March 29, 1972

1. Decision to make: Subversions, the media.

2. List down the countries with which we have an unfavorable trade balance. Organize the exporters to make special efforts to export to them. Start out with Australia.

3. Assign special salas or courts for cases of anti-graft, corruption, malversation, dishonesty of government officials.

4. MIA. Kearns visit, April 4-6. Include new International Airport.

5. Post Office-Appt. Tanabe.

My own Spiritual Exercise. I asked the Lord for a sign. And he has given it. In the meditation this morning the following thoughts were brought out.

My job is too heavy. But your will not mine be done.

The permissiveness of society must be balanced by authoritativeness. The two poles must be given weight and equal importance.

Then in the Exercise—is it for the glory of God that there be authoritativeness? Yes for we return order where there is chaos.

Fr. Ferriols spoke of recognizing the Relative of the Absolute and the Absolute in the Relative. As well as need for competence.

Spiritual Exercises on the Specific Problem of Martial Law. There are certain themes that one must be sensitive to. Thus relativity. Food is good. But meat not always good. Thus, if one has had an appendectomy, meat is not good. This is the relative value of meat. Nor is cyanide to be taken at all. This is the absolute value of certain things to be taken. So I conclude that freedom is not always good. There may be periods in a country’s life when it is like meat. For the time being it must be curtailed or denied.

And the permissiveness of our society has spawned the many evils that will wreck our Republic. It must now be balanced with authoritativeness and that is martial law. However, I put as a condition the occurrence of massive terrorism which would alarm the people as well as the authorities.

And the discussion on authoritativeness to balance permissiveness comes incidentally in answer to some inquiry as to the problem of parents over teenaged children. The Father spoke of the problem of the Ateneo, where in the 1960s, the authoritativeness of the decade was balanced by the Ateneo with permissiveness by the Ateneo administration. And now the KMs who profess attention and ‘nagwawala’ nothing is evil or immoral. This has resulted in disorder in the mission to train and give competence in chemistry, economics, engineering, etc. which even the KMs with their avowed desire for a new society would need.

So Father Cruz, our former retreat master, has instituted authoritativeness which has made him unpopular but may have saved the Ateneo.

But that this should be talked about when not in the subject of the meditation. This is the sign that I have asked of God.


August 7, 1943

The Military Police has renewed its searches. In the search of the La Ignaciana where the Jesuits expelled from the Ateneo are being sheltered, and likewise, the parishes of Santa Ana and San Francisco del Monte under the care of the Franciscan Fathers, the priests were herded in a room while the Japanese mascots examined every corner, papers and other things. It was hard to tell what the motive was. Perhaps, they smelled the presence of some guerrillas. They did not cause any disturbance except the herding, although in San Francisco del Monte they confiscated some watches and fountain pens, and the Superior was detained in Fort Santiago for a few days.

May 30, 1943

In a hurried trip I made through northern Luzon, I have observed that this region is more peaceful and normalized. The people are occupied in their domestic chores, particularly those who live far from the mountains where recalcitrant elements are still hiding. If not for the lack of transportation and the shortage of prime commodities, conditions would have been as normal as they were before the war. There is less opposition to the new regime and less fear of soldiers who, in fact, do not interfere in civilian affairs. Furthermore, there is a healthier business atmosphere. However, this does not signify that the new masters have won the sympathy of the people. The people’s apparent submissiveness is merely due to fear, the desire for a peaceful life, or the awareness that a violent opposition is useless or prejudicial to their interests. They maintain a certain peace which could shift scenes at any moment.

Travel, far from being pleasant, is a sacrifice. As in the streetcars of Manila trains and buses are overflowing with passengers crammed in aisles and running boards. They move at a carabao’s pace and it takes almost twelve hours from Manila to Baguio. The zigzag road has been closed to traffic for the last two months after the longer bridge was burned. Baguio is full of sick and wounded soldiers, undoubtedly brought in from other fronts.

