Donnell to Cabanatuan is about completed. The new POW Camp in Cabanatuan was the former mobilization and training center of the USAFFE 91st Div. before the war and have better facilities. Judge Roldan informed me the… Read More »May 31, 1942
Up at 5:00 A.M. Ate breakfast. Rice furnished by Japanese. Started marching at 6:00 A.M. Went east from Cabanatuan. Hiked over 10 miles by 11:30 A.M. Very hot. Little rest. Carried a heavy load. Many threw their packs.Others passed out. Was sure a grueling business. I couldn’t have gone much further. C. camp we arrived… Read More »May 31, 1942
No detail chow still good. Moved to Tarlac Court house, Dys. a little better. Malaria again. Quinine ₱.80 each.
Quezon came into my room at the Shoreham for a two hours’ talk. Yesterday he had offered me an official position to go around with him and help him with his English in preparing his speeches. I told him I thought his command of English was excellent, and that I had not come to him… Read More »May 31, 1942
KGEI admitted the sinking of an Allied warship in the port of Sydney by the attack of a special Japanese submarine flotilla. Rode in a calesa. Asked the cochero: “Who do you think will win the war?” I was curious to know the sentiments of the masses. “The Americans!” he answered unequivocally. “Why? “I asked… Read More »May 31, 1942
Left CABANATUAN at 6:00 AM marched 15 KM east to concentration camp. Arrived 12:15 PM. We were again relieved of more of our personal belongings. Slept on bamboo 7 to a section. No water at faucet, so we got rain water boiled and chlorinated it.
We continue in peaceful co-existence with our guests. They are so silent that we hardly notice their presence. At times, the commanding and bitter voice of an officer would ring out. It’s unbelievable that they are young and are soldiers. We were thinking that had they been Spanish, Filipinos or Americans, they would be disturbing… Read More »May 31, 1942