January 1942: 80 Years After

In commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of World War II in the Philippines, we have compiled the diary entries for the second month of the war, along with other interesting material, in the hope that this will help interested readers to get a sense of the of that conflict.

Each date contains the relevant entries as well as materials culled from different sources of information:

  1. Battling Bastards. A Diary-Type Account of the First Days of World War II in the Philippines, by J.G. Doll (The Merriam Press, 1989), which provides the American military perspective on events. These entries are in italics. These provide a fair summary of the American point of view.
  2. The World War II Timeline prepared by the Official Gazette; these entries are in bold. these give an indication of the Filipino point of view.
  3. Various documents and photographs from the Quezon Family Collection.

Prologue: The Long Month

Carl Mydans’ famous photo of MacArthur and Quezon in Corregidor, early 1942

See: December 1941: 80 Years After for the first month of the war.

See: The cavalry and their last charge, December 1941-January 1942.

See: The debate on taking the Philippines out of the war: January 28 to February 12, 1942.

January, 1942: “You must hold in place, and hold, and hold…”

1/1/1942 Day 25 (New Year’s Day)

The South Luzon Force, upon completing its withdrawal across the Pampanga River at Calumpit by 0500 hours and then destroying the bridges there at 0615 hours, is disbanded. Its components continue the withdrawal toward Bataan and General Jones rejoins the 51st Division (PA).

The Japanese move through Plaridel to Calumpit but are unable to cross the Pampanga River because of the blown bridges.

The covering force (elements of both the 71st and the 91st PA Divisions) withdraws from the river line toward San Fernando.

Meanwhile, the 21st and 11th Divisions (PA) continue fighting withdrawals, the 21st along the route Bambam-Angeles-Porac, and the 11th on the route Malagang-San Fernando-Guagua (north of Sexmoan), finally arriving on the line Porac-Guagua during the night of 1-2 January.

The troops on Corregidor are put on half rations.

Elsewhere: In Washington, D.C., the Declaration of the United Nations is signed by 26 countries.

Last American tank crosses Calumpit Bridge, 2:30 a.m.

Calumpit Bridge destroyed at 6:15 a.m. to stop the advancing Japanese troops from the north.

65th Brigade, commanded by Lt. Gen. Nara Akira, debarks at Lingayen. Japanese Imperial Army troops arrive in Banbam, 9:00 a.m.

President Quezon signs Executive Order No. 400, creating the City of Greater Manila.

MacArthur informs Quezon of a Washington invitation to President Quezon to establish the Commonwealth government-in-exile abroad where he will remain as the “symbol of the redemption of the Philippines.” Quezon’s war-cabinet favors acceptance of the invitation because they know that the Filipino people want their President to be saved from falling into enemy hands, or from being killed. Instead of weakening the Filipinos’ will to fight, the cabinet believes Quezon’s departure for Washington will facilitate the timely arrival of help from the United States especially to the troops in the field.

As per their timetable, advanced units of the Japanese Imperial Army enter Manila on New Year’s Day, the “official” birthday of the Japanese Emperor. According to Vargas, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday is “’officially” celebrated on January 1st, irrespective of the actual date he was born. The Japs immediately contact Mayor Vargas in his office at the City Hall. The announcement of Vargas’ appointment as mayor of Greater Manila has been deliberately withheld until a few hours before the Japanese arrival so that he could function as caretaker of the national government after Quezon’s departure on Christmas eve for Corregidor.

January 1, 1942

A fine New Year’s Day—with a faint tinge of hangover and the Japs, like Sheridan, only twenty miles away—more or less. Mostly less. I understand they are doing an Alphonse et Gaston act—can’t decide which general should have the honor of capturing us. With all our anxiety I had to laugh at this morning’s Bulletin… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942 – Thursday

  I attended Mass at 7 a.m. and received Holy Communion. I congratulated the President, Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Roxas, & Manolo Nieto, on their feast day. The morning was quiet. At 12:45 p.m. the Air-Raid Alarm was sounded. We could hear the bombs exploding, and our guns roaring. The raid lasted two hours. At about… Read More »January 1, 1942 – Thursday

Jan. 1 – 42

Working at Pillar [Pilar] Field. Ships going in and out, and were always watching for bombers.

1 Jan. ’42

An ominous New Year. Fires and looting started. High Commissioner Aide phoned all law out of control. Japanese forces to outer city today. Contacted the High Commissioner’s Office and the Red Cross for information and advice. Commander Sumner Cheever, U.S.Navy, fell off the main building, a distance of about 60 feet and died in a… Read More »1 Jan. ’42

December 25, 1941 to January 1, 1942

The Marsh family came to stay with us. We had turkey for Xmas but the air raids caused the current to be turned off so it wasn’t very well roasted. Saturday the treasury was bombed. Hank Sperry was there but escaped. It was not easy trying to work amidst raids and meals were most irregular.… Read More »December 25, 1941 to January 1, 1942

Jan 1/42

Arrived at Corregidor at 6:00 am, slept several hours after a light breakfast and left by boat for Bataan at 11:45 am, in the middle of an air raid alarm. Only three miles to Bataan, but we didn’t land until about 2350 pm as we had to circle about in the bay because of the… Read More »Jan 1/42

Jan. 1, 1942

Had the hardest decision in my life to make, –whether to keep on trying to get around the outer edge of the Jap swinging door and get to join the USAFFE or turn back. Here the WD had been paying my salary for twenty-four years to have me available for use when wanted. But it… Read More »Jan. 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

After having escaped from the Japanese in Manila, we are practically free lancing here on Bataan; it is certainly a case of the survival of the fittest. Yesterday found the Lapham family and me making tentative arrangements for our refuge in the Parker house here in Limay. the most desirable feature about this cottage is… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

A Japanese observation plane, known as Photo Joe, paid us an early morning call.Evidently he photographed several trucks, cars and a some Filipino troops concentrated under the large, shady acacia trees nearby. About two hours later I heard the drone of an airplane. I thought it foolish to get into a foxhole; this spending so… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

Not too many Happy New Year’s today — We’re a pretty low and sick bunch. We are in Japanese controlled waters, and although we got a clearance from the Japanese Commander, we expect to hit a floating mine or be mistaken for something else. Gradually getting settled. I’m in Cabin # 5 and Lt. Passanante… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

Most of Luzon is in Japanese hands. The USAFFE has retreated to Bataan. Where are the U.S. planes? Will the convoy arrive? My eldest boy is with the 51st division. He is a lieutenant. God protect him. Manila’s gates are open. The Japanese are expected any moment. The oft-repeated, long-foretold “yellow menace” has come true.… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

had a shave and a clean uniform. One Jap observation plane over Kindley Field on the Rock at 8 AM. Good turkey dinner at 5 PM. Living at Battery Cheney, Fort Mills, now. “D” battery mans Cheney.

January 1, 1942

The radio was dead! We continued to hear deafening explosions, immediately followed by clouds of thick black smoke and pillars of dancing orange flames. As far as the eye could see there were dense curtains of black smoke and flames. A blood-red haze hung over the city, blotting out the sun. I thought of Doomsday… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

It was a day of looting. The year 1941 passed and was buried in the midst of a tragic, uncertain and restless silence. The new year was greeted by the eerie illuminations of a conflagration which is growing bigger and bigger each time. First thing in the morning, I was informed that the Japanese were… Read More »January 1, 1942

Thur. Jan. 1 1942

As Ernest and I were walking to Misos last evening for the meeting there, the sky was dark and foreboding with heavy clouds rolling up from the oil fires which had been set on purpose. The flames were extremely high and the soot from the heavy oil left marks on our light clothing. I remarked… Read More »Thur. Jan. 1 1942

Thursday, January 1, 1942

No Happy New Year today! Manila radio stations quiet during morning. Last station (government operated) 12:45 news broadcast was heartrending. Tears in announcer’s voice as he said this station must go off the air like all other Manila stations. Director of Bureau of Information and Propaganda (De Cavrila Orias) asked radio audience in the Philippines… Read More »Thursday, January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

Bataan 41st division, C.P.   Dead tired. Streets jammed from Bulacan to Bataan. Absolutely no traffic order. Roads filled with dust that covered entire body, entered ears, nose, eyes, lungs. Tanks were rattling up and down the road like lost monsters. Trucks loaded with food and ammunition were moving on, not knowing where to go.… Read More »January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942

Alfred floored the gas pedal. We overtook convoy after convoy all headed the same way we were. The traffic was heavy and constant that all trees and brush within 50 yards from both sides of the road were heavily laden with dust. This gave us a natural camouflage. Once we were nearly crushed into eternity… Read More »January 1, 1942

Thursday, January 1, 1942

Early in the morning, visited the probationary settlers at the nursery with Overseer Vargas, and extended them my greetings of the season. Found Dr. Baltazar and Mr. Rivera there. The majority of the probationary settlers from Manila who evacuated near the Natividad’s cattle ranch had returned. They told me that the rest would follow suit,… Read More »Thursday, January 1, 1942

January 1, 1942*

*Philippine Diary Project Note: President Quezon’s inaugural was on December 30, 1941, two days before the date of this entry. Had a little rain as I was shaving this morning. Rather unusual for this time of year. Also, to add interest, a few Jap bombers tried to fly in out of the clouds and the… Read More »January 1, 1942*

Ranson

Jan. 1, 1942

One truck returned after mine so it is definite the road has been cut between Bataan and Manila by the Japanese Forces.

Thursday, January 1, 1942

New Year’s Day. Manila has fallen! All Americans must stay close to homes, but we can still see Oscar and Ada — they are so close. We are expecting the Japanese to occupy the city at any hour, and it is ready for them. We have nice neighbors all around, and staying close will not… Read More »Thursday, January 1, 1942

1 Jan. 1942

Happy New Year, my friend! Our dear sick patient’s situation seems desperate. The lines held by the USAFFE have been broken to the north and south. Quite surprised this morning that the Japs aren’t here yet. But the day isn’t over. Calm day yesterday, except for the many explosions almost everywhere from the demolitions being… Read More »1 Jan. 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 1st, 1942

NEW YEAR’S DAY, what will 1942 bring for us. Many promotions in regiment today. No contact with enemy yet but considerable Japanese aerial observation.

1/2/1942 Day 26

The defenders complete a successful withdrawal through San Fernando, with the final elements clearing the town at 0200 hours. They then organized delaying positions along a ten-mile front from Porac to Guagua. Holding this line are the 21st Division (PA) on the west, its left flank covered by the 26th Cavalry (PS) at San Jose, south of Porac; and the 11th Division (PA) on the east. The Japanese attack the west flank in the vicinity of Porac in the afternoon and force the 21st Division (PA) to fall back.

Meanwhile, Japanese troops east of Pampanga succeed in crossing the river and move to San Fernando, where they join with the Japanese units from Angeles.

At 1745 hours, a Japanese occupation force moves into Manila and 3,000 American civilians are forced behind the barbed wire of Santo Tomas University, to live for the next three years in over-crowded squalor, short of food and medical supplies.

Japanese planes begin a routine of daily attacks on Corregidor.

Advance guard of the Japanese army of occupation arrives in Parañaque.

Japanese forces enter and occupy the City of Manila.

Jorge Vargas as Mayor of Greater Manila surrenders the city to the Japanese. Standard Local Time is synchronized to Tokyo Time. Gen. Homma occupies U.S. High Commissioner’s residence.

The radio station “The Voice of Freedom” is born. Field Marshal MacArthur orders Major General Richard Marshall to set up a complete broadcasting station in Corregidor. When Maj. Carlos P. Romulo, former Manila editor, turned up on Corregidor, the radio equipment was ready to use. MacArthur himself named it “The Voice of Freedom” and made Romulo and others to make it as the mouthpiece of the President and the Field Marshal.

January 2, 1942

(Noon) Looting. Met a man carrying a leg of ham on one hand and a roll of khaki on the other. Saw a truck full of cigarette packages and boxes of sardines and Carnation milk. Three men were running with typewriters and adding machines. A boy smashed display window and a mob entered the store.… Read More »January 2, 1942

January 2, 1942

I went to market this morning and stocked up with all sorts of things. Prices have gone up dreadfully. It is now eight in the morning and we are still unoccupied. The streets are nearly deserted, people are huddled in frightened groups, fires raging all about the city—and always rumors, rumors. The rumor that the… Read More »January 2, 1942

January 2, 1942 – Friday

Nothing unusual in the morning. At 12:30 p.m. again the alarm was sounded. After luncheon the President, Mrs. Quezon and their children were seated in the hospital tunnel, between laterals 11 & 9 where we were lodged. Two bombs fell on the hill on top of the tunnel, one of them near the main entrance.… Read More »January 2, 1942 – Friday

January 2, 1942

Dysentery broke out during the night. Three cases, children. Back to regular toilets, cleaning everything with lye, etc. I bathed the kids. Killed millions of flies. Then took names of 127 who had dysentery shots. Five more cases in the night and one screamed for hours.

2nd January 1942

We woke up today still with the uncertainty as to whether Manila had already been occupied by the Japanese army. There were no newspapers and the radio was off the air. We had gone to the streets, but found no sign of the enemy. It seemed necessary to go as far as downtown, but no… Read More »2nd January 1942

2 Jan. ’42

INTERNED BY JAPS Fires continue. Lighting current off. Fear of refrigeration. Lights on in two hours and great relief. In the afternoon a committee of Japanese arrived and seized the premises, telling me that I was responsible for all buildings. Asked about Arms and looked in my safe. There was no search or personnel disturbed.… Read More »2 Jan. ’42

Friday, Jan. 2, 1942

Spent half of the morning visiting settlers’ farm lots in the poblacion of Banga as well as the hospital. Found the settlers’ home lots well planted and in sanitary condition, The dispensary was deplorably constructed. It is floored with bamboo and as the nights in Banga are cool the patients are subject to draft. Instructed… Read More »Friday, Jan. 2, 1942

Jan. 2, 1942

Left Bambang by truck, Sgt. Bowen driving. His foot was too bad for him yo go to Imugan with us so he went with Praeger. Three miles out we came to a damaged bridge. Walked three miles to the destroyed bridge over the Magat, a six span bridge completely demolished. Ferried the stream. Got to… Read More »Jan. 2, 1942

January 2nd, 1942

Still sailing South – still in Japanese waters headed for Australia – should make it in about a week or ten days, they say. I can’t see. The porthole is way over my head and I’m locked in this bunk.

January 2, 1942

The enemy dropped thousands of leaflets over the city. Uncle Sam was depicted as a Death’s Head in repulsive caricature. Underneath the picture in large letters there was one word: “Destiny.” My neatly folded morning paper was reassuring until I unfolded it and read the headline: “City Awaits Occupation. Avoid Hostilities When Foe Arrives.” The… Read More »January 2, 1942

Jan. 1 & 2, 1942

Today the 1st we were busy getting out the last convoy by lighter as the road to Bataan has been taken by the Japs. Col Harwood took the last bunch of soldiers, and Civilians on a barge from Pasig River. We also were busy paying off Native employees. About six o’clock, Wilson and others had… Read More »Jan. 1 & 2, 1942

Fri. Jan. 2/42

Stay pretty close to home, as we do not want to get caught on the street when the army comes in. The looting is terrible! When the American forces left, they gave much of their stores to citizens to keep it from falling in to the hands of the enemy. After they left, the Filipinos… Read More »Fri. Jan. 2/42

January 2, 1942

The Japanese have entered Manila, but not a single Japanese soldier can yet be seen in the streets, and the looting has become still [portion missing]   Shortly before 10:00 A.M. Colonel Hernández of the Constabulary came, telling us that he would be at City Hall at 10:00 A.M. to surrender his forces and his… Read More »January 2, 1942

Friday, January 2, 1942

No news. London broadcasts and Singapore broadcasts not clear. KGEI (General Electric, San Francisco) announces Manila still holding out.

January 2, 1942 

Got a break today–had a low overcast and the bombers couldn’t see anything to hit. They were there, though. Our Sqd’n is not far from here, tomorrow we go back. Light rain this evening. Dyess had received orders the day before to abandon Lubao Field, which was now almost on the front lines, the Japanese… Read More »January 2, 1942 

January 2, 1942

Last night we slept near a regimental command post. Early today, the regimental Commanding Officer somehow managed to get us a truck. But the truck was too small to hold all of us. The intelligence scouts were left behind. We hitch hiked our way to Mariveles, Bataan. Once, during an interval in our hiking and… Read More »January 2, 1942

January 2, 1942

More rain today—like apologies in California—very unusual weather. The Japs entered Manila today. I am not sure of the hour, but there have been messages indicating that the City Hall was occupied about noon. Rather an historic event. I don’t imagine their reception was too cordial. I also understand that the people were somewhat out… Read More »January 2, 1942

Ranson

Jan. 2, 1942

Sergeant Walker and three Privates escaped capture in Manila by going to Corregidor on Navy speed boat when Japanese were on the outskirts of the city.

2 January 1942

Three weeks after that last peacetime Sunday, Manila is like a deserted city. Enormous black clouds, againstwhich even the tropical sun is powerless, fill part of the sky. Nothing is left of the church of Santo Domingo but half-burnt walls and the bay is a graveyard of ships, of which only the masts stick out… Read More »2 January 1942

Friday, January 2, 1942

Oscar says that we must keep our sense of humor and so find many little ways of playing jokes on each other and in that way we have our little fun. Carl took a quick run down this morning to get my jewels and medicines for me mm case there should be a headache. The… Read More »Friday, January 2, 1942

1/3/1942 Day 27 

The Japanese continue a series of determined attacks on the west flank of the Porac-Guagua line. The 21st Division (PA) finally succeeds in halting the enemy just below Pio. The Japanese exert strong pressure on the east flank in the vicinity of Guagua.

