November 7-8, 1972

02426 02427


1:45 AM Nov 9th

Nov. 7, 1972

Nov 8, 1972

Malacañan Palace


Have been busy the whole day of the 7th on the amendments to the Constitution draft of the Concon.

And the first two chapters of the book (sequel to Today’s Revolution–)

Worked until 2 AM

Met no visitors on the 7th.

Nov. 8th I spent meeting the new Sec Gen of Seato Thai Minister of Economic Affairs and Ambassador to the US before his new assignment. Mr. Sunthorn Hongladarom.

And the President and Vice President of American Express James Robinson and Schumer as well as the new QSI head BGen. Temple.

Started the local support for the Reform Movement meeting the Governors and Congressmen, City Mayors & Municipal mayors of the Bicol United Bloc, Cebu, Bulacan and Benguet.


Nov. 7th & 8th

Malacañan Palace


Nixon has won by a landslide in the Tuesday elections winning in all states except Massachusetts and the District of Columbia where he lost 2-1. He even won in the state of his opponent, McGovern, South Dakota.

But the Democrats retain their majority in the Senate and the House.

Met Dr. Roy Presterman, the American governments most outstanding expert in land tenure has been here advising Sec. Estrella on the rules and regulations.

He recommends zero retention for or by the landowners –even the small ones.

And says he feels that we can get a hundred million dollars of aid from the US Congress for land reform.

Our SoSec secretarys son, Roland Villacorta, was arrested for possessing new copies of Ang Tao.

And Delegate Cesar Serapio of Bulacan was arresed in a gambling raid of the house of the House of Representatives cashier, Aldaba. I was asked to have him released. But to teach him a lesson he is being kept up to 5 AM.

February 27, 1936

All day drive with Doria and Professor H. Otley Beyer through Laguna, Batangas and Cavite provinces. At Ft. Mckinley we turned down to the river and took the new road thru Pateros and Taguig to Alabang. Pateros is, of course, the centre of the duck raising industry and Beyer says the people there spread the story of how their men hatched their ducks–the fact was they had a primitive (and perhaps very ancient) incubator of layers of sand on bamboo slats; the top is covered, and the men sit on that and talk and smoke, hence this lurid tale!

The new road to Alabang passes Alcalde Posada’s hacienda--hence the road, according to Beyer! The shores of Lake Laguna are occasionally almost uninhabitable because of the smell of decaying algae, which sometimes even invade Manila via the Pasig River. Beyer said the decaying masses are due to the blackade created by water lilies–that A. D. Williams had installed a fine wire mesh at the outlet into the Pasig River which seems to cure that; there are so few boats on the Pasig River nowadays that this is possible.

We discussed the possibility of help for the Philippines health service from the Rockefeller Institute now that Dr. Victor Heiser was separated from that institution. I told how Quezon had recently thought of bringing Heiser out as Adviser on Health, so that if any epidemic broke out here, the Filipinos would not get all the blame–i.e., to make Heiser the goat. Heiser, who is a shrewd intriguer, “ducked.”

Passed one of Beyer’s archaeological sites on a ridge beyond Taguig.

Beyer mentioned how busy he is nowadays with Dr Geo. Pinkley of the American Museum of Natural History and his companions. Mnbien of Peking, Chinese archaeologist. They had spent 4 months together in Peking, studying the “Peking man”–they had a theory that the “drift” of continents had separated the Philippines and Celebes from the mainland, and that these islands had been the original “rim” of the continent; so that, perhaps the skulls or teeth of the “original” man could be found in the Philippines which they believed to have been formerly the seashore. He had persuaded these two scientists to stay on here to examine with him the brokel lime-stone areas near to and north of Montalban gorge–to search for “filled caves.”

I asked Beyer why the Filipinos used the reverse gestures in beckoning to come, and in nodding (also in using the saw); he said these matters were much disputed, but he believed they came from very early times; said there was a Basque village near Santander where the people also gestured in the reverse way.

