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Timeline of World War II

This timeline was originally prepared by the Heritage Division of PCDSPO as part of he interactive web project World War II in the Philippines which sought to provide the structure by which we unify the people’s stories, in search of a history we can truly call our own. With this, we can finally see the intersections of the past and of what is before is now. We only make familiar what should have been familiar to us in the first place. 

Start DateEnd DateHeadlineText
19411945World War II in the PhilippinesAn interactive timeline of the events in the Philippines during World War II
12/2/1941A Japanese reconnaissance aircraft is spotted over Clark Airfield.
12/6/1941U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sends a "last resort" letter to Japanese Emperor Hirohito.
12/8/1941A radio transmission is received by the USAFFE: Pearl Harbor is under attack.
12/8/1941U.S. President Roosevelt declares war against Japan.U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt speaks in front of the U.S. Congress: "Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy. The United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan."
12/8/1941Executive Secretary Jorge B. Vargas informs President Manuel L. Quezon of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war by the United States against the Axis Powers.President Quezon is staying in their private residence along Legarda Road in Baguio, recovering from an illness.
12/8/1941Japanese aircraft attack commenced in Davao at 6:20 a.m.Japanese aircraft carrier Ryujo launched an air raid to the port of Davao.
12/8/1941The Japanese bomb the Philippines, and other U.S. installations in the Pacific.
12/8/1941President Quezon tells the press, "the Zero Hour has arrived."“The zero hour has arrived. I expect every Filipino—man and woman—to do his duty. We have pledged our honor to stand to the last by the United States and we shall not fail her, happen what may.”
12/8/1941Japanese aircraft attack Camp John Hay, Baguio at 8:30 a.m.
12/8/1941Japanese aircraft attack Tuguegarao at 9:30 a.m.
12/8/1941Attack on Pearl Harbor: NBC Bulletin
12/8/1941Attack on Pearl Harbor: NBC broadcast
12/8/1941Japanese planes attack Clark Field.
12/8/1941Japanese planes attack airfield in Iba, Zambales at 12:30 p.m.
12/8/1941Japanese planes attack Fort McKinley.
12/8/1941Field Marshal MacArthur orders B-17s to load bombs.
12/8/1941President Quezon departs for Arayat, Pampanga.Mrs. Aurora Quezon, Manuel L. Quezon Jr., and Sofia Fuentes are at the Quezon Farm (Kaledian) when Japanese attacks commence.
12/8/1941Japanese soldiers arrive in Batan Island at dawn.
12/8/1941Japanese aircraft attack Tarlac at 12:35 p.m.
12/8/1941Japanese aircraft attack Davao at 12:45 p.m.
12/8/1941BBC reports on Pearl Harbor.
12/8/1941BBC reports on attacks in the Far East.
12/8/1941Japan declares war against the United States and the British Empire.Prime Minister Hideki Tojo declares war on the Allied Powers: "We, by the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the Throne of a line unbroken for ages eternal, enjoin upon ye, Our loyal and brave subjects: We hereby declare war on the United States of America and the British Empire."
12/9/1941Cavite Navy Yard is bombarded at 11:00 a.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, December 9, 1941. See the full entry here.
12/9/1941Japanese task force departs Palau for Legazpi City; another departs for Davao.
12/9/1941President Quezon arrives back in Manila, stays in his Mariquina home.
12/10/1941Japanese Air Force launches heavy attacks on Cavite Navy Yard at 11:45 a.m.
12/10/1941Japanese Air Force launches heavy attacks on Nichols Airfield (present-day Villamor Air Base) at 12:00 p.m.
12/10/1941Japanese forces land in Aparri at dawn.Tanaka Detachment lands in Aparri, Cagayan.
12/10/1941Japanese forces land at Pandan, near Vigan at 5:13 a.m. Kanno Detachment lands to capture Vigan, Ilocos Norte.
12/10/1941Japanese forces capture Camiguin Island.
12/10/1941Nichols Field bombed for the second time.
12/10/1941Cavite Naval base is bombed.The incident results in 500 casualties, the destruction of the submarines Sealion and Pillsbury, and damage to the minesweeper  USS Bittern.
12/11/1941Congress passes Resolution No. 115.In a special session, the National Assembly passes Resolution No. 115, pledging support to the United States in the wake of the Pearl Harbor attacks and proclaiming Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña as winners of the November elections.
12/12/1941The Japanese land in Legazpi at 2:45 a.m.The Kimura Detachment, a unit of the of the Japanese Army consisting of 2,500 men, lands at Legazpi, Albay.
12/12/1941President Quezon is told to evacuate.Field Marshal MacArthur informs President Quezon of plans to evacuate to Corregidor. The President is given four hours to be ready for departure.
12/12/1941Cabinet decides on who will accompany President Quezon if they evacuate.
12/13/1941U.S. High Commissioner to the Philippines Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. appeals for American help in radio broadcast: "Come on, America!"
12/14/1941Three B-17s are dispatched to bomb Japanese landing in Legazpi but failed to return.
12/15/1941National Assembly authorizes emergency powers for President Quezon.
12/16/1941The National Assembly grants the President extraordinary powers.The National Assembly passes Commonwealth Act No. 671, investing the President with extraordinary powers under the state of total emergency in effect.
12/17/1941Japanese forces in Legazpi make initial contact with Filipino forces in Ragay, Bicol.
12/18/1941United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) inducts all units of the Philippine Army; reservists called to the colors
12/18/1941Advance units of the Japanese Imperial Army enter Naga, Camarines Sur.