The Japanese High Command establishes the Japanese Military Administration in the Philippines. Bataan echelon of headquarters is established on Bataan under Major General Richard J. Marshall.

Quezon issues his first proclamation from the “Rock,” enjoining the Filipino people to continue standing by “our plighted word, by the loyalty that we have pledged to America, and by our devotion to freedom, democracy, and our liberty. We are fighting that the Filipino people may be the masters of their own destiny, and that every Filipino not only of this generation but also of the generations to come may be able to live in peace and tranquility in the full enjoyment of liberty and freedom.”

Message of President Quezon to the Filipino soldiers in Spanish version, January 3, 1942

January 3, 1942

Raid number 3 at 12:52. Hit on no. 5 machine gun but no casualties. Three enemy planes downed. Two waves of bombers over Cheney. Glassburn’s tent was knocked out.

January 3, 1942

Killed flies and washed clothes. The Japanese took our safety deposit box keys. They made Carl do the collecting and when I asked him if we couldn’t hold out he shook his head. The rage and feeling of helplessness was ghastly.

3 Jan. ’42

A Japanese soldier was heard pounding on our closed front gate at 0445. He told us to stay put, we will. At 0745 a Japanese soldier searched our sentry at the gate and closed the gate again. 1350 — three Japanese conferredwith me. 1850 a car driven by a Japanese crashed through our compound wall.… Read More »3 Jan. ’42

January 3, 1942

] didn’t go to bed. Mr. P-———— , an oil man caught here en route to India, has been staying in the house. He was in the Bay View bar when the Japs came in, but somehow he sneaked out and came back here. I got out a bottle of the Scotch I had saved… Read More »January 3, 1942

Jan. 3, 1942

Hays & I went back to Stotsenburg for Communication wire. Brought back plenty of food.

January 3, 1942

We are now iiving on the river bank in a bamboo hut. We cook on a charcoal stove and use our hut only for our beds and for the storage of provisions. Some life! I suppose General Sherman had his Civil War hell, but this is a different variety.

January 3rd, 1942

The boys dropped in to tell me that we’re going through a flock of small islands. Still expect a visit from the Japanese via a torpedo. Colonel Carroll has been around, also Miss Feldmuth. Dr Roman has made a call or two, and my nurse, little Dolores (her fiance is still on the Island). Passanante’s… Read More »January 3rd, 1942

Jan. 3, 1942

Moved on to Ibalao gate 33 km away. Here the men were fed by detachment from the Kianga Constabulary.

January 3, 1942

Looting continues unabated. War brings out the noble and the degrading in man. Saw three Japanese soldiers talking with two women with painted faces in a street-corner. Thousands of people mobbed our warehouses. The bodega on Batangas street was completely looted. Asked Chief Torres and Mayor Nolasco for police protection, but they had none to… Read More »January 3, 1942

January 3, 1942

Though I couldn’t reach Catesy by phone, my phone rang continually. Friends and neighbors called to see if we were still in our home or to inform us that other friends had already been taken by the Japs. When I phoned the Oriente Hotel in Walled City where Zenia, the missionary nurse from India, stayed,… Read More »January 3, 1942

Jan. 3, 1942

Mr Wilson and myself tried once more to get to office as was a little important work to do and some records to remove. We went in his car, I had told my driver to hide his tin hat and do what he wished with my car. Sec. Vargas advised us that we would be… Read More »Jan. 3, 1942

Saturday, January 3, 1942

Manila in hands of Japanese, also Cavite naval base, though ships and supplies moved. Lt. Arnold (real name Archangelski), Russian from Manapla Central, sent word he had heard Jim was all right and that I had letter salvaged from S.S. Panay which could be secured from Governor’s office on Monday. Having lawyer draw up will… Read More »Saturday, January 3, 1942

January 3, 1942

At midnight, half a dozen soldiers posted themselves at the gate of the University campus. Two soldiers, accompanied by a Japanese resident who serves as interpreter, have been posted at every streetcorner to search for arms all those who passed, whether on foot or in vehicles. Some of them merely looked our papers or asked… Read More »January 3, 1942

January 3, 1942

Bataan 51st Division C.P. (Provisional Brigade)   Slept last night in a deserted nipa shack beside a lazy river. It was very windy and I missed my soft, warm, spring bed. Bothered by mosquitoes the whole night. This morning the doctor gave me quinine. He said “mosquitoes here are anopheles. You might get malaria.” Spent… Read More »January 3, 1942

Sat. Jan. 3/42

Mr. Misos and Mr. Cruz came over to see us, as they know we must stay close to home. They tell us that looting still continued this morning. Fires are still raging.

January 3, 1942

We were ordered by Lt. Villamor of the BN S-2 to locate a site for our camp. We found a nice shady place along the Lamao River. We immediately started to build papags (sleeping cots made of wood). A few yards from us was the Philippine Army Air Corps encampment. Today, I saw my first… Read More »January 3, 1942

January 3, 1942

Today has not been particularly exciting, except for a rather long air raid. It seemed to me that the raid signal was on from early this a.m. until a short time ago. There was some bombing by Jap planes, and I was told that our former Hqs is now nothing but ruins, only a skeleton… Read More »January 3, 1942

Saturday, January 3, 1942

The High Commissioner, Mr. Sayre, ran a notice in the paper saying that all American places of business must open and operate as usual. Carl and Bill, again despite prayerful pleas from Jane and me, MUST go to work!! They Ieft the house before nine with promises to call us on arrival at the office… Read More »Saturday, January 3, 1942

3 Jan. 1942

Yesterday afternoon a Japanese plane looses off several bursts of machine-gun fire in the neighborhood. I make the children, who are playing in the garden, take shelter. The fires are still burning. Filipinos gather idly in front of the pretty Spanish church next door. In response to an order coming from goodness knows where, they… Read More »3 Jan. 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 3, 1942

Capt. Francis & Earleen Allen ANC. married in field this evening.

1/4/1942 Day 28 

Continuing their strong attacks against the east flank of the Porac-Guagua line, the Japanese finally overrun Guagua and continue along Route 7 to Lubao, cutting the planned line of retreat of the 11th Division (PA).

It is relatively quiet on the west portion of the line, the 21st Division’s zone.

Withdrawal from the Porac-Guagua line begins under cover of darkness on the night of 4-5 January, with the 2lst Division covering for the 11th. Some of the cut-off elements of the 11th form an outpost line between Lubao and Santa Cruz.

Jan. 4, 1942

The boys and myself packed our clothes in barrack bag and haversacks, hid most of our food reserves and waited.

January 4th 1942

Raid number 4. Bombs over Cheney at 1:30. Had a bath in the week old water at the quarters – pretty dirty. By now any sense of accountability was long gone. A detachment of Marines were in possession of a brand new 3/4 ton truck which they had no doubt “liberated” from its owner in… Read More »January 4th 1942

January 4, 1942

Washed clothes. Three more cases. The men moved into the next barracks building, relieving the terribly crowded conditions of over 500 in a building intended for maximum of 250. Jerry was taken to town to open up his office safe but it had been blown and jammed. We were all lined up on the tennis… Read More »January 4, 1942

Ranson

Jan. 4, 1942

Sgt Walker and three Privates returned to organization at 162.5 Bataan from Corregidor. We had giventhem up as lost.

4 Jan. ’42

Food conservation necessary and two meals per day, with breakfast at ten AM, and evening meal at five PM. We have no butter. Gave another talk to all hands as I wish to keep everyone informed as the situation develops. Another Japanese committee called; they come about every hour, ask the same questions and don’t… Read More »4 Jan. ’42

January 4, 1942

Jap soldiers came into the kitchen today with an interpreter, wanting to cook their food on our stoves. They are the Bay View Hotel guard and I take it the kitchens there are pretty crowded. I was in no position to say them nay. If what I saw them prepare is the stuff they feed… Read More »January 4, 1942

January 4th, 1942

Sunday! Father Shanhan is holding mass in the main saloon – that’s also the operating room. They have a table set up there. It’s right outside our door. Quite a congregation! White and dark skins alike! This is quite a unique affair. We are escaping; still there are church services. Weather is rather warm; not… Read More »January 4th, 1942

Jan. 4, 1942

Arrived at Kiangan after two hours hike. Moved into the PC bks. Lt. Estrella, PC, ad Capt. Glitter made arrangements for messing and quartering together. There was a lot of room. Here I met Miss Netzer and Miss Spossard, with whom Mrs. Horan and I stayed upon a previous visit to Kiangan. Capt. Glitter made… Read More »Jan. 4, 1942

January 4, 1942

Warnings have been issued by the Commander of the Japanese Landing Forces. (1) Anyone who inflicts or attempts to inflict an injury upon Japanese soldiers or individuals shall be shot to death. (2) If the assailant or attempted assailant cannot be found, we will hold ten influential persons as hostages who live in and about… Read More »January 4, 1942

January 4, 1942

We had abandoned all wishful thinking and hopes that a miracle at the eleventh hour would occur to prevent the Japs from taking us into custody. At last we were convinced that it was only a question of time, perhaps a few hours, before they reached my home. My home suddenly became very dear to… Read More »January 4, 1942

Sunday, January 4, 1942

Dinner—delayed Christmas dinner of “American milk-fed capon” at McMasters’ house. All talk of the new airport being built at Bacolod to accommodate large bombers. Since Manila and most of the island of Luzon is in hands of the Japs there is no landing field for American bombers when they come. This island chosen for base… Read More »Sunday, January 4, 1942

Dec. 24, 1941 – Jan. 4, 1942

The battalion (less Company “B”) was ordered to move to Corregidor. At 10:15 A.M. , the battalion (less Companies “B” and “C”) started by boat for Corregidor, arriving at 2 AM. on25 Dec. There was insufficient space on the boat for Company “C”, which unit remained at Manila awaiting transportation. The battalion (less “B” and… Read More »Dec. 24, 1941 – Jan. 4, 1942

January 4, 1942

3rd Battalion — 31st Infantry Battalion Staff Lieutenant Colonel Brady…………………. Commanding Officer Captain O’Donovan……………..  Executive Officer Captain Brennan. ……………. Surgeon Captain Stroud…………… Commanding Officer Company “I” Captain Talbot………… Commanding Officer Company “K” iLT Thompson………………… Commanding Officer Company “L” Captain Bell. ……. Commanding Officer Company “M” The 3rd Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment, moved into position north… Read More »January 4, 1942

January 4, 1942 

They did a lot of bombing today, but not much damage, quite a few clouds helped us Took it fairly easy today, have a sore back. Today was Sunday. The nine Pilar pilots left for Mindanao as scheduled, but the Orani pilots under Dyess had received new orders canceling the Mindanao mission. They were to… Read More »January 4, 1942 

Sun. Jan. 4/42

We stay home for Meeting, as we do not like to get too far away from the house. Mr. and Mrs. Hernandez are still here with us. It is convenient for us, too, as they can go out and look for a little food to buy. Mr. Cruz comes to see us again.

January 4, 1942

The Japs took advantage of the clouds today to stage a little raid. The clouds were quite low so the planes could not be observed, but we could hear them much better than usual. They circled over the island several times, and finally found an opening in the clouds. They dropped most of their bombs… Read More »January 4, 1942

Sunday, January 4, 1942

Many of our friends have been taken into concentration for questionings. They are all interned in one of the lovely big universities here near New Manila, and have received the best of treatment. A Japanese Captain his interpreter and men came this afternoon at 2:30 and inspected our house, took names and asked many questions.… Read More »Sunday, January 4, 1942

4 Jan. 1942

Up early this morning. At seven o’clock it’s hardly light. Went to market. On the way, went past three Japanese checkpoints. I wasn’t stopped or searched, whereas most Filipino passers-by were summarily searched. A lot of people at the market, but little food. No rice, fruit or vegetables. Prices sky-high. A moment of panic when… Read More »4 Jan. 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 4th, 1942

First contact with enemy. Went up to see how 1st & 3rd Bn Aid Stations were functioning. 2nd Bn in reserve. Glattly and Peters went with me on inspection.

1/5/1942 Day 29

American and Filipino forces complete their withdrawal to a new line extending along the base of the Bataan Peninsula from Dinalupihan on the west to Hermosa on the east.

During the night of 5-6 January, the withdrawal continues through Layac Junction, the funnel through which all roads into Bataan pass, with the final elements clearing it by 0200 hours. Immediately after the last troops cross, the bridge is blown. A delaying position called the Layac Line is formed south of the junction and is manned by the 71st and 72nd Regiments of the 71st Division (PA), the U.S. 31st Infantry Regiment of the Philippines Division, and the 26th Cavalry (PS). The 31st Infantry, the only completely American regiment in the Philippines, has not yet been in action.

Rations for the Bataan Defense Force and the garrisons of the fortified islands in Manila Bay are cut in half.

A Bataan echelon of HQ, USAFFE is established on the peninsula with Brigadier General Richard J. Marshall in command.

The Japanese continue their daily air attacks on Corregidor with occasional attacks on other targets in Manila Bay.

January 5th 1942

Raid number 5. Planes near at 7:30 AM, which is the earliest yet. I moved secret documents from the barracks to the battery. Lt. Aikman went to Malinta Tunnel in a jeep for the enlisted men’s pay. I went to Malinta Tunnel for $119 cash and increased allotment to $248.10.

January 5, 1942

Yesterday was hectic. Tremendous activity. Trucks roaring hither and yon, probably en route to the front which has been established (so someone told me over the phone) on the Bataan Peninsula. Big cars with huge flags rushed about. Speaking of cars, they finally got that Cadillac started after two days of work on it. They… Read More »January 5, 1942

5 Jan. ’42

Quiet day, just waiting. Cars counted and more questions asked. The Hospital is neutralized by the Red Cross but doubt if it means anything to the Japanese. A lieut. speaking good English advised me to write a letter to the High Japanese Command relating who were here and recording the location of any stores that… Read More »5 Jan. ’42

Jan. 5, 1942

All day the Japs were rounding up Americans in trucks and taking them to Santo Tomas; the boys were out scouting, about 5pm they reported a car at Wilson’s house, I and the boys took our bags and waited for the car, when it came to me I held up my hand and told the… Read More »Jan. 5, 1942

January 5th, 1942

Boy, it’s hot! Lt. Byers (he’s from the New Mexico Anti-Aircraft outfit) just came in, also Doc Angell and Lt. Heuget of the 20th Group. Miss Feldmuth just gave me a jar of beef concentrate, to see if I could have some beef broth made. It’s not bad — first thing I’ve eaten, it seems.… Read More »January 5th, 1942

Jan. 5, 1942

Made arrangement to attach our men to PC patrols to reconnoiter the mountain areas.

January 5, 1942

Very busy day in the office organizing rice distribution for the people. Thank goodness, the rice situation is now more or less under control, but I am losing weight. Almost everything in the market has gone up in price. A pound of meat, for example, has risen from 60 centavos to ₱1.50. Soap, cigarettes, medicines,… Read More »January 5, 1942

January 5, 1942

By 5:30 we had breakfast, and fifteen minutes later we were in the lobby of the apartment, surrounded by our bags and bundles. After an hour, when we saw no movement of any kind, we marched back to our apartment, and our luggage seemed to increase in weight with every step. At 10:30 the doorbell… Read More »January 5, 1942

January 5, 1942

January, the 5th! We could never forget that date, for it would have been our wedding day! Instead of a wedding, the large iron gates of our prison slammed shut on Catesy, my fiancé, and me with a finality that chilled our hearts. What a nightmare we had lived in since Pearl Harbor! Yet there… Read More »January 5, 1942

Monday, January 5, 1942

On Saturday there was a call (indirectly from Lt. Arnold) that I had a letter salvaged from the S.S. Panay in Bacolod. Hoping that it might be from Jim, I sent for it. There was no letter. The army lieutenant who called me to get it is no longer here—having been transferred—so the mystery remains… Read More »Monday, January 5, 1942

January 5, 1942

About 4:00 P.M. January Sth, Colonel Brady assembled the Commanding Officers and Platoon Leaders of the battalion and told them that all the troops to the north would pass through the battalion line that night and that the bridge would then be blown up. The 71st Division was to hold the line and delay the… Read More »January 5, 1942

January 5, 1942 

Today starts the 5th week of the war. Quite a few planes overhead but not many bombs fell. Did a good day’s work, moved farther back into the hills. Japanese Mitsubishi Ki-30 “Ann” single-engine bombers were operating up and down Bataan, bombing and strafing Bataan Field this date. 

Mon. Jan. 5/42

We stay home. Hear definitely that the Americans and British are being taken into concentration camps. What is in store for us? We pack a few things in our cases, put a few canned goods in bags, etc., as we hear that was the advice given by the Japanese officers when they took the staff… Read More »Mon. Jan. 5/42

January 5, 1942

I issued an order today putting everyone on half rations. Also a directive to all commanders to conserve food. Directed the C.G. Service Sector to organize a fishing fleet to augment food supply. I am reluctant to believe that we are so short of food, and am still hoping that a complete check of stocks… Read More »January 5, 1942

Monday, January 5, 1942

All stay home. It i perfectly all right for the servants to come and go, so the Captain who was here yesterday said for us to send to market for things in the way of food. Every morning we send the boy to market, where he gets greens and fruits and whatever he can find… Read More »Monday, January 5, 1942

5 Jan. 1942

This morning, to market, on the other side of the river. Fish, pork, few vegetables, no rice. No Japanese soldiers.Calm day. The evenings are exquisite, cool. Around five o’clock everything’s bathed in a soft light. From the road, our little bungalow with its thatched roof, the old walls which enclose it, and the greenery surrounding… Read More »5 Jan. 1942

Monday, January 5, 1942

Instructed Overseer Vargas to go to Matutum on horse back with Dr. Baltazar and there spend at least three days of each week visting the settlers in the barrios of Klinan and holding meetings with them in order to raise their morale. After luncheon, Major Peabody and Lt. Mercado pulled off for Buluan to see… Read More »Monday, January 5, 1942

1/6/1942 Day 30

After a destructive artillery barrage in the morning, directed by aerial observers, the Japanese attack the over-extended Layac Line in force and achieve a limited penetration. They enter Dinalupihan without opposition.