In Manila, there is likewise a frantic search for buildings to house the sick and convalescing soldiers. The De la Salle College is almost completely occupied, and the Brothers have transferred their classes to Sta. Scholastica’s College. They wanted us to cede more space in Letran, but with the intervention of the Spanish Consul, we succeeded in preventing the take-over. The Jesuit Fathers have received a notice to vacate the Ateneo which was sheltering some three hundred American and Filipino students and seminarians. The Philippines is being converted into a general hospital for the Japanese army in the South Pacific.

February 8, 1942

Today, Sunday, I shall speak in vague terms, as the New Regime is wont to do, with regard to religion and the Church. Up to now, the military authorities have not yet made it clear what their definite plans are, if they have any, about their relationship with the Church. Nor have they attempted to solve the religious problem, if there is any.

In one of the first flying propaganda leaflets which the Japanese planes sometimes drop instead of bombs over Manila in order to draw the people to them and alienate them from the Americans, there appeared the following: “And may God, who came from the Orient, bless you.”

A newspaper photo showed about a dozen Japanese soldiers seated in a church filled with faithful, and captioned, “Japanese soldiers hearing Mass in a Catholic Church together with Filipinos.” This has been the common scene in the provinces and in Manila. Still another photo showed a church intact, in an isolated place, captioned, “The Japanese Air Force, in destroying all military objectives, took maximum care in leaving intact the churches and centers of culture.”

I have only to look out the window and see this College and those of Sta. Catalina and Sta. Rosa with their respective chapels, the Intramuros Elementary School, the Sto. Domingo Church and convent, to see how these churches and centers of culture have been reduced to mounds of debris, and to convince myself that it is easier to catch a liar than a lame man.

The Prime Minister of Japan, General Tojo, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Imperial Army in the Philippines, whom nobody knows, reiterated their assurances that they would respect religious beliefs in occupied countries. They are exerting efforts to strengthen the spiritual ties existing among the Filipinos and the Japanese as Orientals. However, they have not embarked on the details of how they think of intensifying this Oriental spirituality, not specified how they are to discard what they condemn as the materialistic Anglo-Saxon way of life.

This is what they said, but what have they done? In a broad sense, one could say that they comply with their commitments. There are cases, few and isolated ones, of some priests being maltreated either by mistake or by ignorance, after which apologies were offered. Priests and religious have been treated differently, and they have repeatedly told us that the habit or the cassock is the best protection and the best pass in going about the city.

A number of American religious who were interned in Sto. Tomas were released after a few days. The religious of other enemy countries were less molested though their buildings were occupied by the army, as was the case of San Beda and La Salle. The Jesuits were gathered together at the Ateneo in Padre Faura and the Americans were locked up in voluntary seclusion to prevent the Japanese from occupying the building.

When the Japanese Army came to this country they brought along with them a Commission on Religion, composed of Buddhist monks, Protestant ministers and two Catholic priests with two seminarians, all of whom were Japanese. The head of the group was a Buddhist monk and they installed themselves at the Ateneo. The Catholic priests wanted to use San Ignacio Church, but as no one attended their services, they changed their plans. They went instead from parish to parish within the city, celebrating Mass and preaching. The Protestant minister did the same. The two seminarians, on the other hand, were more interested in learning Spanish and they went to the convents almost every afternoon carrying their grammar books, practicing and murdering the Spanish language. Although they were dressed in army uniforms, they were not army chaplains, as the Japanese Army had none, but rather liaisons of the army with the civilian populace.

The mission of the Commission on Religion seems to be two-fold; first, to enable the religious authorities in the Philippines to take up matters with the military authorities through the Commission; second, to make propaganda and create an atmosphere favorable to the New Regime.

Their first sermon was delivered at the Sta. Cruz Church on the Feast of the Three Kings. The preacher reminded the people that the Three Kings came from the Orient to adore the Savior, who, after revealing Himself to them, made them emissaries of the new dispensation before all nations. “In the same way,” the preacher continued, “we came from the Empire of the Rising Sun to bring you a new culture, a new spiritual life, which originated from the Orient, etc., etc.”