He went on Speaking of the mountain people of Luzon, stating that the solution of the problem was their absorption by the Cristianos; said this would improve the Filipino stock and quoted Rizal to sustain his theory. Cited Paredes and Villamor as examples. The former half Tinguian and half Indonesian; the latter pure Tinguian.

Entering the province of Batangas, he said the residents were the most sturdy and independent race of Luzon, and were great fighters. Their horses and cattle are also the best in the Philippines. Their food is maize, dry rice, and poi. All the slopes of Mount Makalut (chief volcano)–5000 feet high, near Lake Taal, were densely inhabited in the neolithic age–a large proportion of his archaeological finds came from there. But there is a gap in their history of nearly 1000 years–positively no iron age relics. He supposes that an eruption of the Taal volcanoes drove out or destroyed all those early settlements–perhaps the survivors migrated to the site of the present Rizal Province. In 1911, the year of the last explosion, Father Algue of the Weather Bureau three days before the eruption came, had begged the Philippine Government to remove all people on the island of Taal. Some 2600 people who were there, and in the surrounding neighborhood, were killed in that explosion. The name of the mountain: Makalut, means “curly-headed” since it was inhabited until within 200 years of now by Negritos. Taal Lake is the crater of the great volcano of former times. Now only four or five small craters are left above the water, and also Mount Makalut of which the whole gigantic cliff to the west is the remaining wall. Thu volcanic ash makes wonderful soil when decayed–hence the better specimens of man and beast. The lake was connected with the sea by a river navigable to former ships, until the 1911 explosion which blocked the former outlet and raised the level of the lake. The water of Lake Taal is still brackish, and the fish are of marine types. The soil cuttings hereabouts show various levels of volcanic ash, marking the periodic eruptions.

Passed thru a barrio which had voted against de las Alas four years ago, so to punish them, he would not complete the 1½ kilometers of road connecting their barrio with the main road for three years!

Visited the town of Taal on the sea–it was moved from the original site on Lake Taal 200 years ago, after being twice destroyed by the volcano. Nice old church, and another well-known church and stairway constructed by Christian Chinese after a massacre of their people by Filipinos. In answer to my question why the Filipinos periodically massacred the Chinese–he replied “various reasons”–the massacre of 1603 was permitted by the Spanish because they thought the Chinese were getting too rich; the attempted massacre of 1922 was due to the arrogance of the Chinese after their own revolution in China.

Mabini came from Batangas–his brother still lives there; so do Conrado and Francisco Benitez, Teodoro and Maximo Kalaw (note how shrewd they are in keeping out of high political office)–Galicano Apacible, de las Alas and the Tironas, and the Lopez family. The Zobel and Roxas families have large haciendas in the southwest of this province.

I asked Beyer why in his “ancestral chart” of Filipinos, he did not mention the Japanese; he replied that the Japanese had only lately begun to settle in the Philippines. The similarity of appearance of many Filipinos to the Japanese is due to Malay ancestry which is in nearly half the Filipinos and in most of the Japanese. Those Malays now here invaded from Java and Celebes, and partly from the mainland. Those Malays who went to Japan, entered partly from the mainland, and others, during the Stone Age, from islands east of Java, via Guam, Marianas, Marshall and Bonin Islands–not via Celebes and the Philippines. This is proved by the oval stone axes of a type found in Japan and in the Pacific Islands mentioned, but never found in Celebes, Borneo, nor the Philippines. (Note: the Japanese are just becoming aware of this kinsmanship and are modifying their former arrogant attitude towards the “Southern Barbarians.”)

Today’s newspapers give an account of a military revolt in Japan led by the army, and the murder of five leading statesmen by the soldiers. Beyer said this is in the Japanese tradition. The samurai were so arrogant and such bullies that the Japanese 80 years ago got rid of them and re-instated their Emperor. In his opinion, the domination of the military caste today in Japan is dangerous, but the Japanese will eventually throw them out as they did the samurai.

Other remarks of Beyer were:

Searchers are finding the teeth of elephant and rhinoceros in the Philippines, but none of the tiger, as yet. Plenty of tamarao teeth, all other Luzon. This central region has been agricultural for so long that the dangerous animals were killed off in prehistoric times.

He is not sure the carabao is not indigenous here; the appearance of the Ifugao cimarron is quite different from the domestic type. I could corroborate that statement.

Chinese carp had been introduced here by the Bureau of Science in the fine fish lake in Camarines. Result: the newcomers had devoured the superior type of fish already there, and the people would not eat the carp. So the Bureau of Science is now trying to eliminate the Chinese carp by some disease fungus.

Coming from Butangas through the western part of Cavite towards Tagaytay ridge, Beyer said this country was not settled as is the adjacent southern Batangas, because it was and always had been a paradise for gangsters, now operating as cattle thieves. Some of them were rich men who were playing cattle rustler where formerly they would have been pirates–for sport. They had “fixed” the municipal officers and the Constabulary. I commented on the great decline in morale of the Constabulary under the amiable General (Dr.) Valdes. He said part of it was due to the building of so many roads–the Constabulary had given up “hiking” patrols, and now seldom got out of their motors. He added that my execution of General Noriel–public enemy N° 1 in Cavite, had put a stop to the gangster business in that province for nearly 20 years. Now it was springing up again.

Beyer said that as a geologist, he believed the gold reef in the Philippines extended straight along the Cordilleras. That the Benguet Igorrotes were “gold conscious” and knew all the surface gold places in their provinces; that he did not believe there would be any new gold “strikes” there except at deep levels; that the Bontocs were opposed to gold prospecting, and that the country to the east–Ifugao–was not geologically suitable. That Abra and Kalinga offered a good field for prospecting, especially since Abra, like Benguet, was not heavily wooded.

He expressed worry over the change of the governorship of the Mt. Province now that Colonel Dosser has resigned. Said Bontocs and Ifugaos were resistant to changes in their social and economic system. They were large, organized and proud nations. But, he added, the Filipino officials generally started with great enthusiasm for “reform” in the Mt. Province and then cautiously let the people alone and went in for personal petty graft. Said the Ifugaos were afraid of Cristianos getting all the public offices in their country and taxing, and changing their customs. Said during Governor General Murphy’s vacation in United States, Vice Governor Hayden had appointed some twenty of the Ifugaos as minor officials in their own country.

I asked him what had become of the lgorrote girls educated in Mrs Kelly’s school–he said some of they had married Americans–some lived with them without marriage–most of them had gone back to their filthy ancestral huts and had become lgorrote wives, forgetting their education.

He said the Kalingas, the handsomest and most warlike of the northern nations, had nevertheless proved less resistant to modern “progress” than any of the others.

When in the barrio of Makalut, town of Cuenca, we visited the home of the local cacique, Caves. I asked Beyer to explain his odd face; Beyer said it was mostly Moro–the Moro pirates governed here when the Spanish first came here 350 years ago.

Later that evening we gave a dinner to Consul General Blunt and Mrs. Blunt, Carr, Sinclair, Mrs. Swift and Miss Masters–the latter was half an hour late, for which there was no excuse, for she is hardly a “mere chit of a thing.” Manners in post-war times are certainly “shot to hell.”

Fourteenth Day, January 17, 1829

Fourteenth day. At daybreak I started, following the stream with much difficulty, and made a halt at 11 in Rongos, on the banks of the Aringay River. I started again at 2, following the river, and after having forded it four times I arrived at 5 at the town of Aringay.

This expedition, though short, served me well for those I made later, as the Igorot of Benguet shortly afterwards asked me for peace and have since been my friends. On different expeditions I have passed eight or ten times through their valley, and, far from attacking me, they have treated me with kindness, providing me with rice, cows, and other food. Still, as a consequence of this expedition and of smallpox, this town has been reduced to about a hundred houses. I am, however, doing everything possible to make it flourish again, and my highroad reaches there.

Eleventh Day, January 14, 1829

Eleventh day. We broke camp at dawn, descending a very steep and stony slope with deep precipices on both sides. At 11 we halted and in order to make a camp had to cut the cogon and rattan with which we were surrounded. At 2 o’clock in the afternoon we started again and descended continually until 5, when we halted at a brook to pass the night.

Ninth Day, January 12, 1829

Día 9. –Al amanecer me encontré de nuevo rodeado de infieles más furiosos que la víspera; determiné darles un escarmiento. Salí con toda mi tropa y polistas haciendo fuego, dirigiéndome al grupo mayor de casas. En el camino cogimos 15 igorrotes: uno de ellos lo dejamos, pues estaba atravesado de un balazo en la pierna. Llegando á las casas les prendí fuego, quemando unas 180, y me volví al campamento, seguido siempre por los igorrotes y yo haciéndoles fuego en retirada. Después de comer los ranchos traté de emprender mi vuelta á los pueblos. Mis dos guías Pingui y Pipiuan habían huído en el calor de la refriega; pero como tenía 28 igorrotes prisioneros, les mandé poner delante y que me guiaran hasta bajar á Aringay, y que si no lo hacían bien, los fusilaría, poniéndolos en libertad, al contrario, si me guiaban bien; marchamos á las dos de la tarde al SO., subiendo una de las colinas. Los igorrotes al vernos partir siguieron nuestra retaguardia; pero los contenía tirándoles de cuando en cuando algunos tiros. A las cinco campé en una llanura sobre un lomo llamada Vaiara, donde pasé la noche tranquila.


Ninth day. At daybreak I found myself again surrounded by the pagans, who were more furious than the night before. I resolved to give them a lesson. I started with all my troops and carriers, firing and making for the largest group of houses. On the way we caught fifteen prisoners, of whom we left one who had his leg pierced by a ball. Arriving at the houses, I set fire to them, burning down some hundred and eighty, and returned to the camp followed by the Igorot and firing upon them while retiring. After eating I prepared to take up my return march to the towns. My two guides, Pingui and Pipiuan, had escaped during the heat of the fight, but as I had twenty-eight Igorot prisoners I had them put in front with orders to guide us till we should arrive at Aringay, warning them if they did not do this I would shoot them, but that if they proved good guides I would set them free. We started at 2 in the afternoon, going southwest and climbing one of the hills. The Igorot on seeing us leave followed our rear guard, but I kept them back by firing a few shots at them from time to time. At 5 I camped on a level place on a ridge called “Vaiara,” where I passed the night quietly.

Eighth Day, January 11, 1829

Día 8.– Salimos á las seis de la mañana al SE., después de vadear un arroyito; subimos la cuesta llamada Tamón. En su cima vimos un grupo de igorrotes sin armas, que gritaban que querían hablarme. Les mandé contestar que avanzasen sin miedo; pero no quisieron hacerlo hasta que les mandé dos hombres míos en rehenes; entonces vinieron cuatro igorrotes que temblando se me presentaron: eran de Benguet. Me preguntaron á dónde íbamos; les dije que á su pueblo. –¿Y qué queréis en Benguet? –me contestaron. –Ver su país de ustedes y hacer amistad con los igorrotes. — Me dijieron entonces que eran mandados por su principal llamado Dansalit. Les regalé un pañuelo á cada uno y les dije que volviesen á Benguet asegurando a Dansalit y sus paisanos que no tuvieran que temer, que no les haría ningún daño. Se marcharon á reunir con los demás y se largaron por el medio del cogon, tirándose por un barranco al E. Al momento los perdí de vista. Seguí mi marcha. Á las ocho encontré los primeros pinos y ya el camino muy despejado; nada de cogon, nada de maleza; esto me alegró mucho, porque me temía una sorpresa: hice alto á las once en un arroyo, y se dieron los ranchos. Á la una y media seguí la marcha, variando al E. El país es aquí magnifico, pues, aunque montuoso, se puede ya sin dificultad caminar á caballo: encontrábamos por todos lados vallecitos muy bien sembrados los unos, y todos susceptibles de sembrar todo lo que se quisiese: veíamos grandes manadas de carabaos, vacas y caballos; la tierra en partes colorada y pegajosa: á las cuatro de la tarde descubrimos desde las alturas el hermoso valle de Benguet, cuya hermosa vista nos sorprendió á todos, pues los soldados mismos manifestaban su admiración con gritos; al aproximarnos vimos mucha gente correr en todos sentidos y dando alaridos; mandé cargar las armas y puse en un palo una manfa blanca en señal de paz. Nada de esto bastó. Fuí descendiendo, y al llegar al fondo del valle nos encontramos con un río bastante caudaloso y de agua muy cristalina: lo vedeamos, y á poco andar entramos por los hermosos sembrados de Benguet. No bien habiámos andado algunos pasos cuando se nos pusieron delante dos igorrotes con lanza en mano dando furiosos gritos. Mandé á seis hombres que, corriendo á ellos, los cogiesen sin hacerles daño, si era posible. En efecto, los asaltaron, arrojaron sus lanzas y una de ellas derribó el zalacot de un soldado; pero á fuerza de culatazos lograron desarmarlos y amarrarlos. Estaban borrachos; así que nada pude sacar de ellos mis que amenazas é injurias: me dirigí á un grupo de casas á un lado del valle é hice alto. Á poco rato me trajeron cuatro igorrotes: uno de ellos era hijo de Dansalit; los habian cogido en un pozo, donde, armados, estaban escondidos. Al hijo de Dansalit le manifesté mi sorpresa del mal recibimiento que nos hacían, y le dije que se fuera y dijera á los principales que al siguiente día viniesen todos á visitarme, y que les asegurase que ningún daño se les haría; pero que si me atacaban abresaría el puebo.

Situé mis centinelas, y una avanzada estuvo en alerta toda la noche. Benguet es un valle de legue y media ó más de circunferencia, rodeado de montiales, y forma una caldera. El terreno estaba muy bien cultivado, con sembranos immensos de camotes, gabes, caña dulce; pero no ví palay en la vega; todo muy bien regado, y los cercos de tierra al estilo de España y con pozo. Las casas, que eran unas quinientas, eran de anchos tablones de pino, pero muy sucias. En este valld ed donde he propuesto hacer la capital de Corregimiento.

La noche fué muy tranquila, pero la vega estaba cubierta de niebla; hacía mucho frío; el termómetro bajó á las once de ls noche á 7 grados sobre el cero Reaumur. Veíamos muchos fuegos en las alturas; al amanecer todas las alturas estaban coronadas de igorrotes armados. Ví desde luego que sus intenciones no ersn buenas: dí los ranchos. Á las ocho la vega estaba llena de infieles que se dirigían poco á poco hacia nosotros con gritos. Destaqué un oficial con doce hombres para que los contuvieran; poco tiempo después rompió el fuego, mas no por eso huían los igorrotes, y viendo enteramente rodeado al oficial de ellos, salí con veinte hombres, dejando el resto de mi gente formada al cargo de otro oficial. Emprendí yo también mi fuego en unión con el otro official, con el que matamos alguna gente y logramos coger doce igorrotes. También tuve yo seis heridos. Los igorrotes fueron retirándose poco á poco; yo persiguiéndolos hasta las alturas, después de un fuego de cuatro horas. Eran ya las dos de la tarde; volví al campamento, al que llegué á las tres y cuarto, llevando mís heridos y prisioneros que estaban todos borrachos; los infieles, viéndome retirar, bajaron de nuevo á la vega y se situaron á tiro y medio de fusil. Esto no me privó de mandar dar los ranchos. La noche la pasamos la mistad durmiendo, la otro vigilando y sólo nos alarmaron algunas veces los alaridos de los salvajes.