During the night, the U.S. and Filipino forces have been withdrawing from the Layac Line.

Except for nuisance raids, the Japanese aerial bombardment of Corregidor ends. Their raids during this first week of 1942 have resulted in very little damage to any U.S. fortifications.

January 6, 1942

We had our usual visit from the Japs today at about noon. I am glad to see them come in at about that time each day, as it indicates that they are still operating from Formosa. When they begin to bomb at all hours of the day we will know that they are based on… Read More »January 6, 1942

January 6, 1942

Luck was with us today. We chipped in and bought a five-peso hen. I did the dressing or rather the undressing and cooking. I should have done the eating too. Our invited guests were Lt. Lara, my former Commanding Officer (CO) and Commandant; Lt. Olores, former second in command, and Lt. Del Prado, our new… Read More »January 6, 1942

Tues. Jan. 6/42

I phoned several places to try to find out what is expected of us. The city is still in confusion. No one is supposed to be on the streets after dark. We see several cars and trucks with Japanese taking Americans some place, but do not know whether they are going to a camp, or… Read More »Tues. Jan. 6/42

January 6, 1942 

Went up on the rot. Mighty rough country and thick brush. Be mighty tough fighting in that stuff. Dividing Sqd’n into Platoons and going to teach them Infantry tactics. I have “C” Flight–3rd Platoon. MacArthur’s Chief of Staff, Sutherland, had told Colonel George on January 7th that he wanted all Air Corps officers and men… Read More »January 6, 1942 

January 6, 1942

Bataan Limay Hospital   Helluva day. Almost died. It was noontime and the sun was very hot. So I stood under the shade of a tall tree beside the municipal building of Limay. The general was standing at the entrance of the building talking with colonels Sevilla, Garcia, and Caluyag. I was talking to Major… Read More »January 6, 1942

Tuesday, January 6, 1942

Learning to use and to cook native vegetables. My boast always: “I shall never have to cook.” Studied as many vocational subjects as possible in college—journalism, typing, shorthand, graduate work in English literature (to teach), graduate work and Ph.D. in sociology (to do social work, research, or teach), but never to have to cook. Always… Read More »Tuesday, January 6, 1942

January 6, 1942

I will long remember my first night in Santo Tomas. Throughout the night, Japanese soldiers flashed lights on us as they barked restrictions and orders through an interpreter to late arrivals. Though we were already crowded, more people continued to join us. Frightened children screamed and cried in their sleep, and the eleven-month-old baby near… Read More »January 6, 1942

January 6, 1942

The Boulevard is like a carnival. There are so many people promenading; society matrons lounging on easy chairs, chatting and gossiping; boys and girls talking, laughing and playing; youths in pairs, seated on the rocks facing Manila Bay, hands romantically joined together. Have they forgotten that just across the bay, brave blood is being shed?… Read More »January 6, 1942

Tuesday, Jan. 6, 1942

Then held a meeting with settlers who were getting their rations. I told them that until the stock of the store was inventoried only rice would be issued them. All the remaining foodstuffs and other merchandise would be equally distributed to them in accordance with the sizes of their families. I also told then that… Read More »Tuesday, Jan. 6, 1942

Jan. 6, 1942

Col. Green, PC, arrived and ordered us to keep going, he did not care where. Said he had never been sworn into Federal service and did not intend to take orders from me. Tried to reason with him. Said we could not stay at either Banaue or Kiangan. Said he had to leave Bontoc as… Read More »Jan. 6, 1942

January 6th, 1942

My leg is really “going to town.” So is Passanante’s. So between the two of us, we are getting some attention. He is really in tough shape. The amputation is good, but the nerves are giving him hell. Lots of scurrying around. Someone said that a patient had hemorrhaged, arm amputation and they are going… Read More »January 6th, 1942

6 Jan. ’42

No events today. Body of Koenig left at 1545 through Red Cross to Funeria Nationale [Funeraria Nacional] with Japanese approval. After the long delay with awaiting the arrival of the Japanese it became necessary to make arrangements for the burial of Koenig’s body and the Mother Superior gave us permission to bury in the compound… Read More »6 Jan. ’42

January 1-6, 1942

Then about Jan. 1-1942 moved west in to mountains around Bagac stayed a few days came back to Hermosa got caught in 8 hour shelling these Jan 6 1942 that evening made counter attack had to withdraw got on busses and went back to Oreon [Orion] built up new line got bombed there two or… Read More »January 1-6, 1942

January 6, 1942

My theory that the greatest evil that ever befell mankind, the most harmful power that exists, is fear turns out to be correct insofar as I am concerned. I was so frightened during the night that my so-called mind dashed about my head like a fire-crazed horse. I went to bed with beer and book… Read More »January 6, 1942

January 6, 1942

Ismael brought fresh laundry, slacks and my gray wool dress! How wonderful to see him from a distance. He called out that the family and Fuzzy the cat were all right. Lysoled all floors. I was in charge of three sections. Tired.

January 6, 1942

Air raid number 6. Lasted from 1 to 4 PM. Water not too plentiful. Hit at Battery Geary kitchen and 26 men were killed. General Wavell commands the Far East Forces including USAFFE!

1/7/1942 Day 31

The siege of Bataan begins as U.S. and Filipino forces complete their withdrawal from the Layac Line.

General MacArthur sends a message to General Marshall: “I am on my main battle line awaiting a general attack.”

The North Luzon Force becomes the I Philippine Corps, containing about 22,500 men of the 1st, 31st, 71st, and 91st Divisions (all PA), the 26th Cavalry (PS), and miscellaneous troops and supporting weapons. The Bataan Defense Force is renamed the II Philippine Corps and consists of about 25,000 men of the llth, 21st, 41st, and 51st Divisions (all PA), the 57th Infantry (PS) of the Philippine Division, and supporting weapons.

The defense of Bataan as far south as the Mariveles Mountains is divided about equally between the two corps with I Corps being responsible for the west half and II Corps for the east half.

Service Command Area is located at the southern tip of Bataan, below the Mariveles Mountains and is the responsibility of Brigadier General Allan C. McBride. In this area are the 2nd Division (PC)–organized today–provisional infantry units formed from Air Corps personnel, and a provisional battalion of Navy and Marine Corps personnel.

Defenses on Bataan are organized in depth. The main line of resistance extends from Mauban on the west to Mabatang on the east, a distance of 20 miles. A general outpost line is established forward of the main line of resistance, and a rear defense line, manned by the USAFFE reserve (the Philippine Division less the 57th Infantry and the tank group), is being formed.

Battle of Bataan commences. The Battle for Bataan lasted from the early part of January 1942 to the eventual fall on April 9, 1942. Japanese invasion forces launched numerous attacks against the garrisoned USAFFE soldiers but were pushed back until the eventual surrender of the USAFFE forces in Bataan.

Minutes of interview between the representative of the Imperial Japanese Forces and the Honorable Jorge B. Vargas, January 7, 1942

Wednesday, January 7, 1942

The telephone seldom rings, for ail of our friends have been interned. All day long yesterday not a car passed, except for the policeman. What a changed city! Over on the boulevard we can hear traffic that sounds like Army trucks passing, but that is all. Bill was just saying that when we are interned… Read More »Wednesday, January 7, 1942

January 7, 1942

A beautiful sunrise this morning. This is one of the most magnificent settings imaginable, from a scenic point of view. Islands, mountains, sea, tropical foliage—one of the most pleasant peaceful scenes imaginable— except that the peace is rudely disturbed every day. No water this morning. The break in the mains yesterday had not yet been… Read More »January 7, 1942

Wed. Jan. 7/42

About twenty men were in our room, and we were instructed to get organized. That is, to appoint a monitor who would be responsible for the behavior of the occupants, and to make a list of names and other information. Ernest was appointed monitor as he knew Japanese and would make a good intercessor for… Read More »Wed. Jan. 7/42

January 7, 1942 

Took Platoon up to top today and started the inf. drill. We’re going to be mighty expensive doughboys. Have three days to get everything taught. I’ve forgotten an awful lot of this stuff. It was indeed an expensive use of trained Air Corps personnel and not surprisingly met with disgruntlement among many. Having taken ROTC… Read More »January 7, 1942 

January 7, 1942

51st division C.P. Bataan   Japs are in Manila now, according to KZRH. I wonder how the family is. Seat of government has been transferred to Corregidor. Jap successes in Luzon theater have been made possible by crippling of our airforce in first raids on Clark, Nichols, and Zablan. Many bombers were grounded. Right now,… Read More »January 7, 1942

Wednesday, January 7, 1942

Received solution to put on gauze gas masks today. As planes approach we must apply solution to masks and tie over nose and mouth. Have small pieces of wood to put in children’s mouths to keep mouths open. Children wear the pieces of wood on strings around neck, like a big oblong bead. Keeping mouth… Read More »Wednesday, January 7, 1942

January 7, 1942

My second night in Room 25, Japanese number, and Room 221, American number, was just as restless and disturbing as the first. Bedbugs and mosquitoes were busier than ever, and so were the Japs. With their raucous voices barking orders to more late arrivals and with their childish love of flashing lights in our faces,… Read More »January 7, 1942

January 7, 1942

Woke up early this morning. Inspected our bodegas. One warehouseman was not there. The bodega could not be opened. The Japanese Military Administration authorized at last the sale of 327 bags of rice to different institutions, such as government and private hospitals, orphanages, as their allowance for the week beginning tomorrow, January 8. Rice ration… Read More »January 7, 1942

Jan. 7, 1942

Looked over the area with a view of defending it when and if the Japs should come.

January 7th, 1942

We are slowing down. The boys say we are waiting for a Dutch boat with a pilot, to take us into a port in the lower Cilebes-Macassar owned by the Dutch. Found out that we have to try to get supplies, also clean laundry. We finally tie up alongside the dock. I can’t see what… Read More »January 7th, 1942

7 Jan. ’42

At ten-fifteen inspection of hospital and grounds by several Japanese doctors collecting quinine. Three autos and radios taken. At 1400 the Japanese took over the compound and posted guard. Verbal orders to me for all Americans to stay in the compound. Filipinos free to go and come. Permission to receive personal purchases through Filipinos. General… Read More »7 Jan. ’42

Ranson

Jan 7, 1942

Received notice of having been promoted to Captain ranking from Dec. 23rd by radio from War Department Wash., D. C. Took oath this date of acceptance.

January 7th 1942

No aerial activity. Jap airplane carrier 40,000 yards out just opposite Mariveles at 6 PM. The insolent SOBs, just out of range! I took last bath in water at 8L which has been in tub since December 26 — stinks!

January 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 – 1942

  Nothing unusual. There were air-raid alarms but no bombing. They were only observation planes – these visits although they caused severe damage to top side, middle side and the harbor have been very costly to the enemy. Every time they come they leave 3 or 4 planes.

1/8/1942 Day 32

anuary 1942 Registering civilians in Manila, after its capture by the japanese

The front is quiet. The U.S. and Filipino forces are organizing defense positions and the Japanese are regrouping for an all-out attack.

The Japanese High Command orders Vargas “to organize the Administrative Constitution as soon as possible.” Filipino leaders, in interviews with Japanese officials, have been told that the Japanese, under the circumstances, could do any of three things: i) impose a mailed-first policy; 2) form a puppet government; or 3) allow the old Commonwealth government to continue. However, the last alternative has been ruled out immediately because of Quezon’s hostile acts against the Japanese.

Letter of the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces, advising the organization of an Administrative Constitution, January 8, 1942

January 8, 1942

Corregidor Malinta Tunnel I don’t like this place. Yes, it’s safer and bombproof but the air is damp and stuffy. Give me the cool mountain breezes and the starlit skies of Bataan anytime. The general has been relieved of his command. He has been assigned to a more important, delicate and interesting job. He will… Read More »January 8, 1942

8 Jan. 1942

Still in Santa Ana. A little surprised still to be free. This morning L.R. [Le Roch, the French Consul] comes to seeAnne and is not very encouraging about my situation. He’s accompanied by his charming young wife and the captain of the Sikiang, who was wounded in the arm when his ship was bombed by… Read More »8 Jan. 1942

[Thursday, January 8, 1942]

The now famous Santo Tomas Internment Camp is located in the city, of Manila several blocks from the north bank of the Pasig River on Calle Espana. Its walls enclose about two hundred thousand square meters, approximately fifty acres of ground, Before the war it was the site of the newer unit of the Santo… Read More »[Thursday, January 8, 1942]

January 8, 1942

A very quiet day as far as I am concerned. We had no bombing again today, which caused much speculation as to reasons. My idea is that the Japs are getting everything in readiness, servicing all planes in preparation for coordinated attack against Abucay position. Their continued success will depend, to a large extent, on… Read More »January 8, 1942

Thurs. Jan. 8/42

Ernest is made interpreter for the main office between the five committee men representing the main body of the camp and the main Japanese officer over the camp. The organization of the camp is left to us. With Ernest gone, I was appointed monitor of our room. Friends of the inmates are bringing things to… Read More »Thurs. Jan. 8/42

January 8, 1942

Again I awakened early, but since I had slept a little, I felt and looked less like a shadowy zombie. My roommates, old and young, were quieter last night, and the Nips awakened us only twice with their flashlights, grunts, groans, and orders that no one understood. The bedbugs, however, had multiplied and were on… Read More »January 8, 1942

January 8, 1942

I have been so busy the past few days in our bamboo but that I have neglected my diary. We, the Lapham family and I, are homesteading here on the river bank in the wilderness of Bataan. The Lapham children are adorable and well-behaved. The puppy, “lady”, and the kids have a grand time playing… Read More »January 8, 1942

Jan. 8, 1942

Two civilians, mining engineers, named Ordum and Sauter came in today. Wish I could have asked them in with us at the Padres’. But we were guests there. Like them both. Ordum has a mine with a Mr. Cushing at Baay. Sauter had a job at Batang near Lubuagan. Wish they were both officers. I… Read More »Jan. 8, 1942

Thursday, Jan. 8, 1942

After conferring with Overseer Ybiernas and Mr. Baltazar about the repair of the [illegible]-Marbel road, left for Malaybalay with Major Tiongson; Engrs. Morrow, Buensuceso, Aquino and Nery, stopping at Marbel to wait for Mr. O.T. Santos who went to Tuod to get cash for purchases in Cotabato. Brought Mr. Salazar up to the bunkhouse and… Read More »Thursday, Jan. 8, 1942

January 8th, 1942

We’re still tied to the dock. Mr Williams, the Red Cross man, says he’s trying to get a call through to Darwin in Australia, to get the low-down on where we’re going. I’ve got eight Pesos left, so we sent a Guard up town to buy us about three Pesos’ worth of milk chocolate –… Read More »January 8th, 1942

Jan 8/42

Work is progressing rapidly in the clearing of underbrush for wards and building desks, benchs, mess halls, etc., out of bamboo, The natives can build practically anything out of bamboo. Bombers and observation planes of the enemy fly over nearly every day, but so far the hospital has been untouched. There was heavy fighting at… Read More »Jan 8/42

8 Jan. ’42

Several visits and inspections by the Japanese. The best of one committee was a Doctor of Lieut.Comdr. rank of the Japanese Navy, who better understands our problems and difficulties, with so many diverse directives. Threat to search again. Hope the Japanese Navy will take charge. Heckling guards demand chairs, tables, cots, and a clock for… Read More »8 Jan. ’42

January 8, 1942

It seems to be more than just registration. Everyone, practically, has been put in Santo Tomas, a huge university with acres of garden space. Nothing is very well organized yet, but people are in amazingly good spirits, which must annoy the Japanese no end. I went over there with the Swedish consul today. He still… Read More »January 8, 1942

January 8th 1942

No air. USAFFE says “BIG PUSH IN MAKING.” Our lines at north end of Bataan peninsula. No water in which to bathe or laundry. I have Lino [houseboy] iron uniform each day.

1/9/1942 Day 33

The Japanese start their assault on Bataan at 1500 hours with a concentrated artillery barrage directed against II Corps. From the Dinalupihan-Hermosa area, three regimental combat teams (with artillery support) move forward, two against II Corps on the east and one toward the I Corps sector on the west. None of the columns reach the outpost line.

The Il Corps, defending the Abucay Line (from Mabatang on Manila Bay to Mt. Natib) with the 57th Infantry (PS) on the east, the 41st Division (PA) in the center, and the 51st Division (PA) on the west, opens fire on an enemy combat team driving down the East Road and then makes patrol contact with it. To the west, another Japanese column advances unmolested down a trail from Dinalupihan to the vicinity of Album.

In the I Corps area, an enemy column from Dinalupihan is slowed only by the use of demolitions while moving west along Route 7 toward Olongapo. Disposed along the I Corps’ Mauban Line (Mt. Silanganan on the east to Mauban on Subic Bay) are: K Company, 1st Infantry (PA), organized as infantry, and the 3rd Infantry, 1st Division (PA). Additional troops are maintaining the outpost line forward of these positions.