12/18/1941The Philippine flag is reversed to indicate state of war.President Quezon issues Executive Order No. 386, s. 1941, which states that the Filipino flag is to be flown with the red stripe up, signifying the Philippines is at war. This is the first time this has happened since the Philippine-American War.
12/20/1941Japanese troops land in Mindanao, near Davao at 4:00 a.m.The Miura Detachment landed on the northern section of Davao, while the Sakaguchi Detachment landed on the southwest part of the city.
12/20/1941President Quezon addresses the nation through radio broadcasts from the air raid shelter in his Mariquina (Marikina) home.
12/20/1941Japanese Forces take Davao.The Japanese Miura Detachment and Sakaguchi Detachment link up, establishing control over Davao.
12/22/1941The Department of Interior is abolished.President Quezon, by virtue of Executive Order No. 390 s. 1941, uses his broad emergency powers granted to him by the National Assembly to abolish the department and combines its functions and duties with those of the other departments.
12/22/1941Three Japanese convoys drop anchor at Lingayen Gulf.
12/22/1941Tanaka Detachment enters San Fernando, La Union.
12/22/1941The Japanese Army lands in Lingayen.Landing of Japanese forces in Lingayen, Pangasinan, under the command of Lt. Gen. Yuichi Tsuchibashi.
12/22/1941Huge enemy fleet, estimated to be 80 transports, spotted off Lingayen Gulf.From the diary of Teodoro M. Locsin, December 22, 1941. See the full entry here.
12/22/1941Japanese units arrive at 5:00 a.m. in Agoo, La Union.
12/22/1941Japanese units arrive at 5:15 a.m. in Aringay, La Union.
12/22/1941Bauang, La Union occupied by the Japanese at about 7:00 a.m.
12/22/1941Japanese Imperial Army troops land, 8:30 a.m.
12/23/1941Wake Island falls to the Japanese.
12/23/1941Gen. Basilio Valdes is appointed Secretary of National Defense.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, December 23, 1941. See the full entry here.
12/23/1941Clash in Northern LuzonUSAFFE forces fights artillery duel with Japanese Imperial Army troops around noon. The Japanese Imperial Army occupies town at 7:00 p.m. USAFFE troops are driven out by the Japanese Imperial Army that night.
12/23/1941Japanese troops take possession of the town of Sison, Pangasinan.
12/24/1941Japanese troops land in Atimonan, Quezon.
12/24/1941Commonwealth government is transferred to Corregidor. Under E.O. 396, the Department of Justice is abolished and its functions are transferred to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The War Cabinet is formed through a reorganization of the government by virtue of the emegency powers vested in President Quezon by the National Assembly.
12/24/1941Authorities open up stores in Pier 7 for the public.
12/24/1941The Commonwealth War Cabinet and other officials evacuate to Corregidor. President Quezon and family, Vice President Osmeña, Field Marshal MacArthur, High Commissioner Sayre, and other officials board the S.S. Mayon for Corregidor. They arrive the same day.
12/24/1941Jose Abad Santos is sworn in as Chief Justice by President QuezonPresident Quezon administered the oath of office to Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos, who also became Acting Secretary of Justice and Finance, in the Social Hall of Malacañan Palace. They are surrounded by: Philippine Army Chief of Staff and Secretary of National Defense, Secretary of Public Works and Communications and Secretary of Labor Basilio J. Valdes, Executive Secretary Jorge B. Vargas, Jose P. Laurel and Benigno S. Aquino. Behind them can be seen the Rest House (now Bahay Pangarap) across the river in Malacañang Park.
12/24/1941Japanese troops land in Mauban, Tayabas (now Quezon province) at dawn.
12/25/1941Fall of Hong Kong to the Japanese.
12/25/1941Japanese unit from Binalonan encounters a USAFFE unit, which retreats to Asingan River.
12/26/1941Manila was declared an Open City.In an effort to spare further damage to the city and its civilians, Manila is declared an open city by Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur. All military installations were ordered removed.
12/27/1941Japanese forces bomb Manila Bay.The Japanese forces bomb the Port Area. From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, December 28, 1941. See the full entry here.
12/27/1941Intramuros is bombed.Japanese air raid in which the Intendencia, Santo Domingo Church, and the DMHM Building beside Letran are hit.
12/27/1941Japanese bombing runs. Japanese bombers killed 43, wounded 150, and destroyed P5-million worth of buildings in an attempt to bomb four inter-island vessels.
12/29/1941The Japanese bombs Corregidor Island.
12/29/1941Retreating USAFFE troops of the South Luzon Force arrive at Santiago, Los Baños, and Alabang in the evening.
12/29/1941Japanese troops occupy Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija.
12/29/1941Japanese troops arrive in Bongabon, Central Luzon.
12/30/1941Newly elected officials were expected to take office, after the formal proclamation by the National Assembly, which would give way to the bicameral Congress of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Quezon and Osmena are inaugurated for a second term as President and Vice President, respectively. The terms of all officials lapsed on this date. President Quezon and Vice President Osmena took their oath of office in Corregidor; however, the Commonwealth government officials in the capital city of Manila were unable to because of the looming Japanese occupation. The Second Commonwealth Presidential Inauguration is held at Corregidor. Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos administers the oath of office to President Manuel L. Quezon and Vice President Sergio Osmeña.
1/1/1942Last American tank crosses Calumpit Bridge, 2:30 a.m.
1/1/1942Calumpit Bridge destroyed at 6:15 a.m. to stop the advancing Japanese troops from the north.
