August 27, 1900

Everything being conveniently prepared, in order to cause a failure of the Americans’ plans of attack we, at 5.30 a.m., abandoned this camp of “Tierra Virgen,” after having lived there peacefully for two months and twenty-one days. Capt. Juan H. Pilar, chief, and Señors Villareal, Carasco, Catindig, Subido, Ruis, de Leon, and the greater part of the soldiers remained behind in the province to operate as guerrillas. The honorable president only carried with him 16 sharpshooters and Señors Villa and Barcelona and Lieutenants Magsarile and P. Reyes.

In order that our direction to Palanan would not be perceived by anyone, on leaving the camp we took the route along the river in the interior of the woods. We followed the river’s course, all of us being wet. After marching continuously in the river for five hours we left it and took a course through the interior of the woods for the settlement of the Calingas at Catalangan. About 2 p.m. we encountered an old Calinga man, who had come from the settlement. On being asked if there was anything at the settlement, he told us that on this morning 25 Americans were there—for what purpose he did not know—and that these left about 10 a.m. We took this Calinga for our guide, telling him to conduct us by a route far from the settlement. After a conversation of fifteen minutes we resumed the march through the interior of the woods. About 4 o’clock, after our having marched continuously, the Calinga announced to us that we would have to emerge into the open field as the woods ended at that point. The honorable president then ordered that we should halt here first, while the guide went on to the settlement to inquire among the other Calingas respecting the movements of the Americans. After an hour the Calinga returned with his son, a Christian, informing us that 25 American cavalrymen were stationed on two rivers near us; but they did not know for what reason.

The presence of the Americans on the river was undoubtedly for the purpose of cutting off our retreat. Then the honorable president ordered us to hide in the woods; and at 5 o’clock we resumed the march. After seeing several pieces of woods, entering and passing through them, about 7 o’clock we placed ourselves in one of these, where we found a little house inhabited by a Calinga man and his wife.

We slept very uneasily throughout the whole night, because the Calinga man said we were distant only about one hour from Maluna where the Americans have their central camp, and therefore they could have surprised us at midnight.

May 20th, 1900

The President visited Major Panel in his military installation this morning. While we three were gathered together, we suddenly heard the sound of slapping. I went to see what was the matter. Major Jeciel of the infantry, an aide of the Captain General, blinded with anger, was slapping and kicking a soldier of Major Panel’s column. The President felt nervous but said only, “That is not good.” He addressed a few words to Major Jeciel; but as the latter continued striking the soldier, the President stopped and rebuked him. We went home to take our breakfast.

He was preoccupied and thoughtful as he sat beside a small window. After a while, he said, “Look!” A black butterfly with small dots on the border of its wings was resting on his left hand, which was on the window sill. He was about to touch it when it flew away; it came back and flew away again, never to return. Again he told me after a while: “I’m getting more nervous each day.”

After lunch we went up, at his request. We ascended the summit of the mountain where our sentinels were stationed. He reconnoitered the place then ordered the captain to place an officer in charge of the watchtower. We descended after a while. Having ordered Major Panel in the morning to a higher position, we went there to see him. The column under Gatmaitan had also ascended to the immediate vicinity of the farmhouses.

On our way back to the forces under Major Gatmaitan, the sentinel on the watchtower, on seeing us, shouted that the enemy had deployed as guerrillas to surround our camp. An order was given for everybody to ascend and firing began after a short while. We were calling the Panel column, but they did not hear us; they had placed themselves in strategic positions.

It was getting dark but still the column under Gatmaitan had not arrived; meanwhile, the firing was getting more intense. There was a lull, though, which made us suspect that the firing came from an uprising of the Igorots. As the bullets would suddenly whistle at our side, I urged the President to abandon the place. Upon reaching a certain place at sundown, our horses could not pass. A shout of “Americans behind” forced us to abandon horses and saddles; we took with us a satchel, a raincoat and a woolen blanket only.

It was night when we reached a ranchería; our guard could not find the way out. At last a trail was found. There were few of us; hardly ten soldiers were in our group. While following this pass, we saw from afar many lights coming towards us. We left this trail and went deep into the forest, and ascended mountains whose summits we could not scale because of the rocks and steep slopes. Here we spent the night of May 20th, ignoring what fate could have in store for us.