January 9, 1942

Another bombless day. Everyone is wondering what is keeping the Japs away for so long. They haven’t even bombed Bataan. However, I suppose they will save up their bombs so as to give us a good party when they begin again. They may start tomorrow, both here and in Bataan. The stage is all set.… Read More »January 9, 1942

Fri. Jan. 9/42

Pedro and Peping brought our nets and a few other things for which we are very thankful. Now we shall have a little peace from the mosquitoes. They are very bad. We are getting used to the hard beds. The Red Cross has set up a small kitchen and makes coffee for everyone in the… Read More »Fri. Jan. 9/42

January 9, 1942

Manila Bay On board Navy Courier Boat   Beautiful morning. Sun is slightly above horizon. Sea is calm. Cool morning air. All is quiet except for chugging of boat. Looks like a pleasant cruise. Heard Mass said by Fr. Ortiz and received Communion. The President and family, Vice President Osmeña, Gen. B. Valdes, Sec. Abad… Read More »January 9, 1942

January 9, 1942

The people who had homes, servants, friends, and business associates on the outside were fortunate indeed! We were able to contact Catalino, and he brought us cooking utensils, charcoal, native stove, food, and other essentials. But there were many people in this prison camp who had nothing. They had been picked up by the Japanese… Read More »January 9, 1942

January 9, 1942

Talked to an officer whose troops were cut off from the main body of the USAFFE retreating to Bataan. He said the MacArthur strategy in the north was to delay the Japanese advance as much as possible. He recounted the charge of the 26th cavalry. “I saw those Filipino scouts charging armored units, riding on,… Read More »January 9, 1942

Friday, Jan. 9, 1942

After a hasty breakfast, requested Major Tiongson to make an appointment for me to call on General Vachon. Without having me come to his office as I expected, General Vachon humbly cane to see me at Mr. Cruz’s house instead. He talked about the food supplies the Koronadal and Ala Valley settlers could furnish the… Read More »Friday, Jan. 9, 1942

January 9th, 1942

Still in Macassar. Wish we’d get going.

9 Jan. ’42

Complete search by a committee of Medical Officers and all souyenirs ordered to be collected and turned into the Japanese. Major Ota called and asked me and several patients about how we felt about the war. We didn’t know, as no news or radios available. How did we feel as they were entering Manila? I… Read More »9 Jan. ’42

January 9th 1942

Wrote to Ottly. Major Edison estimates six months for American Expeditionary Force. Artillery fire plainly audible from Bataan. No Jap air. FDR would send one million ships and thousands of men if he had them!

1/10/1942 Day 34

At 0645 hours, at PT boat carrying MacArthur, leaves from the North Dock on Corregidor and heads for Cabcaben on the Bataan Peninsula. By 1540 hours, MacArthur and his small party are back on Corregidor, concluding his only visit to the front during the entire siege.

The Japanese make their first surrender demand, dropping leaflets from the air. In one, General Homma, the Japanese commander, addresses MacArthur with the message: “The question is how long you will be able to resist. You have already cut rations by half. Your prestige and honor have been upheld. However, in order to avoid needless bloodshed and save your troops you are advised to surrender. Failing that, our offensive will be continued with inexorable force.”

In the Il Corps area, the Japanese force driving south along East Road splits, most of it moving west. Both elements reach the outpost line along the Calaguiman River below Samal, and exert strong pressure against it. An enemy column pushing south in central Bataan is slowed by the dense jungle.

In the I Corps area, the western Japanese assault force reached Olongapo without any opposition.

Japanese troops occupy Olongapo. General Homma asks Field Marshal MacArthur to surrender. Field Marshal MacArthur inspects Bataan defenses.

To get a full and accurate picture of the situation of the Bataan front, and to build up the troops’ morale, the President dispatches General Valdes, Philippine Army chief of staff and acting secretary of national defense, accompanied by Col. Manuel Nieto, the presidential aide. Encouraged by the Valdes report, Quezon wires President Roosevelt expressing his “belief and desire that the whole force of America should be directed against Japan in the Far East,” this being also the prevailing sentiment among American officers in Corregidor.

Prohibiting circulation of Yen Paper Money and foreign currencies, January 10, 1942

January 10, 1942 -Saturday

Left Corregidor at 5:30 p.m. with Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Nieto & Leon Ma. Guerrero in a Q Boat (N-111) for Cabcaben. We arrived at 6 p.m. after a very rough trip. The waves were so big and the wind so strong that we get wet when we tried to give speed to the boat at… Read More »January 10, 1942 -Saturday

January 10, 1942

Janson said my standing as French was pretty shaky, as I had worked so hard and for so long on the Free French Committee. So I called up the Vichy French consul and asked him if I really had any right to French immunity. I told him I had an American passport. He turned back… Read More »January 10, 1942

10 Jan. ’42

Costa returned unharmed after questioning. Dr. Omorti, Capt., asked about the cost of.food and medical supplies for one month here, also a list of all our medicine. Several more committees and a group of Japanese doctors inspected the hospital. Seemed interested and pleased. Wish we could have a definite directive. All calm.

January 10th 1942

No air activity. Took bath in one quart if water and changed clothes. Barge load of pistols and shotguns arrived bottomside from the mainland. We got ten shotguns and also some dried fruit.

January 10th, 1942

Thought we would go today, but no soap. Byers can speak Dutch and he’s really giving the Dutch a good time and he’s King now. Just came in and bragged about a supper he had with some Dutch family; offered me a drink of gin, but my stomach almost jumped through my mouth at the… Read More »January 10th, 1942

January 10, 1942

Meeting from 5 p.m. till late in the evening with the Industrial Committee of the Japanese Army. The members of the Committee are Mr. Abe of Ohta Development, S. Fukada of Mitsui, and S. Tamura of Nippon Bazar. Yoshio Noya acted as interpreter. The gathering of the harvest was discussed. The Japanese are for regimenting… Read More »January 10, 1942

January 10, 1942

Colonel Craig sent for me to come and work here; I’m to give anesthetics at Hospital #2. I’m happy as I feel I’m doing something constructive. This is the first field hospital I’ve ever seen. Most of the patients have shrapnel wounds, and a few have dysentery. The nurses quarters are in a thick jungle… Read More »January 10, 1942

Saturday, Jan. 10, 1942

Spent the morning in a long conference with Overseer Vargas, Messrs. Tiongson, Cabe, Villegas and other members of my staff left at Lagao about the looting of the store, Overseer Vargas agreed to assume the entire cost of the missing goods, I gathered that the commotion was largely caused by Captain Bautista who unduly advised… Read More »Saturday, Jan. 10, 1942

January 10, 1942

Each morning I rushed like the Mad Hatter to the hospital kitchen to cook the cereal and coffee for our breakfast. Each morning I expected to be thrown out, but so far the woman in charge refrained from any violence. But her grumbling and disapproving glances were hard to take so early in the morning.… Read More »January 10, 1942

January 10, 1942 

Took it easy today, washed clothes and self. Couple enemy planes early in morning. This certainly is nice country, wish we weren’t playing for keeps. Would like some candy or something sweet.

Sat. Jan. 10/42

Just getting nicely settled here in the room when the order came to move out to the gymnasium. It was recently opened, and that will be for us men. The women with children will have this annex. What confusion! We rush over to the gym and look for the softest place on the floor! Except… Read More »Sat. Jan. 10/42

January 10, 1942

Another bombless day. Had one air alarm this p.m. and learned that 23 Jap planes were reported in vicinity of Mariveles, but none visited us. The respite is fortunate, as we are getting the water mains fixed up and a number of other things accomplished without interference. The water supply is just about normal again.… Read More »January 10, 1942

10 Jan. 1942

If it didn’t bode so threateningly for the future, the new situation would be highly comical. In front of the BayView Hotel, where “third parties” go to register, a great many Jews can be found, proudly showing their German passports — the very same ones who, in order to avoid internment by the American authorities… Read More »10 Jan. 1942

1/11/1942 Day 35

In the II Corps area, Japanese troops advancing down the east coast of Bataan, drive back the outpost line of the 57th Infantry (PS), cross the Calaguiman River, and after nightfall, begin assaulting the main line of resistance, forcing the 57th Infantry to fall back a little. Fighting continues throughout the night, reserves are committed and the 57th counterattacks, regaining most of the lost ground by dawn on the 12th.

To the west, another enemy column shifts west into the sector of the 41st Division (PA) and is contained.

Advance elements of still another column, pushing slowly south in central Bataan toward the 51st Division, reaches the Orani River by morning.

Field Marshal MacArthur issues statement to FilAm troops on Bataan: “Help is on the way from the U.S. Thousands of troops and hundreds of planes are being dispatched.”

January 11, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Bataan Still aide to Gen. de Jesus. Am also assistant plans and training officer under Col. Torralba, former head of Camp Murphy. The general has also retained Fred. Our new headquarters is located on the side of a high hill above a swift stream. There are a lot of tall trees with huge… Read More »January 11, 1942

January 11, 1942

Japs have scattered all kinds of propaganda in form of printed leaflets in areas occupied by Philippine Army troops, in attempt to get Filipinos to lay down their arms. One such leaflet guaranteed the bearer safety if filled out with his name and address and presented to Japanese Army units. The Filipino soldiers tear them… Read More »January 11, 1942

Sun. Jan. 11/42

There was too much confusion to try to have a Meeting, and we were told that private meetings were taboo anyway. I was put on labor battalion No. 1 today and spent two hours pulling and cutting grass and cleaning drains. In the afternoon I attended a small Church of England service held in the… Read More »Sun. Jan. 11/42

January 11, 1942 

Sunday. No bombers, details most of the day. Have church services tomorrow. Been playing a little bridge in evenings, can’t lose.

January 11, 1942

There was a steady trek of people trying to get near the Commandant’s office in order to be pronounced unfit for concentration life, and fortunately many of the frail, the sick, the aged, the pregnant, and mothers with young children were granted permission to live outside. Before applying for permission, they were cautioned by our… Read More »January 11, 1942

Sunday, Jan. 11, 1942

Conferred with Overseer Vargas about the organization of labor battalions in Lagao from among the bachelor settlers, dependents and laid-off laborers. I gave Overseer Vargas full powers to administrate the Lagao district and told him that no official other than myself would interfere with him without my approval. Then left for Tupi with Mr. Tiongson… Read More »Sunday, Jan. 11, 1942

January 11, 1942 -Sunday

Got up at 7:30 a.m., dressed with the same wet clothes and wet shoes, took breakfast and proceeded on my journey of inspection of the front. We drove South to Mariveles, and went to the camp of Philippine Army Headquarters ten kilometers north of Mariveles hidden under a forest. I talked to the officers who… Read More »January 11, 1942 -Sunday

January 11, 1942

What is a diary? Webster’s dictionary says it is a “a register of daily events or transactions; a journal.” With me, it is something different. It is an outlet, a porthole in a stuffy cabin. Why do I write this? Because I want it read someday? Not at all. Because I want to remember the… Read More »January 11, 1942

January 11th, 1942

Shoved off at last. A Dutch cruiser takes us through the mine fields. The boys say it’s pretty around here. I hold my mirror up so I can look out the porthole, but it’s too much effort to raise my head. We are going to stop at a little bay in Timor for something. All… Read More »January 11th, 1942

January 11th 1942

One Jap observation plane running lights on, very low, sighted over the Rock at 6:30 AM in an attempt to draw fire and learn the exact position of our guns. We did not fire. Several air alarms but no bombs.

11 Jan. ’42

Lt. Iwasi Shimizu called for one hour and arranged for Sgt. Wells lip treatment with radium the Philippine General Hospital. Sgt. Wells of the Marine Corps has a probable epithelioma of the lip and no treatment is available here but arrangements had been previously made for the Philippine General Hospital to treat him. The Japanese… Read More »11 Jan. ’42

1/12/1942 Day 36

The Japanese exert pressure against the II Corps, particularly on the west flank, while taking up positions in preparation for a concerted assault. The 51st Division (PA) is hard hit and gives ground, some of which is regained after the reserves are finally committed.

In the center, the Japanese push back the outpost line of the 41st Division (PA).

On the east coast, the Japanese regain positions on the south bank of the Calaguiman River. To meet this threat, the 21st Infantry (PA) is released from reserve to assist the 57th Infantry (PS).

During the day, one of the casualties is Lieutenant Alexander R. Nininger Jr., a recent graduate of West Point and newly assigned to the Philippines. His courageous actions result in his being awarded the first Congressional Medal of Honor of World War IJ. Unfortunately, it is finally awarded posthumously.

In the I Corps area, a Japanese detachment moves by boat and seizes the undefended Grande Island at the entrance to Subic Bay. By doing this, they occupy Fort Wint, the “Little Corregidor” of Subic Bay.

12 Jan. 1942

Nothing new that concerns me. A simple life, a novelty for me, divided between the market, cleaning up of the garbage, and working in the garden — we’re going to have a vegetable plot in one corner, where we we’ll plant maize and carrots. Yesterday morning finally had myself registered at the Bay View Hotel!… Read More »12 Jan. 1942

January 12, 1942

I feel rather out of sorts today with this cold. It is making good progress. Have been in to see the doctor but the stuff they gave me doesn’t help. If someone would find a quick cure for a cold could make a fortune in a hurry. Still quiet here. We are having one beautiful… Read More »January 12, 1942

Mon. Jan. 12/42

Nothing different today! More people coming in, and a very few getting out due to old age, sickness, etc. Mothers with babies less than a year old were released, also, we heard. And some children of school age were let out under the care of the Red Cross on the outside.

January 12, 1942

The long wide road from the Big House to the front gate led to the outside world. Tall and shady acacia trees lined each side of this road, and here we stayed all day after our camp and personal chores were over. Here we ate our meals, napped, played cards, read, or swapped rumors. It… Read More »January 12, 1942

Monday, Jan. 12, 1942

Before leaving Bañga in the morning, had another conference with Mr. Morrow, Overseer Ybiernas and Asst. Overseer Loreto regarding the repairs to the road between Marbel and Bañga, so as to put it in such a condition that it will be free from mudholes where trucks and small motor vehicles often get stuck. I pointed… Read More »Monday, Jan. 12, 1942

January 12, 1942

Yesterday three planes flew overhead, but no bombing took place. We have not heard any shooting for many days. The Japanese are scouting in big groups and the people are always on the run. All the tenants on our farm have left and we cannot harvest our rice; Estrella is fortunate – so far she… Read More »January 12, 1942

January 12, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Service Bataan   Met Leonie Guerrero, Salvador Lopez, and Vero Perfecto as I was leaving the command post of the 2nd regular division. Leonie will be assigned to our unit, Lopez to Corregidor and Perfecto will join the Signal Corps in Little Baguio. Brought Leonie to our HQ. He and I are in… Read More »January 12, 1942

January 12, 1942 -Monday

Nothing unusual. The planes have been very considerate. No visit.

January 12, 1942

The course of history is a cycle. The present becomes past and the past returns to the present. The future is something forever to be hoped for. The dungeons of Fort Santiago, past reminders of Spanish tyranny, are now being used by the Japanese. In some dark cell, Theo, an old family friend, is languishing.… Read More »January 12, 1942

January 12th, 1942

Hager was in today. He’s shot through the hip and thigh; also Hylton and Hinson. It is a League of Nations on this boat. Hagen from Idaho; Hinson from Texas; Hylton from Virginia; Passanante from Philadelphia; Donegan, New Jersey; Stanton, Ohio; Byers, New Mexico; and I’m from San Francisco; Doc Angell, Detroit. Looks like we… Read More »January 12th, 1942

January 12th 1942

No air activity. Went to Middle Sector with Capt. Schenck regarding beach defense. To Kindly Field for powder cans and water as our supply of water has been knocked out, almost from the first raid. [All coast artillery guns of that period had powder charges contained in sheet metal vessels of 10 to 12 inches… Read More »January 12th 1942

12 Jan. ’42

Lieutenant Iwasi Shimizu called and took Sgt. Wells to the Philippine General Hospital for two weeks radium treatment. It was arranged over the phone with Dr. Sisson [Sison]. We received no news. Twenty-seven Japanese bombers flew over at low altitude. Whet we thought was distant firing, the Jap say are exploding automobile tires. We say… Read More »12 Jan. ’42

January 12, 1942

Lucy hid her jewels under a rock where Mrs. Wilson had hidden hers previously, but not noticing it. When Lucy retrieved hers later she took all and was horrified at finding others with hers later but was afraid to say anything for fear it would get back to the Japanese. Mrs. Wilson went on the… Read More »January 12, 1942

1/13/1942 Day 37

On the east flank of Il Corps, the 21st Infantry (PA) counterattacks at 0600 hours after an artillery preparation and reduces part of the salient on the left flank of the 57th Infantry (PS). The Japanese are thus prevented from launching their planned offensive in that area. However, they do make progress to the west against the 51st Division (PA), forcing it back to the main line of resistance along the Balantay River.

An enemy column, driving south in central Bataan with the task of turning the left flank of Il Corps, is not yet in position for the attack.

January 13th 1942

Taking our truck, we went to Bottomside for water. After filling a truck with a load of powder cans at the basic source, we started home. I decided to stop by the quarters of Bill Stecker who was stationed there. I stopped the truck by the quarters and started up the walk. I was challenged… Read More »January 13th 1942

January 13th, 1942

Boy, it’s hot, and no water – not even for a sponge bath – and I’m beginning to smell like Hell and the cast is all discolored from blood. It’s an effort to shave, can only do one side of my face at a time, and then have to rest between times. Passanante is really… Read More »January 13th, 1942

January 13, 1942

Heard a good one. The sentry at the intersection of Avenida Rizal and Azcarraga grabbed a man for not bowing when he was near the post. The sentry slapped hard; the man ducked. The sentry slapped harder; missed again. This was repeated four times, till the people started laughing. The sentry lost his temper and… Read More »January 13, 1942

Tuesday, Jan. 13, 1942

At Tupi, I again impressed on Overseer Laurel the need for more men to do locust extermination work, because unless the infestation is controlled I doubt the wisdom of planting palay in May in his district. The Tupi district is as badly infested with locust as Marbel.

January 13, 1942 

Yesterday started the 6th week of the war. Easy day today, no bombers. Should write to Jean and the folks, but no use because no mail leaving anyhow. I know for sure that I’m going through this mess.