With respect to their attitude towards the reopening of Catholic schools, we still lack data on which to form a judgment. We cannot tell if they will permit the schools to function or impose strict conditions, as they do in Japan where Catholic schools are under close observation and foreigners are not allowed to teach in or operate such schools. Many are worried about the future of our colleges.

December 24, 1941

My hands were now rough and full of calluses resulting from the intensive training given us. We were being trained 24 hours a day. This is the life I have always yearned for. Hard and trying as the training was, our time was full of cheerful and happy moments. Today, everyone was planning, conniving and compromising to get a furlough for Christmas. Passes were granted. I was one of the fortunate ones. My leave was scheduled to start at five in the afternoon. At 4:30 p.m., word came from our commandant who was then at headquarters, to hold all leaves. Then at 5:00 p.m., he arrived and explained that the High Command had seen it fit to disband the ROTC cadets, to send them home and there to wait for another call.

I saw tears in the Commandant’s eyes as he gave the order to disband. I saw tears in every one’s eyes. I felt tears welling in my own. Our privilege and honor to serve our country in the front lines as officers had been denied. We all expressed to the Commandant our objection, but it was all in vain. Finally, we told him that if he should be assigned to any unit and needed men, all he had to do was to notify us, and we would willingly volunteer even as enlisted men. We all wanted to fight side by side under his command. We knew him, we trusted him. He gave his word to notify us.

The few of us who could not return home for lack of transportation had to stay at the Ateneo on Christmas eve. We spent it singing Christmas carols in the dark and shady patio of the college. It was a quiet, solemn and impressive Christmas eve for me.

Sábado 13 de Agosto 1898

Hoy la plaza de Manila se ha rendido a los yanquis. Las primeras horas del día no anunciaban novedad alguna, (…) De repente se ha puesto en movimiento toda la escuadra yanqui. Los Vapores que estaban de guardia han ido á reunirse con los demás y se han dirigido hacia el fortín de S. Antonio. Cuatro barcos grandes que debían de ser el “Olympia”, el “Boston”, el “Raleig” y el “Baltimore” han cañoneado aquel fortín. Luego la han emprendido contra las trincheras perpendiculares á la línea de la playa, jugando el principal papel en el ataque un Cañonero que debía de ser el “Leyte” ó el “Callao”, En medio del cañoneo ha sobrevenido un fuerte chubasco que nada ha estorbado el ataque, A las cinco cuartos de hora de fuego han juzgado los Yanquis que el campo estaría completamente despejado, por lo cual han suspendido el fuego de los barcos empezando á marchar el ejército de tierra en formación hacia Manila. Nuestras tropas agazapadas en las trincheras que aún quedaban, han sorprendido con dos rociadas de balas á los yanquis que entraban con toda seguridad y que se han quedado parados. En esto el “Olympia” y el Monitor “Monterey” se habían colocado frente á Manila, y este último tenía sus cañones de 30^5 centímetros apuntando á la batería de dos cañones de La Luneta, Ha disparado el “Olympia” un cañonazo sobre nuestras trincheras cuyos soldados han recibido luego orden de retirarse mientras sobre las murallas de la Ciudad se levantaba una gran bandera blanca. La plaza, llena como estaba de gente indefensa, no ha hecho fuego sobre los barcos por no atraer sobre sí las balas enemigas. Ha habido parlamentó en el cual parece que los Yanquis se han mostrado generosos en todas las condiciones, con tal que se les entregue la plaza. Los insurrectos han estado á la mira con ánimo de sacar todo el partido posible de nuestra desgracia. La amistad que mostraban estos últimos días, era la simpatía que por el rico moribundo sienten sus domésticos quienes procuran apoderarse de sus riquezas , antes que de fuera venga otro á tomárselas. Un poco antes que los Yanquis han atacado ellos las trincheras y luego han entrado por la brecha que han dejado abierta nuestras tropas al retirarse. La Vanguardia Yanqui que iba á preparar sitio á los demás se ha dirigido al Observatorio…