1/1/1942Japanese Imperial Army troops arrive in Banbam, 9:00 a.m.
1/1/194265th Brigade, commanded by Lt. Gen. Nara Akira, debarks at Lingayen
1/1/1942Metro Manila is created.President Quezon signs Executive Order No. 400, creating the City of Greater Manila.
1/2/1942Advance guard of the Japanese army of occupation arrives in Parañaque.
1/2/1942Japanese forces enter and occupy the City of Manila.
1/2/1942Standard Local Time is synchronized to Tokyo Time.Standard local time in the Philippines is synchronized an hour ahead to follow the “Greater East Asia Time” or Tokyo Time.
1/2/1942Gen. Homma occupies U.S. High Commissioner's residence.Lt. Gen. Masaharu Homma moves into the official residence of U.S. High Commissioner Francis Sayre, January 2, 1942, where he will reside until August 1, 1942. Thereafter, the residence served as the official residence for subsequent commanders of the Japanese 14th Area Army. Other high-ranking officers also occupied homes of prominent personalities, such as the Manila Hotel penthouse of Field Marshal MacArthur and the Pasay residence of President Quezon.
1/2/1942Truckloads of Japanese soldiers enter the northern approaches to Manila.
1/2/1942Jorge Vargas as Mayor of Greater Manila surrenders the city to the Japanese. This is Vargas' last act as a Commonwealth official. Remaining Filipino officials were summoned by the Japanese as an official Council of State in the residence of Jose Yulo (who, as former Speaker of the National Assembly and as a Senator-elect, was the highest ranking Filipino official in Manila).
1/2/1942The radio station "The Voice of Freedom" is born. Field Marshal MacArthur orders Major General Richard Marshall to set up a complete broadcasting station in Corregidor. When Maj. Carlos P. Romulo, former Manila editor, turned up on Corregidor, the radio equipment was ready to use. MacArthur himself named it "The Voice of Freedom" and made Romulo and others to make it as the mouthpiece of the President and the Field Marshal.
1/5/1942Bataan echelon of headquarters is established on Bataan under Major General Richard J. Marshall.
1/7/1942Battle of Bataan commences. The Battle for Bataan lasted from the early part of January 1942 to the eventual fall on April 9, 1942. Japanese invasion forces launched numerous attacks against the garrisoned USAFFE soldiers but were pushed back until the eventual surrender of the USAFFE forces in Bataan.
1/10/1942Japanese troops occupy Olongapo.
1/10/1942General Homma asks Field Marshal MacArthur to surrender.General Masaharu Homma, commander of the 14th Japanese Army, the Japanese invasion force in the Philippines ask Field Marshal MacArthur to surrender.
1/10/1942Field Marshal MacArthur inspects Bataan defenses.
1/11/1942Fall of Kuala Lumpur to the Japanese
1/15/1942Field Marshal MacArthur issues statement to FilAm troops on Bataan: "Help is on the way from the U.S. Thousands of troops and hundreds of planes are being dispatched."
1/16/1942Sgt. Jose Calugas awarded Medal of Honor for bravery.Read the citation for his Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest award accorded by the United States military.
1/21/1942President Quezon received reports about friction existing between the Filipinos and Americans.From the diary of Felipe Buencamino III, January 21, 1942. See the full entry here.
1/22/1942Field Marshal MacArthur orders withdrawal of the entire Mauban-Abucay line southward to final defense position on Bataan, behind Pilar-Bagac road; withdrawal started after nightfall on the 23rd and completed by daylight on the 26th.
1/23/1942The Philippine Executive Commission is established. The Commission assumes government functions in Japanese occupied Philippines under authority of the Japanese Military Administration. On January 23, 1942, the Japanese Military Administration established the  Philippine Executive Commission, with Jorge B. Vargas as chairman and the following as commissioners: Benigno Aquino Sr., interior; Antonio de las Alas, finance; Jose P. Laurel, justice; Claro M. Recto, education, health, and public welfare; and Quintin Paredes, public works and communication. Jose Yulo was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Philippine Executive Commission replaced the authorities of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, until the establishment of the Second Republic in October 1943.
1/26/1942President Quezon moves from Malinta Tunnel to a tent outside the hospital in Corregidor.
1/26/1942King George VI of the United Kingdom wires Field Marshal MacArthur."The magnificent resistance... has filled your allies in the British Empire with profound admiration," King George tells Field Marshal MacArthur.
1/27/1942United States Army Air Corp (USAAC) attacks the Japanese in Bataan; seven P-40s destroy 14-37 planes.
1/28/1942Tokyo officially announces the new government in the Philippines.
1/28/1942Field Marshal MacArthur visits Bataan.
1/30/1942Field Marshal MacArthur takes control of naval forces in the Philippines.
1/31/1942Gen. Segundo's troops escaped Japanese encirclement.From the diary of Felipe Buencamino III, January 31, 1941. See the full entry here.
2/2/1942Field Marshal MacArthur proposes evacuation of President Quezon to Visayas.
2/3/1942Lt. Col. Warren J. Clear departs from Corregidor aboard submarine USS Trout.
2/6/1942Former President Aguinaldo broadcasts appeal for Field Marshal MacArthur to surrenderFormer President Emilio Aguinaldo, in a broadcast over KZRH, urges Field Marshal MacArthur to surrender to spare the Filipinos from further death and devastation.
2/12/1942President Quezon decides against returning to Manila.