Tues. Jan. 13/42

Willie has a job helping prepare food in the Red Cross kitchen for the children. Cecil is on the clean-up gang at the annex. Leo is still on the messenger job at the front gate, and Ernest is still interpreter at the main office, filling a good job. I am to be called when my… Read More »Tues. Jan. 13/42

January 13, 1942

Still no bombing here, although they are getting it all the time in Bataan. Of course, the planes being used over there are only observation, pursuit, and light bombers. However, that is enough. Even though the Japs have such complete mastery of the air at present, there seem to be very few casualties resulting from… Read More »January 13, 1942

1/14/1942 Day 38

In the Il Corps area, strong Japanese pressure against the west flank of the 41st Division (PA), forces outposts to retire across the Balantay River.

The 51st Division (PA) withdraws to the south bank of the river to tie in with the 41st.

The Japanese enveloping column continues slowly down the center of Bataan but is still north of the main line of resistance.

In the I Corps area, the Japanese start south of the west coast toward Moron in two columns, one by the sea and the other along a trail from Olongapo. Some waterborne elements land about mid-way between Olongapo and Moron and continue south on foot. General Wainwright dispatches a containing force to Moron.

Elsewhere: In Washington, the ARCADIA conference comes to an end. The Americans and the British have established detailed plans for the war in Europe but the troops in the Pacific will have to wait a little longer for major help in beating the Japanese.

Jan. 14/42

Pfc. Frank Pigg of my detachment was killed by an unexploded anti-aircraft shell. He got out of his bed justin time to get in the path of the shell. Dive bombers are quite active over Cabcaben airfield which is about 14 kilometers from the hospital. Planes are strafing quite a lot, but they cause small… Read More »Jan. 14/42

January 13-14, 1942

Quiet.  

January 14, 1942

Streetlights on for first time in six weeks. A quiet night as no clump, clump of army boots, mostly local gentry guarding us.

January 14, 1942

While I have the energy I want to record yesterday’s doings—a most momentous day. We cleared up the cocktail lounge, took out all the broken bottles, etc., from the wholesale breaking up of my liquor stock by order of the American Committee. Wish I had it now. I am getting a terrific collection of belongings… Read More »January 14, 1942

January 14th 1942

This was the coldest morning since I had been in the Philippines. Fort Drum fired ten rounds on a Jap ship in Manila Bay at 3 PM. They had authority for only 10 rounds and while waiting authority for more, the ship got away. Raid no. 7 occurred from 12:30 to 2:30. We got three… Read More »January 14th 1942

January 14th, 1942

Left Darwin and going to try for another port in Australia. Not too much enthusiasm on boat now, although we’re doing the best we can and everyone is trying.

January 14, 1942

Seventeen offences punishable by death have been announced by the Japanese Commander-in-Chief. Some of them: rebellion, spreading false rumors, espionage, misguiding Japanese troops, stealing military equipment, looting, counterfeiting, harboring any one guilty of these crimes. Life isn’t worth a cent these days. Informed the Japanese supervisor that plenty of tomatoes, radishes and other vegetables have… Read More »January 14, 1942

January 14, 1942

HPA (HQ, Philippine Army) Bataan, Mariveles.   Will sleep here tonight as it is too dark to return to our command post. This is a nice place, like a picnic ground. No fighting here, practically no work, except hiding in dug-outs when bombers fly above and waiting for assignment to other units as need for… Read More »January 14, 1942

Wednesday, January 14, 1942

An uneventful week. A game of bridge where we gave IOU’s instead of money, as cash on Central is most limited. People playing for “pink elephant” (“white elephant” in States) prizes. Most people have nice things which they themselves cannot use but someone else might like. Mrs. Brown had three guests, all slim, for mah-jongg… Read More »Wednesday, January 14, 1942

January 14, 1942 

Short problem today, mostly rest though. Few bombers. All reports sound pretty good.

Wed. Jan. 14/42

There was a notice on the board this afternoon saying that all missionaries are to be packed up by ten a.m. tomorrow ready to be moved to a new concentration camp! Well, we do not like that. We are settled here and would like to stay. But orders are orders! Some say we are going… Read More »Wed. Jan. 14/42

January 14, 1942

Had a little excitement today for a change. We had a couple of false air raid alarms, and then a couple of real ones. They dropped some bombs today for the first time since January 6. I don’t believe they did any real damage, and haven’t heard of any casualties. However, the Japs took it… Read More »January 14, 1942

14 January 1942

An eventful day. Until ten o’clock nothing unusual. Market, breakfast, cleaning the house. At ten o’clock Betty [Lander] receives a telephone call from one of her friends interned in Santo Tomas, saying that it’s absolutely necessary for her and her friends to go there as soon as possible. Consternation all round. We make up parcels… Read More »14 January 1942

Jan. 31/42

We have several enemy woundeé Japanese in hospital. They are treated with enemy kindness and respect, and sincerely appreciate it. Over 2200 patients now in hospital, and number steadily growing, The facilities for the care of the patients are not too good, but under the circumstances they are doing well. Had an entertainment last night… Read More »Jan. 31/42

1/15/1942 Day 39

In the Il Corps area, the Japanese, attacking vigorously at the junction of the 41st and 5lst Divisions (PA), gain a foothold on the southern bank of the Balantay. The 5lst Division commits its reserve and its service troops to no avail.

Further reinforcements–the Philippine Division (less the 57th Infantry) from USAFFE reserve, and the 21st Division (PA) from I Corps–are sent forward. The Japanese enveloping column in central Bataan arrives in position to turn the west flank of II Corps, and pauses to reorganize. Also, regrouping is conducted to the east as the enemy threat there diminishes.

In I Corps area, the two Japanese columns driving on Moron converge and push even closer to their objective.

January 15, 1942

Jap planes flew around the island today, but don’t believe any came within range of the AA artillery. I imagine they have a healthy respect for the marksmanship of the gun crews. Had a talk with Col. Clarke this a.m. and he tells amazing things of Jap tactics and conduct. Japs filter through lines under… Read More »January 15, 1942

Thurs. Jan. 15/42

By ten o’clock there were close to 150 of us in front of the main building ready to go. We waited. We waited. We waited. It was hot. It got hotter. Finally we were told to go across the driveway and wait under the trees. We were very grateful for that. Then Ernest came out… Read More »Thurs. Jan. 15/42

January 15, 1942 

Another easy day, a little fatigue and that is about all. Few bombers today. Wish we would get planes and get going. Unknown to Burns, the day before, at the request of II Corps complaining about unhampered operations of Japanese aircraft over its troops at the Main Line of Resistance that was damaging morale, MacArthur… Read More »January 15, 1942 

January 15, 1942

The bedbugs in our native beds continued to fatten and multiply, and our nights became more sleepless and uncomfortable. As soon as the insecticide squad was organized, we appealed to them. They went into immediate action with boiling water and chlorine solution. After that treatment, we slept alone in our beds. In addition to the… Read More »January 15, 1942

January 15, 1942

Ignorance is really bliss. Walked right into the American concentration camp in Santo Tomas, without knowing the Japanese prohibited such visits. Saw old friends: Sam Cronin of the Associated Press, Arthur Evans, Duggleby, Dr. Leach, Turner, Stevens, Sam Gaches, Calhoun, Farnsworth, Stewart, Grove, and Duckworth. They ganged around me anxious for news, news, news. “How’s… Read More »January 15, 1942

January 15, 1942

Bataan HQ, Intelliegence Service   “See You in Manila” news sheet published by Intelligence Service well received by men in front and officers in Corregidor. Major Carlos Romulo wrote our unit a congratulatory message. First part of news sheet carried items on fighting in various sectors in front lines. Leonie wrote a column analyzing situation,… Read More »January 15, 1942

January 15, 1942 – Thursday

  Heard Mass & received Holy Communion. At 10 a.m. I invited Major E. C. Cruz, Medical Corps to the Treasury Vault for a good cool bath. We went. We stayed rather long. At 1:30 p.m. when we were driving home, Major Cruz shouted “Alarm, Sir”. I had to act quickly because we were in… Read More »January 15, 1942 – Thursday

January 15th, 1942

Whistle blowing like Hell and alarm bells ringing. Someone just threw two life preservers at me, saying the ship is on fire – we’re about ten hours out of Darwin and that one of the preservers is for me and the other for the cast. If we have to abandon ship, they will drop me… Read More »January 15th, 1942

January 15, 1942

The typhoid-cholera-dysentery combination, plus the banged-up knee, plus cats on the roof, made last night definitely not a tranquil one. A masterpiece of understatement. Wish Hi could hear it. He would be proud to hear me speak reservedly. I usually says something like millions of people, thousands of this or that, worst this in the… Read More »January 15, 1942

Jan. 15 – 42

Moved back to Cabcabbin [Cabcaben] Field. Being bombed and strafed by the Japs everyday. No rest for the wicked.

1/16/1942 Day 40

In the Il Corps area, the 51st Division (PA) counterattacks to restore the lost positions on the Corps’ west flank. After making limited progress on the right, the division is subjected to severe pressure and falls back in confusion with the west flank elements making futile attempts to gain contact with I Corps on the rugged terrain of Mt. Natib. The entire line on Bataan is jeopardized by the Japanese breakthrough in this sector.

The Japanese encircling force, although in position to turn the west flank of II Corps, prepares instead to advance down the Abo-Abo Valley.

To the east, the 41st Division (PA), refuses its left flank in an effort to tie in with the 51st Division and, with assistance from elements of the 23rd and 32nd Regiments and a quickly-formed provisional battalion, succeeds in halting the enemy. The 31st Infantry moves to the vicinity of Abucay Hacienda, a raised clearing in the jungle about five miles west of the town of Abucay, on the left flank of the 41st Division, and prepares to counterattack. The reserve force, made up of the 45th Infantry (PS) also moves toward attack positions.

I Corps engages the enemy for the first time. The Japanese cross the Batalan River and attack Moron but are forced back to the river line by the Ist Infantry and elements of the 26th Cavalry (PS). The cavalrymen are withdrawn after the engagement because of very heavy losses.

Sgt. Jose Calugas awarded Medal of Honor for bravery.

16 Jan. 1942

Yesterday returned to Santo Tomas taking some provisions for Angela [Templer]. Very depressing. Queued endlessly among the Filipinos, in the heat and dust. Impossible to get near the prisoners who can be seen cordoned off fifty meters away. My parcel is examined by an American and my bottle of gin refused. Law and order are… Read More »16 Jan. 1942

January 16, 1942

The Japs paid us a little visit again today and dropped a few bombs. However the damage was negligible. They lost several planes from the flight because of our AA artillery fire, so I think we came out very much ahead of the game. They flew around for quite awhile before they definitely headed in… Read More »January 16, 1942

January 16, 1942

This afternoon, while resting in our camp, we heard the roar of what sounded like tanks. Coming out of our shade, we saw Alfred driving a contraption which we later learned was a Bren Gun Carrier (BGC). It is a heavily armored car, shaped like a tank minus its turret. It is armed with two… Read More »January 16, 1942

January 16, 1942 

Easy day, quite a bit of enemy air activity though. The nights get mighty cold. Takes two blankets to keep warm.

January 16, 1942

It was siesta hour, and most of my roommates were in their cubicles, a space large enough to hold a bed or mattress and various boxes and suitcases filled with clothes, food, pots, pans, and other cooking utensils. The women who had cots and beds stored their possessions under them. A few like us, who… Read More »January 16, 1942

Friday, January 16, 1942

Letters to Mom and Aunt Susie censored here and mailed January 14. Wonder when they will be delivered. A letter from Dr. Hallaner on January 15 said he sheltered, during the third raid on December 24, and that after the raid Jim left for his office one-half hour from the Port Area, which received the… Read More »Friday, January 16, 1942

January 16, 1942

Even small details must be authorized by the Army. The Japanese are thorough, although stubborn-headed. Had to ask Mr. Noya to get the Army’s O.K. for the opening of the National Trading Corporation’s warehouse at 1010 Azcarraga to permit me, its acting manager, to secure the invoices which are needed to make the Corporation’s accounts… Read More »January 16, 1942

January 16th, 1942

Terrible weather! Lying naked except for cast. There are twenty-eight boards on each of the three walls of the cabin. I haven’t counted the nails yet. We have the usual Cockroach Derby. They’re real big ones and climb up the side of the wall and walk across the ceiling, but it’s too slippery, so none… Read More »January 16th, 1942

January 16, 1942

Much air activity but no bombs. Order “anti-aircraft will not fire on observation planes because it disturbs the nerves of the people in Malinta Tunnel.” Heavy artillery fire on Bataan at night. General MacArthur’s official message “Help will come.”

January 16, 1942

A Japanese soldier appeared with an armful of antlers looted from the American General’s house.

1/17/1942 Day 41

II Corps counterattacks to restore the west portion on the line, formerly held by the 5lst Division (PA), and makes limited progress. The U.S. 31st Infantry, moving north from the Abucay Hacienda area, reached the Balantay River on the left but it is unable to make much headway on the right. The reserves are moved forward to help plug the gap between the assault battalions.

Meanwhile, the Japanese encircling column begins an unopposed march down the Abo-Abo River valley toward Orion.

In the I Corps area, the Moron defenders fall back under strong enemy pressure to a ridge south-southeast of Moron.

From Washington, General Marshall, realizing how desperate the situation in the Philippines is becoming, sends the following message to the commander in Australia:

“Use your funds without stint. Call for more if required, Colonel Chamberlain has a credit of ten million dollars of Chief of Staff’s fund which can be spent in whatever manner latter deems advisable. I direct its use for this purpose. Arrange for advance payments, partial payments for unsuccessful efforts, and larger bonus for actual delivery. Your judgment must get results. Organize groups of bold and resourceful men, dispatch them with funds by planes to islands in possession of our associates, there to buy food and charter vessels for service. Rewards for actual delivery at Bataan or Corregidor must be fixed at level to insure utmost energy and daring on part of masters. At same time dispatch blockade runners from Australia with standard rations and small amounts of ammunition on each. Movement must be made on broad front over many routes. Only indomitable determination and pertinencity will succeed and success must be ours. Risks will be great. Rewards must be proportional. Report initiation of plan.”

17 Jan. 1942

Nothing to report. Yesterday afternoon, went to see our neighbor and landlord, Mr R. [Redfern, either RichardJames or Frederick Ralph]. He’s a British subject but his mother, very old, is Spanish [Angela Marcaida] and his wife Italian, thanks to which he has managed to avoid internment. But he lives a prey to terror, never daring… Read More »17 Jan. 1942

January 16-17, 1942

  Quiet. Two alarms each day but no bombing. We downed 2 planes today (17th). Carlos Romulo had been sick for the last 2 days with fever. He is staying with Manolo & myself. He is better today.

January 17, 1942

We are having an unusual amount of cloudy weather for the month of January. We had a little rain today also. The Japs had a plane over here early this a.m., but it didn’t come within range of the guns. It was just taking a look, I guess. Two of our planes had a nice… Read More »January 17, 1942

January 17, 1942 

Went to Bagac. Lot of rough, dusty riding. Dust on side of road about an inch thick. It hangs in the air for about 15 min. after a car passes. Very little air activity.

January 17, 1942

I rushed to the hospital kitchen at six every morning. If by some magic I could have obliterated myself into a tiny grease spot while I cooked our coffee and cereal, I would have done so. I. knew that my welcome was being stretched dangerously thin in the crowded kitchen, and I expected to be… Read More »January 17, 1942

January 17, 1942

The newspapers say Singapore has been subjected to heavy bombing. KGEI announced that British forces have retreated to Palch, 100 kilometers northwest of Singapore. Looks bad. My suggestion to allow each individual to have five sacks of rice for personal use has been granted by the Army, in view of the many complaints received at… Read More »January 17, 1942

January 17, 1942

Motor Pool, Intelligence Service Bataan     Will sleep here tonight with the drivers, mechanics and motor transport officers. The General asked me to stay here overnight to find out how boys out here feel and to report findings to him. Motor transport officers have good life. Their food is better than what we have… Read More »January 17, 1942

January 17th, 1942

We are crossing the Northern tip of Australia. They say the water is a little rough. Most of the Filipinos that are nurses, etc. are sick in their bunks. Gosh, it’s hot and I’m really weak. What I’d give for some food! I’d like a can of pears or peaches, but no such luck.

January 17, 1942

I wrote to Ottly in the evening. Went to Middle Sector command post with Lt. Keen to mail letters and take shower. Inspection in ranks and quarters from 8 to 10 AM. Titus, Martin, Blackburn and Martelle [Harold Martelle of Bentom Harbor, Michigan] volunteered for Bataan and were refused. Heavy air and artillery over Bataan.… Read More »January 17, 1942

Jan. 6 to 17, 1942

The Camp was slow getting started, but we each had to find our own bed and our own food. I had a car seat cushion but it was too short and I gave it to Dutch as he had some broken ribs and could use it. I slept on the concrete floor until Jan. 17.… Read More »Jan. 6 to 17, 1942

January 17, 1942

Fruit for breakfast! Japanese schoolchildren came en masse with good wishes and candy boxes for us. Their faces pressed against the wire to view the bears. Their teachers took their pictures In a group, with soldiers behind them and Americans in the far rear. The Japanese children are on a holiday, picking flowers. They marched… Read More »January 17, 1942

1/18/1942 Day 42 

The Il Corps renews its efforts to restore the west flank positions. The U.S. 31st Infantry is still unable to gain the Balantay River line on the right and is under strong enemy pressure along the river on the left. A battalion of the 45th Infantry (PA) reaches the Balantay to the west of the 3lst Infantry and is immediately attached to the 31st. Two other battalions of the 45th Infantry advance toward the Balantay between the 31st Infantry and the 41st Division (PA), but are halted short of their objective.