(..,) hasta las 6 de la tarde se ha visto pasar por las calles de Manila diversos Cuerpos del ejército español que iban á dejar las armas en la fuerza de Santiago. A las seis la bandera española que coronaba esta fortaleza ha sido arriada, siendo izada en su lugar la bandera Yanqui. Los Yanquis que estaban en la fuerza han saludado la bandera con el grito de “urra”  y una banda de música ha tocado el himno nacional delante de la bandera en el paseo entonces solitario de María Cristina (…).

Las trincheras de la parte de Binando y Sta Mesa, continúan defendidas por nuestras tropas mandadas por el GraL Monet y el Coronel Carbó. Hay por aquel lado mucho tiroteo y mañana abandonarán los nuestros aquellas posiciones para que las ocupen los yanquis si les viene en gusto.

Las bajas se calculan en 400 por nuestra parte, y 2,000 por la de los Yanquis. Es probable que estas cifras sean exageradas como de primera impresión (…). Al caer la tarde se ha embarcado con su familia para Hong Kong el General Augustin.

Today the plaza of Manila surrendered to the Yankees. The early hours of the day gave no new signs at all. The Boston was guarding off Parañaque, the Petrel and McCallouch off the mouth of the river. The rest of the squadron was idling off Cavite. It must have been about 9:00 when we saw sailing into the bay a merchant vessel flying the German flag. Someone said it must have been the boat bringing peace, and secure in this, we positioned ourselves to watch it as she entered the bay. She was signalled off Cavite where she was heading, and turned back to join the rest of the German squadron near Pampanga. All of a sudden the entire Yankee fleet was in motion. The boats keeping guard sailed away to join the rest and headed towards Fort San Antonio Abad. Four big boats, which must have been the Olympia, Boston, Raleigh, and Baltimore, cannonaded that fort. Then they aimed at the trenches perpendicular to the beach . . . . During the attack, a heavy squall fell, but without disturbing the bombardment in any way. After five quarters of an hour firing, the Yankees thinking the field was already fully cleared, ceased firing their guns, while the land forces began their march towards Manila. Our troops crouched in the trenches still remaining intact surprised with a shower of bullets the Yankees who confidently came and were stopped in their tracks. At this moment, the Olympia and the monitor Monterey had moved themselves in front of Manila, the latter with her 30.5 cm. cannons pointing at the battery of two cannons on the Luneta. The Olympia fired a cannon shot over our trenches, where the troops subsequently received the command to retreat, while over the walls of the city a huge white flag was being hoisted. The plaza, filled as it was with noncombatants, had not fired at the ships lest it draw enemy fire. A parley followed during which apparently the Yankees have shown generosity in all the conditions, provided the plaza be surrendered. The insurgents have watched from the sidelines, intending to take all possible advantage of our disgrace. The friendship shown these past few days was that which his domestics feel for a dying rich man, and who seek to take possession of his riches before others come to claim them. Ahead of the Yankees, they had attacked the trenches, and later entered through the breach left open by our retreating troops. The Yankee vanguard which came to prepare the ground for the rest went to the Observatory, asking Fr. Algue if they could lodge there. Father answered politely he did not think so since the ground floor was filled with refugees, and mainly because if the city resisted anew (for the result of the parley was not yet known) the Observatory despite being a building of an international character would be a target of the cannons of the plaza. Accepting the explanation, they asked Father if there was a place where they could shelter themselves, and he indicated the volodrome. Within a few minutes, some insurgents came to the Observatory, and very politely asked the Father’s permission to put by the window grating the insurgent flag, lest the Yankees claim the building. While Father was trying to dissuade them from it, others proceeded to place it nonetheless. Two lieutenants ordered a soldier to remove it, and on obeying, he was rattan-whipped and the flag remained where it was.