Our forces broken up and their whereabouts unknown, we were desperate; but our energetic leader decided to leave this place. He was looking for a trail for us to follow when suddenly he heard a sound which seemed to have come from the ranchería. He took the rifle and removed his helmet. I replaced it with my dark-brown one. Moving cautiously, he addressed those behind him. But they had ran away, leaving the four of us alone. What demoralization!

He called and led us to a road, a short distance away, to another ranchería, which we reached at dawn. We rested a little, cooked, and ate mouthfuls of rice without salt, after which we resumed our march upwards. Our guide, Vicente Langcay, was doubtful about the road we had taken. After several turns, we decided to go uphill. We had covered half the distance when we saw some of our companions coming our way. Retracing our steps, we met Capts. Villareal and Yldefonso with some soldiers. We were very happy.

We followed the road up the mountain peak and saw the Americans arriving at the ranchería we had just left. Down the mountains we found a settlement and then another, where we were offered some rice. We ate a little and drank water; then we continued to a river, on the left side of which we had to walk over big boulders.

We reached Tuctuguinoc, a ranchería, where they cooked rice and killed a pig for us. However, when the food was about ready to be served, our sentinel announced that the Americans were at the river deployed in guerrilla groups. We almost jumped, leaving the place in flight. As I was in an undershirt, I put on my black coat, the cartridge-belt, and my gun; but my hat was not in its place when I reached for it. I saw the President, Villa, and a companion, already quite far from me. Fearing to be left behind, lost or separated from them, I ran without a hat to overtake them.

On our way to the peak we saw the Americans in the ranchería. We continued moving upward. After a short while, I felt giddy; I could neither open my eyes nor stand. They came to help me. Our brave leader fanned me, and while I was resting on his lap, he gave me some mouthfuls of rice and water to drink. After half an hour, I regained strength, and we resumed the trip.

Villa was informing me that we had still a long way to climb when, suddenly, our leader ordered us to descend to the left and leave the road. After fifteen minutes we heard firing at close range from three different sources. We were surrounded by three enemy columns, who were firing at us continually, their bullets whistling past our rear guard. A slight confusion ensued. We ran downward, found a dry stream, followed its course, retraced our steps, ascended; and then our chief ordered us to return downstream.

The firing continued. The President ordered that a reconnaissance be made throughout the length of the river. Two soldiers followed his instructions. He, likewise, ordered Lieut. Carasco, his aide, to go with them. After going a short distance, [Lieut. Carasco] came back shouting that there were Americans. There was great confusion; we turned around and ran away. I, then, advised the President to proceed to a small forest, but he answered: “I do not go to a forest to hide.”

By this time everybody had recovered. The two soldiers sent to investigate returned informing us that there were no Americans.

We followed the course of the river and left the enemy behind.

In the afternoon, almost at dusk, we rested, wet, hungry and tired on the right bank of the stream; we slept as best as we could on damp mossy stones.

At noon, following the mountain ranges one after another, we descended to a plain. At a distance we saw the ranchería of Tabog. We reached and crossed a river, then rested on the opposite side where we cooked and ate some rice. We were nearing Magaripi, in the vicinity of Tabog, when we observed a column [of individuals] moving down the mountains. We could not recognize them. We seemed certain they were the enemy. Our Chief ordered us to stop at the side of a river at our left and disperse. With my field glasses, I saw a man dressed in black with a colored felt hat holding a rifle. I remarked, “They are Americans.” I took along the President, and the two of us passed by the river to reconnoiter. Suddenly, I noticed the group ready to fire. I pulled the President by the arm and drew him away from the firing line.

At a safe distance, they called us and told us that they were Filipinos. We returned to verify. They were Lieut. Taro [Teodoro Dayao] and some forty-five men, who were grouped together when we arrived. We entered Magaripi. Lieut. Taro informed us that, according to reports, there were about two hundred of the enemy in Tabog. We did not care, though; we were hungry and wanted to eat.

President Aguinaldo ordered the vanguard column to enter, leaving the rear guard outside the town with us. He sent a corporal with six soldiers to the crest of the ridge with field glasses to observe the enemy. There was confusion in Tabog. They had formed guerrilla units; others climbed the mountains where they had put up guards. They were thinking perhaps that we would attack them. We ate a little, then departed in an orderly manner, retracing our steps part of the way. Before dawn we were in a forest. Here we rested. When it was daylight, I observed that everybody looked like corpses—pale, weak, and with deep-set eyes!

We had no food. A puppy who had followed us was killed and eaten by some soldiers.

In the afternoon we departed and followed the road to the ranchería of Magaogao. Early the next morning we reached the first house situated at the nearest barrio. Here we ate rice offered by an Igorot. We headed to the interior of another forest to rest. Here we bought palay[1] at half a duro[2], a tabo[3], which would measure three chupas at the most.

We had a good meal. We rested and slept; in the evening we moved past the enemy line. We crossed one tranquil river, then another; but the third, reaching us up to our waist and chest, was very swift. We thought of suspending our trip, but the President taking the lead advanced shouting, “Decision, brothers!” Holding tightly to one another, eight to ten of us in number formed a chain and crossed the angry waters which seemed to sweep us off violently.

With great effort we reached the other side, but lost ten rifles. There were Americans in the población; however, we passed it quietly without being noticed. We came to a mountain, climbed it and found a house on top. We turned left; but our leader was doubtful, he summoned the owner of the house, who led us to the right. Upon reaching a certain place, our guide Langcay dismissed the Igorot, as he was now familiar with the route.

After a short distance we came to a dead end. The guide wavered; he was lost, and so were all of us. We descended to a stream. We had very little to eat; the rice was exhausted. We followed another route, which led us to another stream. As it was late in the day, we stopped here for the night. The following day we retreated, took a trail to our left till evening. As we could not go any further, we slept beside the road.

At dawn we resumed our trip; at the end of two hours we beheld from a distance a corral with cows in a barrio of Mogueb: the sight brought joy to all of us. We descended the mountains and sent out guide Langcay in advance. He returned after two hours with some rice and the roasted leg of a kid. We ate immediately.

We reached the house of the keeper of the corral: he offered us ground corn. When it was distributed among the soldiers, each received a mouthful. A cow was killed and roasted: we ate without salt or rice.

We had been eating beef only until the afternoon of the next day, the 27th, when we departed for Enrile. We marched the whole night, reaching the Madalusong hills by dawn. At 7 a.m. the towns of Tuguegarao and Enrile came to view. We stopped and sent Langcay to the barrio to locate Capt. Floro Calixto. His delay made us impatient. A Tagalog woman from Nueva Ecija brought us ground corn which was consumed by the 5th Company. I gave her ₱2.00 to bring me food. When she came back after half an hour she had rice and a roasted chicken; she also cooked sinigang and brought two ripe mangoes. We ate.

Villa with Subido went to the house of Vicente Guzman, whom they found having his lunch. He was barefooted, with his trousers tucked up. On seeing them, Guzman put on his socks and shoes and invited them to eat. Without having tasted food for three days and two nights, without rest and sleep, they devoured the fare, consisting of lisas, large banac,[4] and mangoes; nevertheless, they did not forget their table manners.

[1]Rice in the husk.

[2]A duro is equivalent to five Spanish peselas.

[3]Container made of the hard half-shell of the coconut.

[4]Fish of the mugil species.

May 17th, 1900

When we woke up this morning, an Igorot told me that the Americans were to be found in Sumadell, the next ranchería. Upon being informed of this, the President ordered us to be prepared to resume the trip. A messenger who had been dispatched to verify the news, informed us that the enemy was already in Mabuntot, the settlement next to our camp.

It must have been 10 o’clock on the morning of the 17th when we left Lubuagan. We passed through Guinaan to join forces with Major Panel. In the afternoon, we marched towards the east. We spent the evening in Cagaranan; the next day, the 18th, we advanced to Naneng, where we spent the noon hours; and then proceeded and slept on the way in a small ranchería. At dawn of the 19th we marched again and reached Anubanlan in the afternoon, where we encamped.

February 4th, 1900

Sunday. About midday, we were informed that the Americans were in Camarag; so we placed ourselves on the alert. Later, this was contradicted. We were told that the Americans, leading a convoy, had gone back on account of the presence of scattered Filipino forces from the town of Cordon in the mountains of San Luis.

About 4 p.m. the town president of Gamu presented himself with seven companions to greet the President and pay his respects, bringing with him gifts consisting of 75 little packages of cigarettes from the Utilidad Factory in Manila and two bottles of gin. The cigarettes were distributed among the officers and soldiers, as was also the gin.