In the I Corps area, the Japanese increase their pressure and force the outposts to withdraw. A small enemy force moving eastward has been detected. They are moving toward the unprotected east flank.

18 Jan. 1942

Yesterday afternoon, towards six o’clock, I’m coming back from a short walk with Colia [Nicholas Balfour] and as I approach the house I see Redfern, who beckons to me. Without even bothering to say hello, he tells me he’s come to install his aged mother in our house. “It has to be done immediately.” I’m… Read More »18 Jan. 1942

January 18,1942 – Sunday

This has been a quiet day. No alarms. Windy & slightly cloudy. We can hear once in a while the artillery fire at Bataan.  

January 18, 1942

It has been cloudy all day today, and there was a little rain. I have been taking a sunbath at noon each day for the past five days, but couldn’t do it today as the sky was entirely overcast. We had no visit from the Japs today, and there was very little air activity over… Read More »January 18, 1942

January 18, 1942 

Sunday. Moved into a “bomb target.” Much less walking to do. Rumor of Jap transports not far off.

January 18, 1942

Today’s papers reported that the New Order has solved the traffic problem. Obviously. The best remedy for a headache is to cut off the head. It was amusing to watch the cycling fad. I know of persons who exchanged their magnificent Buicks for one bicycle. It was also amusing to see men, women, and priests… Read More »January 18, 1942

January 18,1942

“You can’t put a good man down,” they say, and the cochero is that good man. He is king of Manila again, as virtually all gasoline-driven motor vehicles, with the exception of military cars and vehicles authorized by the Army, disappeared from Manila’s streets. I’ve given up my Super-Buick. I’m using a small Crossmobile. It… Read More »January 18,1942

January 18th, 1942

They tell me that we’re stopping at Thursday Island to pick up a couple of pilots to take us through the Great Barrier Reef. Our final destination is Sydney, way south of here. A radio message intercepted from Japan reports that the S.S. “Mactan”, Red Cross Hospital ship, has been sunk with all hands on… Read More »January 18th, 1942

January 18, 1942

The newsboys call the papers just as early. Sounds just the same—SUNDAY TRIBUNE!— but the paper isn’t the same. The morning headlines feature the taking of Malacca, a bad blow for Singapore. I have been able to visit the few of the staff of the High Commissioner who had to stay in Manila. They are… Read More »January 18, 1942

1/19/1942 Day 43

The II Corps continues its efforts to regain the lost positions along the Balantay River on the west flank. The 45th Infantry (PS) reaches the river between the U.S. 31st Infantry and the 41st Division (PA) despite very heavy enemy fire. The Japanese column, driving down the Abo-Abo River valley, reached positions near Guitol and is engaged by the 31st Division (PA) and elements of the 21st Division (PA).

I Corps finally restores the outpost line in a counterattack but is then forced to abandon it after nightfall. Elements of the 92nd Infantry are sent to block Japanese infiltrators from Mt. Silanganan on the corps’ east flank.

January 19, 1942

This has been a very quiet day, not only on Corregidor, but also at the front. There have been no planes over here, and none to amount to anything over Bataan. In addition to having our pursuit keep an eye out for hostile planes over our front, we have also placed some AA artillery near… Read More »January 19, 1942

January 19, 1942

I filed my insurance application for P10,000. My beneficiaries were Mama and Joaquin. Returning in the afternoon from the Battalion Headquarters, I was notified by my Company Commander that George was in the hospital in Little Baguio but he added it was nothing serious. My feeling was a mix of joy and fear. Since my… Read More »January 19, 1942

January 19, 1942 

Start of 7th week of hate. Saw four 40s in the air today. Sure looked good. If they would only bring one in for me to fly The four P-40s that Burns saw had taken off from Bataan Field that morning to cover the landing of four P-40s returning to the field from Mindanao. Over… Read More »January 19, 1942 

January 19, 1942*

*probably erroneously published as January 18, 1942 in the printed version According to the information I gathered, the condition of the internees has greatly improved. The whole length of the fence has been covered with sawali to protect them from curious passers-by. They have organized themselves into groups, according to their professions or vocations, to work… Read More »January 19, 1942*

January 19, 1942

Four or five hundred of our fellow members jammed into the west patio of the Big House after curfew, for a community sing. The walls of this old Spanish university resounded to the lovely strains of “Old Kentucky Home,” “Swanee River,” “When Irish Eyes Are Smiling,” and other favorites. Songs of a patriotic nature were… Read More »January 19, 1942

January 19, 1942 – Monday

Got up at 6 a.m. Shaved & dressed. Took launch Baler at 7 a.m. for Cabcaben. Arrived there 7:30 a.m. Lieutenant Monsod aide to General Francisco & Major Javallera came to meet us. Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Nieto, and Major Romulo were with me. We took the command car and proceed to General Francisco’s Command Post… Read More »January 19, 1942 – Monday

January 19, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Service Bataan   Report of operatives on general trend of affairs in Manila: Japs have enforced martial law in City. Death penalty to be imposed on anyone who inflicts or attempts to inflict injury on any Jap. If assailant or attempted assailant cannot be found, ten influential persons who live near vicinity of… Read More »January 19, 1942

January 19, 1942

Rumors, rumors, rumors. Rumor that the convoy has arrived. Rumor that a Negro Army has landed in Batangas. Rumor that the USAFFE has reached Pampanga. Rumor that the USAFFE is using a secret ray that blinds the enemy. Rumor that Japanese officers, leaving for Bataan, shed tears because they know they’ll never come back alive.… Read More »January 19, 1942

January 1-19, 1942

For quite a few days between firings we collected equipment by the beg-borrow-steal method, and finally we had what we thought necessary for any eventuality. We then made a personal trip to all near organizations and one to the nearest AA battalion commander for information concerning friendly troops. We felt assured of our safety from… Read More »January 1-19, 1942

January 19th, 1942

Tried to eat, but heaved it all up , so it’s back to the beef broth – chocolate diet. Pass’ has a lot of guts. His leg is giving him hell again. They say we’re one day out of Townsville. What I’d give for some fresh vegetables or milk. Haven’t had any fresh milk since… Read More »January 19th, 1942

1/20/1942 Day 44

The enemy continues preparing for a major offensive and contains repeated attacks by the U.S. 3lst Infantry and the 45th Infantry (PS) on the west flank of II Corps. After further fighting forward of Guitol, the Japanese retire north.

In the I Corps area, the Japanese maintain pressure throughout the area while continuing to infiltrate into the right flank area from Mt. Silanganan.

January 20, 1942

It has been a beautiful day—quiet and peaceful as far as Corregidor is concerned. So far as I know not a plane has been over the island. It has also been relatively quiet at the front. Practically no aerial activity, and very little action of any kind. Some 200 or 300 Japs worked through the… Read More »January 20, 1942

January 20, 1942

Only three newspapers of the TVT are in circulation: one in English, one in Spanish, and one in Tagalog. They are the most insipid papers ever published, with nothing of truth in them. Everybody knows that only what the Japanese approve of goes into print. The size of the paper has been maintained but the… Read More »January 20, 1942

January 20, 1942 

Not much doing today, short hike, more tomorrow. We all stayed up last night and talked about the good times we used to have in the States. That seems like another world or a swell dream.

January 20, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Service Bataan   Can’t go to Corregidor. Too much bombing. Jap planes flying above all day. Spent morning and afternoon in dug-out. Missed ‘brunch’ due to strafing. Movement of cars and trucks paralyzed. Planes dive at any moving object. No cooking because Japs might spot HQ due to smoke. Transmitters from operatives in… Read More »January 20, 1942

January 20, 1942

Most of our barbed-wire buddies were optimistic, and many firmly believed that we’d be out in a few weeks. They reasoned that in a few weeks our reinforcements would arrive. However, one brash young man at the hospital today said that he thought we would be imprisoned for a whole year, and for a moment… Read More »January 20, 1942

January 20, 1942

No news in the Tribune about Bataan. I wonder why. As a matter of fact, there has been nothing on Bataan for the last few days. Are things going bad? Somebody told me that I should not worry, because no news is good news. Man is forever grasping at straws. Same old office routine. Rice, rice, rice—from… Read More »January 20, 1942

January 20, 1942 – Tuesday

  After breakfast, we left with General Francisco to Juanting Point along the Manila Bay coast of Bataan to inspect our coast defenses. I inspected the 75mm self propelled guns, and machine gun emplacements. Some of the boys were R.O.T.C. Their enthusiasm and morale were excellent. From this place, I went to Hospital N-2 at… Read More »January 20, 1942 – Tuesday

January 20th, 1942

Townsville is a small town, they say, and hard to dock in, but we have to get supplies and clean linen. Lt. Colonel Maitland, whom I knew at Clark Field (he was Commanding Officer), came on board to say hello to us. He was a welcome sight. The 3rd Engineer went out, a short while… Read More »January 20th, 1942

1/21/1942 Day 45

In the II Corps area, the Japanese continue preparations for a major offensive massing assault troops on the extreme west flank of the sector. They also contain further efforts of the Philippine Division to restore the west flank positions. In the I Corps area, a small enemy force, having circled behind the east flank of the corps, reaches the West Road in an area four miles east of Mauban and established a strong roadblock. This effectively cuts off troops of the Ist Division (PA) along the main line of resistance from all forces (and supplies) to the south. All troops that can be spared from other sectors are sent to attack the Japanese positions from both the north and south but are unable to reduce it.

President Quezon received reports about friction existing between the Filipinos and Americans.

Statement of General Hideki Tozyo, Premier of Japan, on the Japanese Empire’s attitude towards the peoples of Greater East Asia, January 21, 1942

Excerpts from the address of General Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister of Japan, delivered before the 79th session of the Imperial Diet, January 21, 1942

January 21, 1942 – Wednesday

  A warm and quiet day. No air raid. President visited the Philippine Army batteries.

January 21, 1942

Orders came from General Francisco to bring one BGC to the Pilar-Bagac junction from where an American officer would take over the command. The CO chose his car to go. I was in it. We left at noon, full of ammunition, guns freshly oiled. The American officer was a captain. He brought us to Abucay… Read More »January 21, 1942

January 21, 1942

Has been very quiet all day as far as activity on Corregidor is concerned. There has been no air alarm, and so far as I know, not a hostile plane has been near the island all day. However, the Japs have been quite busy at the front and filtered some troops through the trails around… Read More »January 21, 1942

January 21, 1942 

Spent the day mapping an area. A lot of walking, plenty tired.

January 21, 1942

It was interesting to watch the expression of an American when a Japanese soldier with untidy uniform and oversized boots shuffled past. Disgust and amusement could not be disguised, and more often a string of unprintable words were muttered after the retreating back.

January 21, 1942

Corregidor President Manuel Quezon is sick again. He coughed many times while I talked to him. He was in bed when I submitted report of the General regarding political movements in Manila. He did not read it. The President looked pale. Marked change in his countenance since I last had breakfast with his family. The… Read More »January 21, 1942

January 21, 1942

You cannot judge a man by his clothes. Not even by his uniform. I inspected the markets today and I saw that the first ones breaking regulations were policemen. They pretended to be enforcing order but they were actually getting as much as four gantas for themselves. Law and disorder! Four Japanese soldiers and an… Read More »January 21, 1942

January 21st, 1942

Taking on supplies and medicine, also clean linen. We can get a sponge bath now, and good, fresh water which will keep. Hope the food improves. Everybody seems more cheerful – outwardly at least. Anyway, the tension seems sort of lifted. One of the deck hands let the water hose get away from him and… Read More »January 21st, 1942

1/22/1942 Day 46 

MacArthur orders a withdrawal of the entire Mauban-Abucay line southward to a final defense position on Bataan, behind the Pilar-Bagac road. The withdrawal is to start after nightfall on the 23rd and be completed by first light on the 26th.

MacArthur sends a message to General Marshall in which he says: “I have personally selected and prepared this position, and it is strong.”

In the II Corps area, the Japanese start the offensive they have been preparing for and tanks of the 26th Cavalry (PS) attempt, unsuccessfully, to reduce the roadblock on West Road and to reach the Ist Division troops still fighting along the main line of resistance to the north.

Just after dark, the Japanese begin a series of amphibious operations. An entire battalion embarks in barges at Moron and sails toward Caibobo Point, just below Bagac. An American PT boat (PT-34, commanded by Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley, who will later take MacArthur to Mindanao) encounters this convoy and sinks two of the barges.

Field Marshal MacArthur orders withdrawal of the entire Mauban-Abucay line southward to final defense position on Bataan, behind Pilar-Bagac road; withdrawal started after nightfall on the 23rd and completed by daylight on the 26th.

January 22, 1942 – Thursday

  Also warm and uneventful. I do not like this lull. I believe that their planes are busy at the front, and at Singapore. If this stronghold falls into the hands of the Japanese, they will return to continue the bombardments here. I hope that the help from the U.S. comes soon. All we need… Read More »January 22, 1942 – Thursday

January 22, 1942

I went over to Bataan today. The situation in our front has become so uncertain and confusing that the General decided last night to start the withdrawal to the Reserve Battle Position. It is to begin tonight by withdrawal of 155 mm guns. However, I figured I had better talk things over with the advance… Read More »January 22, 1942

January 22, 1942 

Spent day on recon. Covered a large area picking out locations for rifle Plat. This would sure be rough country to fight in. A friend found some wine so we had a party.

Thursday, January 22, 1942

First air alarm today. Twelve two-motored bombers flew directly over the Central at 2:30 P.M, Servants saw planes approaching and came running in house calling that we were being attacked. I grabbed Beth from bathroom, mushed back for sticks for children’s mouths, returned second time for purse with papers and letters (Clay was in yard),… Read More »Thursday, January 22, 1942

January 22, 1942

With so many rumors going around, we were in a continual state of nervous anxiety. One day we heard that the men and women would be separated. A few hours later we heard that the women would all be released. Most of us were afraid to live outside. We felt safer in the camp. Occasionally… Read More »January 22, 1942

January 22, 1942

We went to Moroboro Springs and caves today. We had to pass the barrio of San Enrique, where the Japanese civilians are concentrated. These were people who lived in the Philippines before the war. I must say they are in a good place, the school house and church have been fitted up for them. There… Read More »January 22, 1942

January 22nd, 1942

Getting cooler now, thank Heaven! Food still terrible to me, although there’s lots of the others eating it. This kid Stevens, our orderly, would eat anything, I believe; he gets his own and then eats mine. I haven’t eaten a square meal since getting on board. I’ve lost a lot of weight and my leg… Read More »January 22nd, 1942

January 22, 1942

In the list of work details put on bulletin board by Committee, Jerry is down as Outside Sanitation, I am down as Inside Sanitation—both meaning garbage disposal.

January 22, 1942

Courier Boat Manila Bay Rough sea. Dark night. Where did I put my canned goods? Boat’s swaying sideways, I think. I’m a rotten sailor. Can’t write.

1/23/1942 Day 47

The Philippine Division, on the west flank of II Corps, withstands some very heavy pressure. After nightfall, the Il Corps begins its withdrawal to a final defense position.

In the I Corps area, the Japanese continue to maintain heavy pressure against the Mauban main line of resistance and frustrate attempts to reduce the roadblock on West Road.

In the Service Command Area, the enemy amphibious force heading for Caibobo Point, having lost its way during the night, finally arrives at two points on the southwest coast, both well south of the main objective area. About a third of the force land at Longoskawayan Point and the rest at Quinauan Point. General McBride, responsible for the defense of the southern tip of Bataan (except for the naval reservation near Mariveles), sends some elements

of the Philippine Constabulary to Quinauan Point, but they make very little headway. Commander Francis J. Bridget, commanding the naval reservation, sends some sailors and Marines to Longoskawayan Point. These troops, who are reinforced by personnel of the U.S. 301st Chemical Company and a howitzer from the Constabulary, clear Pucot Hill, but the enemy returns just after darkness. This hill is 617 feet high and dominates West Road and the harbor at Mariveles.

MacArthur sends Marshall a radio message that says: “With our occupation of Bataan, all maneuvering possibilities will cease. I intend to fight it out to complete destruction.”.

The Philippine Executive Commission is established. The Commission assumes government functions in Japanese occupied Philippines under authority of the Japanese Military Administration, with Jorge B. Vargas as chairman and the following as commissioners: Benigno Aquino Sr., interior; Antonio de las Alas, finance; Jose P. Laurel, justice; Claro M. Recto, education, health, and public welfare; and Quintin Paredes, public works and communication. Jose Yulo was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The Philippine Executive Commission replaced the authorities of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, until the establishment of the Second Republic in October 1943.

With Vargas heading a group of thirty “men of importance,” a “letter of response” is handed to the Japanese High Command, stating that “we have constituted ourselves into a provisional Council of State and we are immediately proceeding to draft our Articles of Organization.” Right after Vargas and Company have delivered the “response,” a Japanese spokesman reads “Order No. 1” from the “Commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces,” appointing Vargas chairman of an “Executive Commission,” which “shall proceed with the immediate coordination of the existing central administrative organs in the Philippines, and with the execution of administration order the commands and orders of the Commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Forces.”

Facts and Figures About the Philippines, January 23, 1942

Message of the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Expeditionary Forces addressed to the members of the Philippine Council of State, January 23, 1942

Letter of Jorge B. Vargas read at the Manila headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Expeditionary Forces, January 23, 1942

Reopening of Banking Institutions and Financial Organizations, January 23, 1942

System of forced savings for all employees, January 23, 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 5-23, 1942

Constantly engaged with enemy. Both sides suffering considerable number of casualties. Enemy snipers inflicting damage to our men especially officers. Capt McCurdy D.C. killed by bomb falling near church in Abucay. Gen. MacArthur spent an hour at our C.P. told us the sky would be black with American planes (“hundreds of planes and thousands of… Read More »Jan. 5-23, 1942

Fri. Jan. 16 – Fri. Jan. 23/42

We straightened up things at home, visited around among the friend and even went to Miso’s place for Salud’s birthday. Some of the folks came to see us.