Eighth day. We left the camp at 6 in the morning, marching southeastward. After crossing a small brook we climbed the hill called “Tamon.” On top we saw a group of Igorot without arms who were shouting that they wished to speak to me. I ordered my men to tell them, in reply, to approach without fear; but they were unwilling to come near until I sent them two men as hostages. Thereupon four Igorot came forward and presented themselves to me tremblingly: they were from Benguet. They asked me whither we were going; I answered them that we were going to their town. “And what do you want to do in Benguet?” they asked. “See your country and make friends with the Igorot.” They told me thereupon that they were sent by their headman, Dansalit. I presented each one with a handkerchief and told them to go back to Benguet and assure Dansalit and their other countrymen that they had nothing to fear, as I intended no harm to them. They went back to the others and all disappeared through the cogon, taking their way eastward through a ravine. In a moment they were out of sight and I took up the march again. At 5 I came upon the first pine trees: the road became quite open no cogon, no underbrush. This fact reassured me considerably, as I feared a surprise. I halted at 11 at a brook and had the rations distributed. At 1.30 I continued the march, turning toward the east. The country here is magnificent and, though it is hilly, one may go on horseback without difficulty. On all sides we found small valleys, some of them well under cultivation and all susceptible of producing whatever might be wished.

We saw large herds of carabaos, cows, and horses. The soil was red and sticky in some places. At 4 in the afternoon we discovered from the heights the beautiful valley of Benguet, the lovely sight of which surprised us all, so that even the soldiers gave vent to their admiration by joyful shouts. On coming nearer we saw a great many people running in all directions and shouting wildly. I commanded my men to load the guns, and hoisted a white blanket on a pole as a sign of peace. But it was all of no effect. I went down hill and on arriving at the bottom of the valley we found ourselves before a river of considerable size and of crystalline water. This we forded and shortly afterwards came upon the beautiful fields of Benguet. We had scarcely advanced a few paces when two Igorot planted themselves before us, spear in hand and shouting furiously. I ordered six men to run up to them and capture them if possible, without doing them any harm. These men were attacked by the Igorot, who hurled their spears at them, one of which knocked off the sun helmet of a soldier, but by dint of blows with the butt ends of the guns the Igorot were at last disarmed and bound. They were drunk, and nothing was to be got out of them but menaces and insults. I directed my steps toward a group of houses at one side of the valley and there halted. Soon afterwards four Igorot were brought before me, one of them the son of Dansalit. They had been caught armed, hidden in a well. To the son of Dansalit I expressed my surprise at the reception they were giving us. I told him to go back and tell the headmen to come to see me on the following day and to assure them that no harm would be done them, but that if they attacked me I would burn down their village.

I put out my sentries and an advance post was on the alert all night. Benguet is a valley of a league and a half or more in circumference; it is surrounded with springs, and forms a basin. The soil was very well cultivated, with immense fields of sweet potatoes, gabe, 1 and sugar cane, but I saw no paddy in this tract of land. All was well irrigated and fenced in by dividing lines of earth after the manner of Spain, and provided with wells. The houses, which numbered some 500, were of broad pine boards but very dirty. It is in this valley that I have proposed to establish the capital of the district.*

The night was very quiet, hut the bottom of the valley was covered with fog. It was very cold, and at 11 o’clock the thermometer stood at 7 above zero (Reaumur). We saw many fires on the height*, and at daybreak all the surrounding hills were covered with armed Igorot. I perceived at once that their intentions were not the best, I had two rations served out. At 8 the valley was full of pagans, who little by little approached our camp with shouts. I detached an officer with twelve men with orders to keep them back. Shortly afterwards he opened fire, but without thereby putting the Igorot to flight; and seeing the officer entirely surrounded by them, I started with twenty men to his rescue, leaving the rest of my troops drawn up in charge of the other officer. I also commenced firing together with the first officer, and we killed a number of people and captured twelve Igorot. We also had six wounded on our side. The Igorot retired little by little and were pursued by me as far as the hills after the firing had lasted four hours. It was already 2 o’clock in the afternoon. I returned to the camp, which I reached at 3:15, carrying with me my wounded, and the prisoners, who were all drunk. The pagans, on seeing me retire, came down the valley again and took up a position at a distance of a gunshot and a half. During the night half of us slept at a time while the rest watched, and we were alarmed only a few times by the shouts of the savages.