[From the time of the noon meal] until 6:00 in the evening, one could see various units of the Spanish army passing through the Manila streets going to deposit their arms in Fort Santiago.  At 6:00 the Spanish flag which used to crown this fort was furled, in its place the Yankee flag was hoisted. The Yankees who were present in the fort saluted their flag with shouts of “Hurrah!” and a music band positioned at the time of the solitary passage of Maria Cristina played their national anthem before the flag. -— Since the Yankees have taken possession of all the barracks, the Spanish authorities cannot find sufficient place to lodge the troops who are retreating to Manila. The former have filled some churches, and our church, too, if we had not offered them a place in the Ateneo, where the native Regiment No.73 and two artillery companies have stayed.

The trenches along Binondo and Santa Mesa are still being defended by our troops under the command of General Monet and Colonel Carbo. There is plenty of shooting in that part and tomorrow ours will abandon those positions that the Yankees may occupy them if they wish.

Today’s casualties are calculated to total 400 on our side, and 2,000 on the Yankee side. Probably these numbers are exaggerated from first impressions. The family of Gen. Augustin boarded the ship for Hongkong at sunset.

Lunes 18 de Julio 1898

Habiendo pasado la guardia civil veterana á hacer requisa de los caballos que los particulares pudiesen ofrecer para las actuales necesidades el R.P. Rector del Ateneo ha cedido dos. El barco japonés llegado ayer, ha traído noticias tristes. La escuadra de Cervera echada a pique por los yanquis y Santiago de Cuba en poder del enemigo.

Domingo 5 de Junio 1898

Esta noche ha sido de mucho tiroteo: los insurrectos han pasado el Zapote por un punto no defendido por nuestras tropas. Otros insurrectos han hecho un desembarco mas allá de Malate. Reina grande alarma y hay mucho movimiento de tropas y cañones. No se ve en la torre de Imus una bandera blanca y roja que ha ondeado por espacio de ocho días, y en tiempo de guerra significa “sin novedad”. En las Piñas ondea una bandera blanca y negra que dicen sea la de la insurrección. Así se divisa desde el Ateneo con el anteojo.

Se ha dado órdenes de venir á Manila á las tropas que guarnecían algunas líneas de defensa algo apartadas de la Capital, quedando constituidas las avanzadas de la defensa de la plaza por una línea semicircular de trincheras distantes cuatro ó cinco kilómetros de la ciudad murada, cortadas por 15 blokaus ó sean casas de madera y tierra atrincheradas. Esta línea de trincheras comienza en la playa de Caloocan y termina en la del polvorín de S. Antonio Abad. (…) Hay bastante descontento entre los Jefes y oficiales del ejército de parte de los voluntarios y de los no voluntarios (ya que á todos los españoles seglares se ha obligado á tomar las armas.

Last night there has been much gun fire. The insurgents have passed Zapote through a point left undefended by our troops. Other insurgents have effected a landing beyond Malate. There is great fear and much movement of troops and cannons. A white and red flag which has been waving for eight days from the tower of Imus is no
longer seen. In wartime this means, “nothing unusual.” In Las Piñas a black and white flag is waving, which they say may be of the insurgents. One can see this from the Ateneo by a telescope.

Orders have been issued for the troops defending certain points a little apart from the capital to come to Manila. The advance posts defending the plaza form a semicircular line of trenches four or five kilometers before the walled city, cut off with fifteen blockhouses, that is, of sentry posts of wood and clay fortified with trenches. This line of trenches starts from the Caloocan plaza [beach] and ends with the powder magazine of Fort San Antonio Abad. There is a well-founded fear lest the Yankee flag wave over Manila within eight days. The widespread panic reigning over all social groups leaves no room for another solution. There is sufficient antipathy between the chiefs and army officers among the volunteers and nonvolunteers (since all the Spaniard civilians have been obliged to take up arms).