January 23, 1942

The situation does not appear to have improved as things stand tonight. On the front of the I Corps the Japs still have the 1st P.A. Division cut off, although efforts are being made to drive out the hostile force in rear of the line. The situation in the II Corps appears to be unchanged… Read More »January 23, 1942

January 23, 1942 

Called out at 3:00 A. and after last night. Two small detachments of Japs on our end of the island. We can’t have that. Half the Sqd’n still out hunting them. One force of 900 Japanese under Colonel Tsunehiro embarked in landing craft the night before and set out for the west coast of Bataan.… Read More »January 23, 1942 

January 23, 1942

HQ, Bataan (Noon)   Cabcaben docks bombed while our courier boat was unloading. Nobody hurt. Japs are squint-eyed. Everybody in C.P. asking me questions about Corregidor. “How does the Rock look?” or “What do they say about the convoy?” or “They have a better life out there, don’t you think so?” To pep boys up… Read More »January 23, 1942

January 23, 1942

Nothing caused more exasperation and hate than seeing the Nips driving our cars. There were more unprintable words uttered when internees recognized their cars being driven into the camp by cocky Japanese! Catesy gritted his teeth every time he saw his car entering the camp. The indignity of being politely pushed out of his new… Read More »January 23, 1942

January 23, 1942

Philippine sunsets and cloud effects are the most beautiful I have ever seen. I sit on the parapet and watch the sunset every evening. [Note how George’s observations of the weather and the outdoors are a part of his being. He used to open the door when it was raining and stand for a long… Read More »January 23, 1942

January 23, 1942

Manila is talking about Tozyo’s promise of independence and, above the murmurs and whispers, one loud voice is heard! Benigno Aquino’s. Aquino said that God has made us Orientals and therefore, if we believe in the infinite wisdom of God, we must follow His design and cooperate with Japan for the realization of our long… Read More »January 23, 1942

January 23rd, 1942

The sea is a little rough today. Most of the Filipinos are in their bunks. I thought they were better sailors than that. The trip is beginning to get a little tiresome and I’m sure getting weaker. Next stop Brisbane, so they say.

January 19-23, 1942

Then on Jan. 19-1942 moved back up to Abucay line up in mountains where it had broken made counter attack Jan 20-1942 but was not successful but made another short ways back. It held 3 days on nights Nips were attacking ever night just as the moon came up. Loses were heavy an food was… Read More »January 19-23, 1942

January 23, 1942

We had lemon pie—a gift from some Japanese.

January 23, 1942 – Friday

2:00 a.m. Awake watching how the President is. Left tunnel at 6:20 a.m. to go to Chaplain Ronan’s barracks to hear Mass. We had hardly finished the Gospel when someone came to call me, that the President wanted me ASAP, I rushed to his bedside. He had another attack of asthma. I gave him a… Read More »January 23, 1942 – Friday

1/24/1942 Day 48

II Corps begins disengaging and withdrawing its combat troops. The Japanese maintain intense pressure on the Philippine Division and attack its covering force, but the bulk of the troops withdraw successfully. The situation in the I Corps area deteriorates rapidly. The lst Division (PA), exhausted by prolonged fighting along the main line of resistance and in critical need of supplies and ammunition, remains under heavy pressure. Additional strength is applied against the Japanese roadblock on West Road without any success.

In the Service Command Area, the Japanese cannot be ousted from Quinauan and Longoskawayan Points. The sailors and Marines fighting there do succeed in regaining Pucot Hill and driving the enemy back to Longoskawayan and Lapiay Points.

January 24, 1942

I was not well but rested on mat after working on beans and carrots. Many children throwing up and crying in the night. No garbage collected by Japanese for six days. Missionaries queried five at a time all day. Total of 30 dysentery cases in all. We are ravenous for sweet. Bucayo sent tasted wonderful.

January 24, 1942 48th Day of War

Saturday is bath night-not having my clothing off since last Friday, I am going to duck the shells and go to the General Hospital to shave and bathe. My whiskers look like the “Days of the ’49 Miners” and although we have an agreement with the Japanese that neither shall use gas, you can’t always… Read More »January 24, 1942 48th Day of War

January 24th, 1942

Arrived at Brisbane, Queensland, and we got some ice cream and milk. I drank two imperial pints. I don’t think anything ever tasted as good. Then we got some different food and supplies and today was the first real meals I had – two of them – and more milk and ice cream and cigarettes.… Read More »January 24th, 1942

January 24, 1942

The Japanese mean business. They have formed a central government, for areas under military control, with Jorge B. Vargas as chairman. I pity Jorge. He’s got a tough job. He’ll have to know how to dance to two different bands playing different music at the same time. Immediate step to harvest the standing rice crops in… Read More »January 24, 1942

Saturday, January 24, 1942

Second air alarm, Eleven planes flew near the Central, in clear view, at 12:30. Again report came later that they were U.S. planes looking over airfields on this island. This Central is between three landing fields. Talked with Major Jones (Capt. Jones before) to ask whether army could help me get milk and tomato juice… Read More »Saturday, January 24, 1942

January 24, 1942 

Washed clothes and hunted snipers all day. After evening meal went up to 34th again, then up to front. Spent night there, very little sleep. Guns firing all night. Mighty rough country. The 200 officers and men of the 21st Pursuit, on bivouac near the Biaan River were awakened after midnight on January 23/24 and… Read More »January 24, 1942 

January 24, 1942

One month ago tonight we came over to Corregidor. Am now starting the second month. In a relatively short time this war will be two months old. Things are not improving a great deal in Bataan. Some of the Japs are still loose at Agloloma, and a few are still in the vicinity of Mariveles.… Read More »January 24, 1942

Sat. Jan. 24/42

Cecil, Willie and I go to the Pasay Municipal to get our third hypodermic injection for typhoid, dysentery and cholera. We had two injections while we were in the camp. Due to crowded conditions in the camp, lack of sanitation disposal in the city, there is a fear of epidemics of disease. In the p.m.… Read More »Sat. Jan. 24/42

Wernitznig

Dec. 30th-Jan. 24th, 1942

Arrived Abucay 5:00 A.M. 12/30; preparation of Abucay defense position. C.P. 300 yds West of church in Abucay. Immediately began digging fox holes.

Wernitznig

Jan. 24th, 1942

Withdrawal of the 57th from Abucay to vicinity Mt. Natib. Left Abucay at about 9:00 P.M. Traffic jam in BALANGA. While in town enemy opened up with artillery fire about 8 rounds. Over 40 killed several injured, haid under building during firing: got convoy out of town shortly after firing ceased. Reached bivouac area about… Read More »Jan. 24th, 1942

January 24, 1942 – Saturday

4 a.m. I was called by the President. He is improving. He had a fair night. At 12 p.m. had another attack of asthma but of lesser intensity. He was given a cap. of Ephedrine Sulfate. At 10 a.m. I tried to go to the house to sleep but I had to return as there… Read More »January 24, 1942 – Saturday

1/25/1942 Day 49

Responsibility for the defense of the beach area of south Bataan passes from General McBride to the commanders of I and II Corps.

Il Corps continues its withdrawal under heavy enemy air attack and with Japanese troops in hot pursuit on the ground. The withdrawal of the Ist Division (PA) southward begins during the morning and continues through the night. In an attempt to divert the Japanese attention, other units of 1 Corps press in on the roadblock on West Road from the west. In the Service Command Area, operations against the Japanese at Quinauan and Longoskawayan Points remain indecisive.

January 25, 1942 – Sunday

At 1 a.m. the lights of the house went out. Both the President and Mrs. Quezon were nervous. He made me call the phone central and inquire why we had no lights. They feared an act of sabotage. The phone operator informed that there was slight trouble in the power plant but it was being… Read More »January 25, 1942 – Sunday

January 25, 1942

HQ, Intelligence Service, Bataan   Talked to some of the boys of the 21st at the front yesterday. Japs have tried to penetrate their lines during last few days but to no avail. Boys are complaining about very little food ration. Many were very anxious to get a smoke. Japs have dropped a lot of… Read More »January 25, 1942

Sun. Jan. 25/42

Cecil and I go the Misos for Meeting. Home about six thirty.

January 25, 1942

I remembered Gonzy in my prayers on the occasion of his birthday. I knew his worth. We found our new campsite utterly filthy, having been previously occupied by a PC unit. We transferred to the other side of the river. I fired at a Japanese plane flying low over Limay. This was the first time… Read More »January 25, 1942

January 25, 1942

It has been a little hot today—more so than it should be at this time of year. Being hot outside it was also a little close in the tunnel. We are sleeping in Tunnel #10 now and it is a big improvement over our former living conditions, as those of us in there are in… Read More »January 25, 1942

January 25, 1942 

Formed lines and started a push. Working with P.C. trying to catch one group up to another when hell broke loose about 75 ft. away. In between our lines and Japs. Machine gun fire is awful. Snipers in trees. No sleep. This morning, the 21st Pursuit was integrated with the Philippine Constabulary and Company A… Read More »January 25, 1942 

January 25, 1942

The News Division of the Japanese Army has requested me to write my opinion regarding Premier Tozyo a promise of independence. Shall I write the truth? Shall I tell them that I don’t believe they’ll give us independence? Here’s a note from Mr. Terada: “I shall appreciate it very much if you will prepare your… Read More »January 25, 1942

January 25th, 1942

Shoved off from Brisbane. Glad to get going. We hear there’s quite a flock of U.S. soldiers here. Must have been the ones that were to help us. Around 9 or 10 o’clock, lot’s of excitement. Heard a man yell “Man overboard!” A Filipino on deck sleeping on the cot next to Lt. Donegan jumped… Read More »January 25th, 1942

1/26/1942 Day 50

During the morning, both I and Il Corps complete their withdrawals to final defense lines on Bataan, closely followed by Japanese troops. The new line, which is to be continuous for the first time, extends from Orion on the east to Bayac on the west and is generally behind the Pilar-Bagac road. Gaps develop in each corps sector when USAFFE withdraws the Philippine Division as its reserve. Units are hastily shifted to replace the U.S. 31st and the 57th (PA) Regiments in the II Corps line and the 45th Infantry (PS) in the I Corps line.

General MacArthur sends a message to the War Department that sounds as if he is actually on Bataan, leading the troops in the futile battle. It says: “In Luzon: under cover of darkness, I broke contact with the enemy and without the loss of a man or an ounce of material, am now firmly established on my main battle position.”

Il Corps, responsible for east Bataan from the coast to the Pantingan River, organizes its line into four sectors from east to west: Sector A, the 3lst Infantry; Sector B, the Provisional Air Corps Regiment; Sector C, elements of the 31st Division (PA) and the 51st Division (PA); Sector D, the 41st and 21st Divisions (PA) and the 33rd Infantry Regiment (PA) less the 1st Battalion. In addition, the beach defense forces are organized as Sector E and is made up of the Ist Battalion of the 33rd Infantry. A regiment of Philippine Army combat engineers constitutes the corps reserve.

The Japanese patrol along the east slopes of Mt. Samat, almost to the main line of resistance but do not discover a large gap in the line which exists for several hours.

The I Corps line, extending from the Pantingan River to the west coast, is divided into the Right and Left Sectors. The Right Sector is manned by the 2nd Philippine Constabulary Regiment (less one battalion) on the east and the 11th Division (PA) on the west. In the Left Sector are elements of the Ist Division (PA) on the east and the 91st Division (PA) on the west. The beach defense forces make up the South Sector. The 26th Cavalry (PS) is held in corps reserve.

The Japanese open the offensive against this new line by driving troops south along West Road, toward the Binuangan River. The 91st Division (PA) contains these attacks.

In the South Sector, the Japanese maintain beachheads at Quinauan and Longoskawayan Points and begin moving reinforcements in. USAFFE sends the 88th Field Artillery Battalion (PS) to the west coast from the II Corps area, assigning one battery to Quinauan Point and another to Longoskawayan Point.

Suffering from high fever after a brief inspection of coast artillery batteries on Corregidor, Quezon has a second severe attack of asthma with spasmodic coughing, leaving him breathless and almost suffocated. He is taken out by ambulance to a cottage near that of MacArthur’s. A tent is set up at the end of the “hospital” outside the Malinta tunnel, where the President stays beginning January 26th until he leaves the “Rock” three weeks later.

King George VI of the United Kingdom wires Field Marshal MacArthur: The magnificent resistance… has filled your allies in the British Empire with profound admiration.”

January 26th, 1942

Food improved, it’easier to shave; and I don’t seem to tire as easily. We should be in Sydney, they say, at 0600 tomorrow. We really are in a storm and the ship is taking a terrific pounding. Seems like every plunge will break the old girl in two, and it’s hard to stay in the… Read More »January 26th, 1942

January 26, 1942

Must encourage the people to do some home gardening. Every available backyard should be planted to vegetables. The Bureau of Plant Industry can provide the seeds to interested parties. Planted tomatoes, cabbage, pechay and radish in my garden. This will help increase the food supply. “Little drops of water make an ocean; little grains of… Read More »January 26, 1942

January 26, 1942

A ripple of tremulous excitement went through the camp when we heard many planes high in the clouds. There followed heavy anti-aircraft firing, and we heard the loud detonation of bombs. A Japanese guard with bayonet bared came to our room to turn off our lights, while excited men, women, and children in corridors were… Read More »January 26, 1942

January 26, 1942 

Pretty much tired out, ran messages and helped the doc. At dark the eng’s came in, badly shot up by some Mg. nest I ran into yesterday. Got a little sleep and some decent food, but not very hungry.

Mon. Jan. 26/42

As we have to stay home most of the time, and as we have no letters to write, we are studying the Bible together in the mornings. Taking the book of Mark chapter by chapter, and some times spend an hour and a half that way. Very nice and refreshing to sit quietly and listen… Read More »Mon. Jan. 26/42

January 26, 1942

Life was peaceful here today. It is sometimes hard to believe that we are in the middle of a war when the Japs let this island so severely alone as they have most of the time recently. From the news which comes in they appear to have their hands full down south at present in… Read More »January 26, 1942

January 26, 1942

HQ, MIS Bataan   Maj. Gen. Basilio Valdes and Major Carlos Romulo dropped at our Command Post this morning. Romulo said they would go to the command posts of Generals Lim and Segundo. They want to see “a little bit of action”. They got a bit of it when they docked at Cabcaben this morning.… Read More »January 26, 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 25-26, 1942

In bivouac north of Limay; movement after dark on the 26th for area north of Mariveles to engage enemy at LONGOSKAWAYAN.

January 26, 1942 – Monday

The President is improving. He has spent all day in the tent. He complained of extreme weakness after returning from the toilet inside of the tunnel.

1/27/1942 Day 51

In the II Corps area, the Japanese begin their assault against the main line of resistance in the afternoon. After making a feint down East Road, they make their main attack against Sectors C and D. Sector C is thinly manned and in the process of being reinforced by the 41st Infantry from Sector D. The Japanese troops force the outposts back and get a small advance group across the Pilar River.

In the I Corps area, the enemy renews their efforts to break through the main line of resistance on the west coast. The Japanese are again brought to a halt by the 91st Division (PA). In the South Sector, General Wainwright sends the 3rd Battalion, 45th Infantry, to Longoskawayan Point to “dislodge or destroy” the enemy along the southwest coast. Meanwhile, after a preparatory fire from all available guns, the infantry attacks Longoskawayan Point but is still unable to clear it. Scouts of the 2nd Battalion, 57th Infantry, relieve the Navy battalion there during the night. The Japanese are contained but cannot be cleared from Quinauan Point. They send in water-borne reinforcements for this area but they land short of their objective, between the Anyasan and Silaiim Rivers. The 17th Pursuit Squadron from reserve, and the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Regiment (PS), from the main line of resistance to the north, move against the Japanese but are halted about 1,000 yards from the beach. The Japanese troops who have landed are ordered to drive toward Mariveles.

After dark, the U.S. submarine SEAWOLF delivers some badly needed ammunition to Corregidor and evacuates a group of Army and Navy pilots.

United States Army Air Corp (USAAC) attacks the Japanese in Bataan; seven P-40s destroy 14-37 planes.

January 27, 1942

HQ, MIS, Bataan Vic’s birthday. I wonder how he is celebrating it. Am very homesick. Fred has a good story depicting state of unpreparedness of Philippines when war broke out. He said he asked a friend: “What is your family doing to prepare in case of war?” And his friend replied: “In our house we… Read More »January 27, 1942

January 27, 1942

The Japs are still holding out at Agloloma Bay and Pucat Hill. We shelled the Pucat Hill area again at 7:15 this a.m., using 12-inch mortars from Fort Mills, but the Japs held out. Why our troops can’t wipe them out is a puzzle to me. In addition, another force, possibly 100, has landed on… Read More »January 27, 1942

Tues. Jan. 27/42

Great excitement over what happened last night. Talk about rumors! Some think that the Americans are very close, but we feel that the last nights activities were just a gesture.

January 27, 1942 

With own outfit today. In a secondary line for 1st time. Spotted Jap barges up coast, got 37 mm and shelled it. One meal and some sleep. The scouts are supposed to come in tomorrow. Another landing of Japanese had been made the night before on the promontory area between Silaiiam and Anyasan Bays. The… Read More »January 27, 1942 

January 27, 1942

By order of the Commandant, each room was given a copy of the Japanese-controlled daily Tribune, which we had nicknamed the Nishi-Nishi. The morning headline made us positively gay. NIGHT RAIDERS MET BY A HEAVY BARRAGE OF ANTI-AIRCRAFT. It won’t be long now, we gloated!