2/14/1942Celebes falls to the Japanese
2/14/1942Borneo falls to the Japanese
2/14/1942Sarawak, Malaysia, falls to the Japanese
2/15/1942Singapore falls to the Japanese
2/16/1942Field Marshal MacArthur proposes to Brigadier General Marshall that President Quezon and High Commissioner Sayre be evacuated from Corregidor.
2/18/1942Filipino leaders in Manila send telegram to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt asking for end of hostilities.
2/18/1942USS Trout submarine evacuates the Philippine Treasury to San Francisco, U.S.A.
2/20/1942The Commonwealth War Cabinet leaves Corregidor for Visayas, then Mindanao, and from Mindanao departs for Australia on March 26, 1942
2/20/1942The First Family leaves Corregidor.President Manuel L. Quezon, his family, and war cabinet leave Corregidor.
2/23/1942High Commissioner Sayre evacuates from Corregidor aboard the USS Swordfish. Field Marshal MacArthur receives U.S. President Roosevelt's order to depart for Australia.
3/1/1942American officers Field Marshal MacArthur and Lieutenant General Sutherland in Corregidor.
3/4/1942Admiral Rockwell is informed by Field Marshal MacArthur of the departure order. MacArthur tells Rockwell that he wants him and Captain Ray to accompany him.
3/8/1942Bali falls to the Japanese
3/8/1942Java falls to the Japanese
3/8/1942Timor falls to the Japanese
3/10/1942Orders issued to Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 3. Wainwright has conference with Field Marshal MacArthur and learns of impending departure.
3/11/1942Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur and his family leave Corregidor for Australia at 7:30 p.m.
3/17/1942President Quezon receives a radiogram from Field Marshal MacArthur advising him to proceed to Mindanao.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 17, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/17/1942Field Marshal MacArthur lands at Batchelor Field, Australia.
3/18/1942President Quezon arrived at Bais Sugar Central, Negros Oriental at 12:30 p.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 18, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/20/1942Bataan and Corregidor are put under separate commands.Decided on the Bataan Generals' meeting. Wainwright to handle Corregidor and Major General Edward King to handle Bataan. From the diary of Felipe Buencamino III, March 20, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/20/1942General Beebe informs General Wainwright that night at his Bataan headquarters that Wainwright has been promoted to Lt. Gen. by the U.S. War Department.
3/21/1942Wainwright, Major Pugh, and Captain Dooley leave Bataan for Corregidor.
3/22/1942USAFFE is abolished and is replaced by USFIP.The United Stated Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) becomes the United States Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) when General Jonathan Wainwright assumed command of all the Filipino and American forces in the Philippines formerly held by Field Marshal MacArthur.
3/22/1942General Moore takes General Wainwright on an inspection tour of Corregidor's defenses.
3/22/1942President Quezon's party arrives at Del Monte, Bukidnon, at 3:45 p.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 22, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/26/1942President Quezon's party leave for Australia from Del Monte, BukidnonTwo B-17 bombers arrive, one for President Quezon and the other for Vice President Osmeña. From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 26, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/26/1942Andres Soriano is appointed as Secretary of FinanceLetter to Andres Soriano from President Manuel L. Quezon.
3/27/1942President Quezon's party landed in Batchelor Field, AustraliaFrom the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 27, 1942.
3/27/1942President Quezon left for Alice Springs from Batchelor Field, Australia, at 9:15 a.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 27, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/27/1942President Quezon arrives at Alice Springs, Australia, at 2:30 p.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 27, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/28/1942Vice President Osmeña's plane arrived at Alice Springs, AustraliaFrom the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 28, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/29/1942President Quezon left for Adelaide, Australia, at 8:30 a.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 29, 1942. See the full entry here.
3/29/1942Hukbalahap (Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon) is formed.Concepcion, Tarlac: officially, Hukbong Laban sa Hapones.

Listen to the Huk song, Sulong Gerilyero.
3/30/1942President Quezon arrives at Melbourne, Australia, at 9 a.m.President Quezon was met by Field Marshal and Mrs. MacArthur. From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, March 30, 1942.
4/2/1942Plans to establish an underground broadcasting station is discussed.From the diary of Felipe Buencamino III, April 2, 1942. See the full entry here.
4/4/1942Field Marshal MacArthur radios Gen. Wainwright: "Under no conditions should the Bataan command be surrendered."
4/5/1942General Wainwright and Major Dooley return to Bataan for conferences with Generals King and Parker.
4/7/1942General Funk confers with Wainwright and Beebe on Corregidor concerning the hopeless situation on Bataan
4/8/1942A magnitude 7.8 earthquake hits Mindoro in the evening.The earthquake caused injuries, death, and millions worth of damage.
4/8/1942Gen. Wainwright sends Cols. Galbraith and Irwin to Bataan to confer with General Kin, and orders Col. Romulo to leave.
4/9/1942General Wainwright learns at 6:00 a.m. of General King's decision to surrender Bataan forces
4/9/1942Bataan, the last holdout of United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) in Luzon falls to the Japanese.
4/9/1942Fall of Bataan
4/9/1942Fall of Bataan
4/9/1942Bataan Death March
4/10/1942Wainwright issues proclamation to his besieged forces on Corregidor: "Corregidor can and will be held."
4/10/1942Capture of Chief Justice Jose Abad SantosChief Justice Jose Abad Santos is captured by the Japanese and brought to Malabang, Lanao.
4/13/19424/14/1942"Royce's raid" twelve bombers stationed in Mindanao attack Japanese targets in the Philippines. Damage is negligible.
4/14/1942Japanese troops land in Capiz.
4/14/1942Japanese troops land in Southeast Panay.
4/14/1942Successful raid of Manila, Cebu, and Davao is reported to President QuezonFrom the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, April 14, 1942.
4/15/1942Wainwright radios Field Marshal MacArthur: "Assign a Navy seaplane to the mission of ferrying personnel between here and Lake Lanao."
4/15/1942The Bataan Death March ends. All the surviving captives reached Capas, Tarlac.
4/21/1942President Quezon sails for the U.S. on board the USS President Coolidge at 1:00 p.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, April 21, 1942.
4/23/1942Cebu falls to the Japanese.
4/28/1942U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt pays tribute to Bataan."We have inevitably lost control of a large portion of the Philippine Islands. But this whole Nation pays tribute to the Filipino and American officers and men who held out so long on Bataan Peninsula, to those grim and gallant fighters who still hold Corregidor, where the flag flies, and to the forces that are still striking effectively at the enemy on Mindanao and other islands." Read FDR's speech here.
4/28/1942Filipino leaders call on General Masaharu Homma.
4/29/1942Kawaguchi Detachment began to land in Parang.
5/2/1942Chief Justice Abad Santos is executed by the Japanese at Malabang, Lanao.Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos tells his son his last words: "Do not cry, Pepito. Show these people that you are brave. It is a rare opportunity for me to die for our country. Not everybody is given that chance."
5/5/1942Japanese from Bataan make amphibious landing on Corregidor.
5/6/1942General Wainwright makes decision to surrender at noon. Conference with Homma at 5 PM at Cabcaben. Homma refuses to accept Wainwright's surrender unless it includes all forces in the Philippines. Wainwright is forced to return to Corregidor and to surrender all forces in the Philippines.
5/6/1942Corregidor unconditionally surrenders to the Japanese forces.The island fortress of Corregidor, called "The Rock," falls to the Japanese thus, ending formal resistance in the country against the Japanese.
5/9/1942President Quezon arrived at San Francisco Harbor at 7:00 a.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, May 9, 1942. See the full entry here.
5/10/1942Visayan-Mindanao forces surrenders.Major General William F. Sharp Jr., commander of the Visayan-Mindanao forces, surrenders to the Japanese in Malaybalay, Bukidnon.
5/10/1942President Quezon announces the future establishment of the Government-in-Exile.President Quezon spoke over Radio San Francisco about establishing a government-in-exile in Washington and planning to go back to Manila with the help of American forces.
5/10/1942President Quezon boards a special train to Washington at 10:00 p.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, May 10, 1942. See the full entry here.
5/13/1942President Quezon arrives at Washington, D.C. and is received by the U.S. President Roosevelt at Union Station.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, May 13, 1942. See the full entry here.

See events of May 10–May 16, 1942 here.
5/13/1942U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets the Pacific War Council and afterwards welcomes President Manuel L. Quezon and family to the White House.From the diary of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, May 13, 1942. See the full entry here.
5/14/1942U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt invites President Manuel Quezon over a luncheon at the White House to discuss the situation in the Philippines and the Pacific.From the diary of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, May 14, 1942. See the full entry here.
5/15/1942Burma falls to the Japanese.
5/16/19425/17/1942President Quezon stays overnight at the White House.
5/17/1942The Philippine Commonwealth Government-in-Exile is established in Washington, D.C.For the duration of the occupation, Washington, D.C. is declared the official capital of the Philippines by the Commonwealth government-in-exile. It will remain as such until the capital is moved to Tacloban, Leyte, in October 1944. President Quezon establishes his official residence at the Shoreham Hotel, whereas the Office of the Resident Commissioner of the Philippines at 1617 Massachussetts Avenue becomes the office of the government-in-exile.
6/2/19426/4/1942Battle of Midway commences.
6/2/1942President Quezon addresses the U.S. House of Representatives to rally support for the swift liberation of the Philippines.
6/4/1942President Quezon addresses the U.S. Senate to rally support for the swift liberation of the Philippines.
6/10/1942Philippines joins the United Nations.The Commonwealth of the Philippines signs the United Nations Declaration, officially making it one of the Allied Nations. For more on the United Nations Declaration, see 1944: United Nations, As they saw it.
6/25/1942Philippines joins the Pacific War Council.The Commonwealth of the Philippines, represented by President Quezon, is formally admitted to membership of the Pacific War Council. The agenda of the council meeting is "War with Japan." See the full entry from the diary of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt here.
6/25/1942Prime Minister Churchill pays tribute to Filipino soldiers.At a meeting of the Pacific War Council, visiting British Prime Minister Winston Churchill says, "The Filipino soldier is the bravest in the world," and pays tribute to the gallantry and valor of soldiers who fought in Bataan.
7/4/1942American Prisoners of War celebrate the 4th of July in Malaybalay, Bukidnon.
8/19/1942Quezon Family at Leesburg, VA.Temporary residence of the Quezons was in Leesburg, VA, the Patrick Hurley Estate, during the summer of 1942. Thereafter, the official residence was established in the Shoreham Hotel.
11/15/1942Seventh Anniversary of the Commonwealth
12/8/1942The Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) is formed. KALIBAPI was a movement designed to replace all political parties in the Philippines.
1/16/1943President Quezon delivers a speech before the Maryland Bar Association.President Quezon's speech entitled "A Record of Heroic Deeds" is delivered before the members of the Maryland Bar Association, Baltimore, Maryland, under the invitation of U.S. Senator Radcliffe. See the whole speech here.
1/21/1943American submarine lands in the Philippines for covert operations.An American submarine lands in Southern Negros bringing Col. Jesus Villamor, who assumes command of the guerilla forces in the Negros and Siquijor islands.
1/27/1943Col. Jesus A. Villamor establishes contact with MacArthur in Australia.
1/28/1943Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo announces that Japan is ready to grant Philippine independence if Filipinos will cooperate.
1/30/1943Vargas pledges support for Japanese offer of independence.
2/8/1943Japan ends its evacuation of Guadalcanal.
2/8/1943Jose Vargas speaks at a rally.Jorge Vargas tells a mass rally that "Japan has amply proven her high and honorable intentions with acts to liberate the peoples of the Orient from Western imperialism."
3/6/1943Involvement of the church and religious organizationsChurch dignitaries and heads of religious organizations are asked to use their sermons in establishing peace and order throughout the country by inculcating loyalty to constitutional authorities and cooperating with the administration.
3/28/1943President Quezon is hospitalized in Miami Beach.Article on St. Petersburg Times, March 28, 1943
4/4/1943American Prisoners of War escape.Capt. William Dyess, Lt. Commander Melvin McCoy, and Maj. Stephen Mellnik escaped Davao Penal Colony with seven others.
4/15/1943"Joint Get-Together of All Convalescent Homes" at Manila Hockey Club
5/6/1943Prime Minister Tojo lands in Nichols Field.Prime Minister Hideki Tojo arrives in Nichols Field for his Manila visit.
5/6/1943Prime Minister Tojo delivers speech in Rizal Park promising independence.Prime Minister Hideki Tojo visits Manila and, in a speech in Rizal Park, promises "the honor of independence."
5/6/1943Prime Minister Tojo holds banquet for Manila clergy.
5/21/1943Plans on an offensive against the Japanese in Bohol is under way.Maj. Ismael Ingeniero sends a letter to Field Marshal MacArthur about taking caution to control their offensive tactics so as not to provoke the Japanese forces in Bohol.
5/27/1943The Philippine Regional Section submits a memorandum.The Philippine Regional Section submitted a memorandum that projected a more aggressive exploitation in the Philippine situation.
6/9/1943Cols. Moses and Noble are captured.Colonels Martin Moses and Arthur Noble, commanders of the USFIP supported northern Luzon guerilla force, are captured by the Japanese. Lt. Russell Volkman assumes command of the guerillas.
6/19/1943The Japanese prepares for Philippine independence.The Japanese High Command ordered the creation of the Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence.
6/23/1943Col. Fertig's troops are attacked.Japanese troops launch concerted attack on Colonel Fertig's headquarters at Misamis City. Fertig's forces scatter and flee.
7/5/1943Attempted assassination of President LaurelTee number 7 in Wack-Wack Golf Club, President Jose P. Laurel is shot in an assassination attempt.
7/9/1943Supplies from the Americans arrive.First shipment of arms, ammunition, military-medical equipment, and supplies are unloaded from an American submarine in Sipalay, Negros Occidental.
8/3/1943Col. Jesus Villamor cabled MacArthur: Morale is down; "If not counteracted, all semblance of resistance will disappear"
8/15/1943Col. Jesus Villamor wrote to President Quezon: We have not lost faith in you or MacArthur.
9/1/1943Col. Peralta and Lt. Col. Abcede made an arrangement to hit the Japs: "Every time they come out of their garrisons, hit them"
9/4/1943Preparatory Commission on Philippine Independence approves the new constitution.
9/7/1943The 1943 Constitution is ratified by the KALIBAPI Convention.
9/20/1943Election of the delegates to the Japanese-sponsored National AssemblyElection of the delegates to the Japanese-sponsored National Assembly takes place. Half of them are elected by provincial and municipal officials who have to choose from the names submitted by the KALIBAPI. The other half is composed of provincial governors and city mayors who, under the new constitution, are to be ex-officia members of the Assembly.
9/23/1943Col. Villamor leaves for Zamboanguita to meet the American submarine going to Australia.
9/25/1943The National Assembly meets in the inaugural session.The National Assembly meets in the inaugural session at the Legislative Building in Japanese-occupied Manila.
9/30/1943Quezon: Laurel is not a traitorPresident Manuel L. Quezon writes to Sotero H. Laurel, son of Jose P. Laurel, that he does not believe his father is a traitor. The younger Laurel, working as a technical assistant of Vice President Osmeña in the government-in-exile, offered to resign upon hearing his father would become President of the Second Republic.
10/9/1943Col. Villamor transmitted Lt. Col. Cushing's intentions to MacArthur to proceed tenth military district via Cebu to obtain necessary papers
10/14/1943Inauguration of the Second RepublicInauguration of the Second Republic of the Philippines with Jose P. Laurel as President.
10/18/1943President Laurel delivers his first and only message before the special session of the National Assembly.
10/23/1943Mindanao infiltration led by Parsons
10/23/1943Philipps and Parsons inflitration
11/6/1943Laurel signs Greater East Asia Declaration in Tokyo.Upon the invitation of the Japanese Government, seven Asian nations held the Greater East Asia Congress at Tokyo on November 5 and 6, 1943 for the purpose of establishing the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. These nations were Japan, China, Thailand, Manchukuo, the Philippines, Burma, and Free India. The Philippine delegates were President Jose P. Laurel (head of delegation, sixth from left in photo); Claro M. Recto, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, and Quintin Paredes, Minister of Public Works and Communications. On November 6, 1943, the Greater East Asia Congress promulgated a Joint Declaration.
11/10/1943Col. Villamor arrives in Brisbane and reports to Field Marshal MacArthur's headquarters
11/12/1943U.S. Congress extends President Quezon's and Vice President Osmeña's terms.The U.S. Congress passes Joint Resolution 95, authorizing the President and Vice President of the Philippines to “continue in their respective offices until the President of the United States shall proclaim that constitutional processes and normal functions of government shall have been restored in the Philippine Islands.”
11/14/1943First public concert is held at the Metropolitan Theater.
11/15/1943Quezon takes oath of office for the third timePresident Quezon takes his oath of office for the third time before U.S. Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter. The U.S. Congress had extended his term until the Commonwealth could be reestablished in the Philippines.
11/15/1943The Great Flood of '43In November 1943, a strong typhoon hit the Philippines which caused massive flooding in the streets.
11/17/1943Vice President Osmeña attends launch of USS Bataan
11/20/1943American troops land on Tawara and Makin
11/25/1943Smith and Ball infiltration of Cebu
11/25/1943Smith and Ball infiltration of Masbate
12/9/1943New York Herald-Tribune: "Maj. Villamor reports Filipinos still loyal"
12/30/1943Col. Villamor addresses the Filipino Executive Council at the 47th anniversary of Rizal Day
1/28/1944President Quezon sends a letter to Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur.
2/16/1944Infiltration of Tawi-Tawi
2/16/1944Parsons infiltration of Mindanao
2/16/1944Infiltration led by Parsons
3/20/1944Surfacing of U.S. submarine Angler
3/31/1944Admiral Koga established headquarters
4/4/1944Newspapers report President Quezon's conditionSpokane Daily Chronicle article | The Tuscaloosa News article
4/4/1944Newspapers report President Quezon's conditionSpokane Daily Chronicle article & The Tuscaloosa News article
4/10/1944First and only occurrence of prisoner of war exchange in Cebu
5/1/1944President Quezon's residence in May 1944
5/15/1944Campeau infiltration
5/20/1944Letter of President Quezon to his CabinetLetter authorizing Col. Manuel Nieto to sign on President Quezon's behalf.
6/8/1944Staging of 40 Japanese ships in Manila Bay
6/10/1944Infiltration led by Dacquel
7/1/1944Imperial General Headquarters of Japan orders troops from Manchuria proceeds to the Philippines.
7/3/1944Infiltration in Mindoro led by Rowe
7/24/1944Corpus and Palacido infiltration
7/26/1944Pacific Command ConferenceField Marshal MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz present plans to U.S. President Roosevelt. MacArthur wants to go through the Philippines, whereas Nimitz prefers to attack Japan via Taiwan.
7/28/1944Cabais infiltration
8/1/1944Death of President Manuel L. QuezonPresident Quezon passes away at 80 Park Avenue, Saranac Lake, New York, U.S.A.
8/1/1944Osmeña is sworn into office.Sergio Osmeña is sworn in as second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
8/3/1944The wake of President Manuel L. Quezon
8/3/1944Quezon funeral is held in Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.After lying in state in St. Matthews Cathedral, President Quezon is temporarily laid to rest in Maine Memorial in Arlington National Cemetery.
8/5/1944Lone snooper B-24 bombs Davao from New Guinea.
8/6/1944Infiltration by Parsons, Torres, and Cabangbang
8/10/1944Osmeña delivers his first Inaugural Address as President.
8/13/1944Allied Intelligence Bureau infiltration led by Valera
8/31/1944Japanese 1st Division arrives at Shanghai, China.
9/9/1944Pompea infiltration
9/13/1944Cebu is bombed by Americans.
9/21/1944First American carrier raids caught Japanese by surprise.
9/21/1944Dewey Boulevard (now Roxas Boulevard) as an airstrip
9/22/1944Return of American planes and raids.
10/2/1944Japanese takes over Sanchez Auto Works.
10/7/1944President Osmeña and party arrive.Diary entry: October 7, 1944
10/7/1944President Osmeña arrived at Sentani Airport, Hollandia, at 7 a.m.From the diary of Gen. Basilio Valdes, October 7, 1944.
10/10/1944General Yamashita arrives in Manila.Lt. Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita arrives in Manila to assume command of the Japanese 14th Army.
10/12/1944First Division sails from Shanghai for northern Luzon but was forced to return to Shanghai.The transports of the first division were scattered because of reports of U.S. carriers in the East China Sea. They sought safety among the offshore islands near Shanghai and eventually returned.
10/12/1944Infiltration led by Miller
10/13/1944Vanderpool infiltration
10/18/1944First Division transports set sail again from Shanghai for Luzon.
10/20/1944Kamikaze attack in Mabalacat, Pampanga.
10/20/1944President Sergio Osmeña and Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur return to the Philippines.
10/20/1944President Sergio Osmeña and Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur return to the Philippines.
10/22/1944President Laurel flees to Baguio.President Jose P. Laurel, together with his Cabinet, moves to Baguio. President Laurel stayed at The Mansion House.
10/23/1944The Second Republic is declared invalid.Field Marshal MacArthur read the proclamation declaring null and void all laws promulgated by the Japanese and the puppet republic.
10/23/1944Philippine Commonwealth is restored.The Commonwealth Government with Sergio Osmeña as President is restored in Tacloban, Leyte, by Field Marshal MacArthur. Tacloban temporarily becomes the capital city of the restored Commonwealth.
11/3/1944Gen. Basilio Valdes investigates reports of guerrilla atrocities.November 3, 1944, diary entry. See the full entry here.
1/2/1945Japanese troops evacuate from Manila.Imperial Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita orders the evacuation of troops and supplies from Manila.
1/9/1945American troops land in Dagupan, Pangasinan.U.S. troops under Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur land in Blue Beach, Dagupan City, Pangasinan.
1/9/1945Americans land in Lingayen, Pangasinan.
1/19/1945Pangasinan Capitol is in ruins.
1/29/1945The Americans land in Subic Bay.The Americans establish beachheads in the Subic Bay area.
2/3/1945Entrance of Fort Santiago during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945Vicinity of Singalong during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945American soldiers in the ruins of Intramuros
2/3/1945American soldiers occupy the ruined entrance of the old Legislative Building
2/3/1945Intramuros during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945The old Legislative Building being shelled as seen from the Manila City Hall
2/3/1945The Post Office Building on this date.
2/3/1945U.S. heavy bombers attack Cavite.
2/3/1945Various flamethrower, tank, and machine gun battles in 1945
2/3/1945UP Villamor Hall is in ruins.
2/3/1945Agriculture and Commerce Building in ruins
2/3/1945Legislative Building in ruins
2/3/1945Letran in ruins
2/3/1945Malate in ruins
2/3/1945Binondo in ruins
2/3/1945Quiapo in ruins
2/3/1945Quiapo in ruins
2/3/1945Raon Street (now G. Puyat) during the liberation of 1945
2/3/1945San Agustin Church during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945Santa Cruz Bridge during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945Santa Cruz Bridge during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945Avenida Rizal during the liberation of Manila
2/3/1945Santa Cruz Church in ruins
2/3/1945Clash at Malacañan Palace
2/3/1945Manila City Hall in ruins
2/4/1945Japanese stragglers are cleared by American troops.
2/4/1945Ayala Bridge is blown up at 11:00 a.m.
2/5/1945Ruins of St. Paul's College, New Manila
2/5/1945Liberation of the University of Santo Tomas
2/7/1945Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur enters the city of Manila.Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur, commanding the American forces, enters the city of Manila amidst cheers from the Filipinos. Liberation of Manila from Japanese forces.
2/9/1945Japanese marines enters Assumption College in Manila.Groups of Japanese marines, with fixed bayonets, enters Assumption College.
2/10/1945Death of Capt. Manuel ColaycoCapt. Manuel Colayco Sr. was killed while briefing Lt. Col. Coner and other officers of the 1st Cavalry.
2/12/1945Massacre of the Perez-Rubio FamilyThe Japanese burns the family home of Carlos Perez-Rubio in Manila. Upon attempts to escape, Carlos is instantly shot, and son Javier, aged 23 is bayoneted. The rest of the family is massacred, except Carlos' son Miguel, who is imprisoned by the Japanese in Baguio.
2/22/1945Manila Hotel in ruinsField Marshal MacArthur inspects his former residence, the penthouse of the Manila Hotel
2/23/1945Fighting in Intramuros
3/2/1945Corregidor is retaken.The island fortress of Corregidor, which was taken by the Japanese on May 6, 1942, is retaken by the Americans.
3/3/1945The liberation of ManilaEnd of Japanese resistance in Manila. The survivors of the massacre of civilians in Intramuros are rescued by the Americans and taken to hospitals.
3/3/1945The Manila City Hall
3/3/1945Quiapo during the liberation of Manila
3/3/1945View of the ruins of Intramuros from Manila Hotel
3/28/1945MacArthur returns civil government to the Philippines.
4/28/1945Baguio is liberated.American and Filipino forces take Baguio from the Japanese, which escaped to the trails of the Mountain Province.
5/9/1945First post-liberation symphony concert is held in Santa Cruz Church.
6/9/1945President Sergio Osmeña delivers his first and only State of the Nation.
6/14/1945End of the Battle of Besang PassPhilippine and American forces defeat the Japanese armies under General Yamashita in a struggle that has lasted for several months.
8/2/1945Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur in Manila City Hall
8/6/1945U.S. President Truman announces the bombing of Hiroshima. The President of the United States, Harry Truman, announces that American forces have dropped an atomic bomb, with the code name "Little Boy," in Hiroshima, Japan.
8/9/1945The Atomic Bomb "Fat man" is dropped on Nagasaki.Another atomic bomb was dropped, this time in Nagasaki, Japan. From the diary of Antonio de las Alas, August 9, 1945. See the full entry here.
8/9/1945Russia declares war against Japan.From the diary of Antonio de las Alas, August 9, 1945. See the full entry here.
8/11/1945The White House receives a surrender offer from Japan.From the diary of Antonio de las Alas, August 11, 1945. See the full entry here.
8/15/1945Emperor Hirohito broadcasts the surrender of Japan. At noon, for the first time in history, the voice of the Emperor of Japan was heard on the radio. Listen to Emperor Hirohito's broadcast: Imperial rescript on the termination of the war. English text of the Imperial rescript proclaiming surrender
9/2/1945Surrender Ceremony of the Imperial Japanese forcesField Marshal MacArthur remarks at the surrender signing ceremony aboard the USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay.
9/3/1945Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender.General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the so-called "Tiger of Malaya" and Commander of the Japanese forces in the Philippines, formally surrenders in Baguio to the American forces.
9/3/1945Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender.General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the so-called "Tiger of Malaya" and Commander of the Japanese forces in the Philippines, formally surrenders in Baguio to the American forces.