January 27, 1942

Manila was bombed at 9:30 p.m. We were all in Gabriel’s house. All of a sudden the windows began to shake and there were dull explosions that shook the house. Anti-aircraft guns started firing immediately. The children began to shout and rejoice. Reprimanded the boys for shouting. They must not show their feelings. Our Japanese… Read More »January 27, 1942

January 27th, 1942

Here we are in Sydney Harbor at last, but they tell us we were given up for lost days ago – and I thought we were lost last night, because it sure was Hell. As it is, we’re six hours late in arriving, but, by golly, we’re here, and what a relief! The Red Cross… Read More »January 27th, 1942

January 25-27, 1942

QM morning of Jan 2-192 I Sgt Evans got shot in left arm and went back to aid station had to wait there until might for ambulance. Line broke about 8:00 ambulance came at same time everybody was running everywhere.I got an ambulance but was so many Philipinoes [Filipinos] in road had hard time getting… Read More »January 25-27, 1942

January 27, 1942

Nakamura is proud of his camp organization and we had many bowls of flowers for the inspection, but the officer only looked in at the men’s section, lined up the guards for salute and took his plump self away, in our car with a star on the front and a special license.

1/28/1942 Day 52

 In the II Corps area, the 41st Infantry completes its movement into the Sector C line, taking up positions between elements of the 31st and 51st Divisions (PA), already in position. After dark, the Japanese renew their attack against the corps, with some actually making it across the Tiawir River, forward of Sector D. They are finally halted as other Japanese troops attempt to move forward in the area of Sector C, but without success.

From the west coast in the I Corps area, the enemy moves eastward along the main line of resistance to the Ist Division sector where defense positions are not yet completed.

During the night, the Japanese breach the line there and pour southward through the gap. As the enemy force becomes divided in the dense jungle in the area, two pockets (called Little Pocket and Big Pocket) are formed. Little Pocket is located about 400 yards inside the U.S. and Filipino positions and Big Pocket is nearly a mile south.

In the South Sector, scouts of the 2nd Battalion, 57th Infantry (PS), attack Longoskawayan Point and advance nearly two-thirds of its length before their supporting artillery fire is finally obstructed by Pucot Hill.

The 3rd Battalion, 45th Infantry (PS), attacks the enemy beachhead at Quinauan Point but the jungle terrain and the enemy positions make progress slow and costly. After dark, the 3rd Battalion is reinforced by Company B of the 57th Infantry (PS). In the Anyasan-Silaiim sector, the 17th Pursuit Squadron and the Philippine Constabulary elements push almost to the coast of Anyasan Bay, but the Constabulary, fearing a Japanese counterattack, withdraws in confusion after dark.

Tokyo officially announces the new government in the Philippines. Field Marshal MacArthur visits Bataan. 

On hearing a Tokyo radio broadcast renouncing the establishment of a “new government in the Philippines… pledged to adhere to Japan’s Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere,” and the names of Filipino leaders constituting the government, Quezon immediately expresses his confidence in their “loyalty to the United States as well as (in) their personal loyalty to me.” He adds that “they could be depended upon under any and all circumstance to commit no act of disloyalty, either to America, to the Philippines, or to me, the head of government.”

Statement of Jorge B. Vargas after his appointment as Chairman of the Executive Commission, on January 28, 1942

Press statements issued by Jorge B. Vargas and Benigno Aquino, January 28, 1942

Letter of President Quezon to Field Marshal MacArthur, January 28, 1942

See: The debate on taking the Philippines out of the war: January 28 to February 12, 1942.

January 28, 1942

HQ, MIS Bataan   Gap in western sector widening. Japs penetrating Segundo’s line in force. 1st regular division in wild retreat. Hell has broken loose in this area. Many dying, dead. No reinforcements can be sent to bridge gap. No more reserves. 1st regular given up for lost. Japs following successes slowly, surely, cautiously. USAFFE… Read More »January 28, 1942

January 28, 1942

Another beautiful day but nothing much in the way of action has taken place. The units are still in place on the Reserve Battle Position, and there has been a certain amount of skirmishing, but no real action. The efforts of the Japs really seem to be centered in their efforts to make a successful… Read More »January 28, 1942

January 28, 1942

While the company was having its nightly get- together after a community rosary, a general alarm was called. Fifteen Japanese prisoners had escaped from Cabcaben concentration camp. I stood guard from one to three in the morning by the riverside.

January 28, 1942 

Scouts in, a good looking bunch of men. Beat the brush and went back to our old camp. Clean clothes, bath, etc. sure good. Dyess made Capt. today. I’m sweating out silver bars. This morning, the 21st Pursuits men were ordered back to their camp area, along with men of the Philippine Constabulary and Company… Read More »January 28, 1942 

January 28, 1942

The Japanese paper, the Nishi-Nishi, had us in a tizzy of merriment. How crude and fantastic could their propaganda be? The paper carried this astonishing bit of news: “The Santo Tomas Internment Camp has been ruthlessly bombed by Americans, and the Japanese condemn the bombing of Manila by Americans, especially the bombing of Santo Tomas,… Read More »January 28, 1942

January 27-28, 1942

Nothing unusual. The President is improving. January 27 at 6:30 p.m. I went to the top of Malinta Hill to see Manila. What a disappointment. Manila was in total darkness due to the bombing of Nichols Field and Nielson Airport the previous night by some U.S. Army planes.

January 28, 1942

No bombs today. All Manila is talking about last night’s bombing. Some think the reinforcements have arrived in Corregidor. Others claim it was just a nuisance raid. A friend of mine said he hears somebody say that the USAFFE is now in Pampanga. Some of the boys in the office celebrated. I prefer to keep… Read More »January 28, 1942

January 28, 1942

Jerry and his garbage salad marvelous! Made from pieces of lettuce cut off leaves thrown out. The lootenants told a good story of a guard wanting to get in a house to capture something they fancied. He handed his gun to one of our men to take care of, climbed in a window, gathered up… Read More »January 28, 1942

1/29/1942 Day 53

The II Corps withstands further efforts of the Japanese to breach their lines. In the I Corps area, troops of the 1st and 11th Divisions (PA) operate against Little Pocket and Big Pocket in an effort to both determine their strength and general disposition, and also force a reaction in order to pin them down even more. Scouts of the 1st Battalion, 45th Infantry (PS), prepare to assist the 11th Division in the attack on Big Pocket.

In the South Sector, after a half-hour artillery preparation augmented by-fire from an offshore minesweeper, the 2nd Battalion, 57th Infantry (PS), attacks and clears Longoskawayan Point. At the same time, the 3rd Battalion, 45th Infantry (PS), continues to make slow and costly progress at Quinauan Point. In the Anyasan-Silaiim sector, Scouts of the 2nd Battalion, 45th Infantry (PS), prepare to attack and are reinforced by the Ist Battalion, Philippine Constabulary, and the Ist Battalion, 12th Infantry (PA), both units having been relieved at Quinauan Point. Company A, 57th Infantry (PS), is to guard West Road.

January 29, 1942 — Thursday

A dull and warm day with occasional breeze. I have been busy attending to correspondence from the Headquarters of the Philippine Army. I am happy to learn that my family is in good health. The President is improving although his slight rise in temperature beginning at noon.

January 29, 1942

HQ, MIS, Bataan Japs have encircled the 1st regular. I wonder what will happen to the boys there. This is a great calamity. Apparently, Japs crawled through precipices of Mt. Natib. After penetration, they made a flank maneuver and concentrated fire on rear of Segundo’s line. Reports from radio indicate Japs are wild about their… Read More »January 29, 1942

January 29, 1942

A report came in this afternoon that the 57th Infantry has just about cleaned out its area at Longoskawayan Point. They have driven the Japs out to the end of the point, which is a cliff, and a sheer drop to the China Sea below. The Japs are reported to be jumping off the cliff… Read More »January 29, 1942

January 29, 1942 

Loafed most of the day. Washed a few clothes. Good to have nothing much to do and sleep a lot. Co. of scouts camped in here with us. Comforting feeling.

January 29, 1942

A Filipino ice-cream vendor was permitted to enter the camp with his push cart, and we flocked to him like eager kids. On the third day, when he disposed of his wares, the Japanese guards took him to the Commandant’s office. After beating him up, they took away his earnings. When he left the camp,… Read More »January 29, 1942

January 29, 1942

Here’s baloney for the cold stores: “The University of Santo Tomas,” according to the Tribune, “was bombed, clearly exposing the inhumanity of America.” I know Sto. Tomas was not bombed. Everybody knows that too. This type of propaganda does more harm than good to the Japanese. Mr. S. Terada has been relieved by G. Nakaihima.… Read More »January 29, 1942

January 20-29, 1942

The first two days were spent in recruit fundamentals as well as camp building. We issued an order that these men were not to leave the rice paddy during air raids; this was necessary in order to break a former habit when the men had no jobs to do. The next two days were used… Read More »January 20-29, 1942

January 29, 1942*

*This entry is undated in the book, but situated before the January 30, 1942 entry which is dated. What am I going to do with this staff of help—more than thirty of them. One of the reasons I keep open is to look after them. They have worked for me for years with uniforms, medical… Read More »January 29, 1942*

January 21-29, 1942

I went to Calamba for a week of rest, taking advantage of the trips which the administrator of Hacienda Real had to make with his car back and forth to Manila. On our way to Calamba, we were behind a luxurious car displaying a Philippine flag. It was the car of General Artemio Ricarte, self-exile… Read More »January 21-29, 1942

1/30/1942  Day 54

General MacArthur takes control of all naval forces left in the Philippines.

In Sector C of Il Corps, efforts to dislodge the enemy from the Pilar River bridgehead fail. Indecisive fighting continues along the main line of resistance.

I Corps makes slow progress against the two enemy pockets behind their lines. While the Ist Division attempts to reduce Little Pocket, elements of the 11th and 45th Regiments attack Big Pocket from both the north and south.

In the South Sector, the 3rd Battalion, 45th Infantry (PS), continued to attack the bridgehead at Quinauan Point while the 2nd Battalion (of the same regiment), supported by the

88th Field Artillery Battalion, pushes slowly forward toward the mouth of the Silaiim River.

Telegram from President Roosevelt to President Quezon regarding his letter to Field Marshal MacArthur, January 30, 1942

Wernitznig

Jan. 27th-30th, 1942

Operation against enemy at LONGOSKAWAYAN POINT just beyond Mariveles. Enemy suffered heavy casualties. 2nd Bn 57th did most of the fighting. Enemy firmly entrenched in caves which were fully equipped with food, ammunition, radios; evidently this had all been done before the war even started. Food dropped to enemy by parachute we recovered quite a… Read More »Jan. 27th-30th, 1942

January 30, 1942

HQ, MIS, Bataan   Filipino officers in USAFFE may get same pay as Americans, according to General. There is no reason why an American should get higher pay than a Filipino doing the same job with the same rank. Both are undergoing the same risks and both are human beings. To hell with the superior… Read More »January 30, 1942

January 30, 1942

The general situation on Bataan remains unchanged. There has been some pressure against the front of both Corps, probably more in the way of a “feeler” to find “soft spots” than any real attempt to attack. The Japs don’t like to attack if there is any chance of running hard up against the real opposition.… Read More »January 30, 1942

Fri. Jan. 30/42

All enemy nationals outside the camp must report at Army Headquarters, so Cecil and I go down in the morning and Leo and Willie in the afternoon. They just wanted to know how much money we had in the bank! Three Japanese banks have opened, and three local banks have been ordered to get ready… Read More »Fri. Jan. 30/42

January 30, 1942 

First year’s service through now. Lazy day. Organized sniper hunting details, going hunting, maybe. Don’t know why I got myself into it, but here I am.

January 30, 1942

We were sick at heart and depressed today. We heard that Churchill had said that “Singapore will fall.” This news came as a bombshell after all the optimistic rumors we had been hearing. People who had lived in the Orient for years had almost a fanatical belief in the impregnability of the Singapore Fortress. Now… Read More »January 30, 1942

January 30, 1942

Still no bombs. People are still hoping, wishing. Man lives on hope. He is not satisfied with the present. His eyes are fixed towards the future. The present is a more transition, as far as he is concerned. Man will continually reach for the stars. He will never reach them. The NARIC may ration sugar,… Read More »January 30, 1942

January 30, 1942

When I returned from Calamba last night, I found the city a little changed. They have resumed the blackouts at night. Perhaps because a few nights ago a number of American planes flew over the city. It was not known how many, nor was there any mention of the places bombed. It seems that there… Read More »January 30, 1942

January 30, 1942

The Japanese are so intent on showing the Filipino people their great victories, that they have plastered the town with huge maps, showing the Japanese spheres of occupation and influence. They didn’t count on the Filipino sense of humor. I passed one of these maps and saw a huge crowd gazing at it and laughing.… Read More »January 30, 1942

1/31/1942 Day 55

After an air raid and heavy artillery preparation, the Japanese attack the II Corps area early in the evening but are halted by heavy corps fire. The Japanese regiment concealed in the bridgehead across the Pilar River begins withdrawing under cover of darkness.

I Corps continues its battle against the enemy pockets in the Ist and 11th Division areas.

These pockets are now cut-off from all re-supply efforts.

In the South Sector, operations against the enemy beachhead at Quinauan Point continue with little change in the positions of either side. The Japanese order reinforcements into the area. The 192nd Tank Battalion is sent to the west coast to help reduce the beachhead.

Gen. Segundo’s troops escaped Japanese encirclement.

Quezon, in a letter to MacArthur, says that every one of the men who have accepted positions in the Philippine Executive Commission “wanted to come to Corregidor, but you (MacArthur) told me that there was no room for them here. They are not ‘quislings.’ The ‘quislings’ are the men who betray their country to the enemy. These men did what they have been asked to do, while they were free, under the protection of their government. Today they are virtually prisoners of the enemy. I am sure they are the victims of the adverse fortunes of war and that they have no choice. Besides it is most probable that they accepted their positions in order to safeguard the welfare of the civilian population in the occupied areas. I think, under the circumstances, America should look upon their situation sympathetically and understand.”

“My loyalty and the loyalty of the Filipino people have been proven beyond question,” Quezon adds in his letter. “Now we are fighting by her (U.S.) side under your command, despite overwhelming odds. But, it seems to me questionable whether any government has the right to demand loyalty from its citizens beyond its willingness or ability to render actual protection. This war is not of our making… Despite all this, we never hesitated for a moment in our stand.” 

The Quezon letter expressing anxiety about the long-awaited American reinforcement to the Bataan defenders is referred by MacArthur to President Roosevelt. In reply, FDR assures Quezon that “every vessel available is bearing to the Southwest Pacific the strength that will eventually crush the enemy and liberate your native land.

Radio Address of Jorge B. Vargas, Chairman of the Executive Commission, January 31, 1942

January 31, 1942

For four weeks we have been eating in the open, picnic fashion, while we fought ants and huge blowflies.

Jan. 29 – 30 – 31 – 42

We’ve been turned into the 71st Infranty [Infantry]. Rifles and ammunition have been handed out to all the men. Its funny to be carrying a rifle. Put on beach duty at Boa – Boa – Point. Beach lined by us with barbed wire. Machine gun pits also put up. Had a rough time moving 50… Read More »Jan. 29 – 30 – 31 – 42

January 31, 1942

When I told Isobel she was like a heroine of drama, her baby the first American born in Igorot Barracks Concentration Camp, she could only say, “Oh my mother will have a fit!” I guess she is right, but what a story! Headlines—”Japanese Imperial Command tries to stop birth, Says wait till morning!” Everyone wants… Read More »January 31, 1942

January 31, 1942

I visited Fr. Daniel Castrillo, an Augustinian and a townmate of mine, who was Parish Priest of Porac, Pampanga, and Señor Suárez, a Spanish national from the same town, who had two sons in Letran. They came to Manila several days ago, and their tragic experiences could fill several volumes. On January 20, the invading… Read More »January 31, 1942

December 28th, 1941 to January 31, 1942— 1st to 33th Day

Dr. Mukaibo greets tis — Internment begins at Brent School — Complete disorganization — We walk to Camp John Hay — The food and water shortage — Camp committee appointed — Dysentery makes its appearance — We supply our own food — Japs begin looting in Baguio — Daily rollcalls — Commingling of sexes prohibited… Read More »December 28th, 1941 to January 31, 1942— 1st to 33th Day

January 31, 1942

HQ, MIS, Bataan Good news. Troops of Segundo have reentered our new lines. They escaped Jap encirclement by clambering precipices on Western coast for two days and nights. The men looked thin, haggard, half-dead. They all have a new life. Segundo arrived with troops dressed in a private’s uniform. Japs were slow following initial successes.… Read More »January 31, 1942

January 31, 1942

There is too much wishful thinking. There are too many pseudo-generals. Too many opinions on what the USAFFE will do next and when the next bombs will be dropped. I have adopted an attitude of resignation. I take what comes. There is no use trying to reform the world. We are mere specks in the… Read More »January 31, 1942

January 31, 1942 

Not much doing. Relieved Golden at 71st Div. C.P. in evening. 2d. Lt. Leo B. Golden, Jr. was one of the 21st’s pilots, a 41-C graduate from Kelly Field but like the others now assigned to infantry duties. 

January 31, 1942

Had a very interesting trip around the island today with Gen. Moore— Commanding Harbor Defenses. He wanted to show me the general layout of the defense of Corregidor, supply storage, etc. We spent about 3 1⁄2 hours in making the trip and it was very interesting. It would be difficult for one unfamiliar with the… Read More »January 31, 1942

January 30—31, 1942

Nothing unusual.

Wernitznig

Jan. 31st, 1942

Moved up to vicinty of KM 200 to halt enemy on several points. 45th Inf (PS) & Constabulary not having much luck against them.

Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin