Jan. 4, 1971 Monday 10:00 pm

…Today (this morning 11:00 am up to lunch at 2:00 pm) in a conference with Sec. Juan Ponce Enrile, Sec. Alex Melchor and Gen. Yan, I ordered the setting up of a Special War Center, an Internal Security Agency, a Psy-War Branch all under the DND as well as the creation of a new command, the Metropolitan Command, that will cover the provinces of Cavite, Rizal, Bulacan, Bataan, the Pasig Task Force and the PGB under Col. Ver.

I ordered the transfer of Gen. Fidel Ramos from the 3rd Brigade to the 2nd PC Zone vice Gen. Zosimo Paredes whom I am retiring. Col. Palacios the CO of the 1st Brigade goes to the 3rd Brigade vice Gen. Ramos.

The Special War Center personnel may also be placed as a component unit of the command of Col. Ver’s, as Metropolitan Command CO. It integrates all the special forces of the major services, the special forces and rangers of the Army and Constabulary, the air commanders of the Air Force and the Navy’s marines and other teams. They will be retrained under chosen officers for special missions.

As I plan it, in the event of violence in the city, the Metrocom under Gen. Ordonez will seek to hold back the mass of rioters with his 1,400 men. If theyt are unequal to the task or special task forces are necessary, the Metropolitan Command comes in. If still unable to contain the violence, then the entire Internal Security Forces under Maj. Gen. Romeo Espino, Vice-Chief of Staff under whom both Gen. Ordonez and Col. Ver will be subordinated comes into the metropolitan area.

In the meantime outside of the NBI-Metrocom teams that will be fielded, Col. Ver will have special teams to arrest target personnel or take target areas. This will assure performance in the event that NBI and Metrocom are committed prematurely to the routine of maintaining order.

I have ordered the PC and 1st Infantry Division at Fort Magsaysay as well as the 51st Engineer Brigade brought up to full strength.

The P3 million needed for the procurement of 3,000 Armalites for the PC, I have ordered to be released and the guns delivered not later than the end of February.

The engineers should be ready to take over the public utilties like Nawasa, Meralco, PLDT, Butel, PNR, PAL, Air Manila, Fairways, land transport as well as shipping.

But the media which according to Sec. Melchor Ambassador Byroade calls a serious threat to security, calls for a separate operation. We have to take them over immediately.

The Psy-War Branch should use them for the purposes of the military administration.

The framework of government and present officials should be kept and all laws except those I suspend kept in force unless changed by edict by me.

But a new plan of government and society must be worked out…

While private property will be recognized and respected, they should be run for the state. Their profits should go to a fund for investment and development…

All able-bodied men must be put to work. There must be total exploitation of natural resources.

This must be a complete revolution.

February 22, 1970 Sunday

22Feb1970_1 22_Feb1970_2

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February 22, 1970

Sunday

 

 

12:05 AM

 

Spent practically the whole afternoon (4:00 PM) up to about 8:00 PM with the military, Gens. Yan, Espino, Ileto, Garcia, Tanabe, Sabalones, Ordoñez, Col. Ver and Diaz. Gov. Nepomuceno with Eric Mendoza who is a former jet pilot resigned because of hazing and helping in the location of Dante and Arthur Garcia whom he confirms he met after the claim that he (Garcia) was killed by Dante, were also here. Gov. Nepomuceno is disturbed by my statement to him that his bodyguards are Dante’s men. So he is helping through Mendoza in the campaign to locate Dante.

We mapped out the plans in the event of the massive sabotage of the city and the public utilities. Transferred some of the armor to Central Luzon. They missed Dante by a few hours in Capas the other day.

But we have five companies [of] reserves for the Metrocom which has 1,339 men – one company each from the major services and one from GHQ. Then there are two HDF in Malacañang, two in Camp Crame and one in [Fort] Bonifacio. The different brigades are forming up. In the event of an emergency, the PA can organize two more complete battalions with equipment in Fort Magsaysay and Cebu for the April training.

Our unanimous assessment is that the subversives have no capability of mounting an attack of company proportion and probably will not but are capable of small unit harassment, sabotage and liquidation which capability should also be eradicated.

 

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Cocoy reports that the people have faith in my capability to solve the problems we face.

Ablan Jr. claims Vic Villafranca whom he says is in his payroll will be the publisher of the Catholic newspaper for which a million dollars worth of printing machinery has been ordered. Villafranca is looking for an editor.

Benny Toda of PAL is allegedly organizing an intelligence team under Col. Hernandez, former J-2, to research on the administration – in retaliation for my open skies policy.

These rich people are back to their old tricks to protect their profits.

The new monetary policy seems to be received well. We will see how the market is tomorrow.

 

 

February 20, 1970 Thursday

20Feb1970_1-(1215am) 20Feb1970 (10pm)

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February 20, 1970

Thursday

 

 

12:15 AM

 

I have asked Gens Yan and Ileto to advance and accelerate preparations in the event that the Maoists accelerate their schedule. Another violent demonstration like last night and according to our intelligence the next targets for sabotage are the public utilities and the big establishments, and I may have to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.

Ambassador Byroade filed a strong protest for the vandalism, arson and destruction in the U.S. Embassy last night. I have asked Mayor Villegas to explain his inaction.

Gen. Ordoñez of the Metrocom suffered head wounds last night.

I asked Ernesto Rufino, Vicente Rufino and Carlos Palanca to withdraw advertisements from the Manila Times which was openly supporting revolution and the communist cause. They agreed to do so.

I have convinced Maceda to stay in PACD and he still acted like a spoiled brat. I had to tell him that his employees were talking of his bringing women to the Executive Secretary’s office at night and that he was getting too arrogant.

Gen. Rancudo has put up a SSB for direct communications between my office and the 5th Fighter Wing.

The headline in the Bulletin has caused consternation among some senators as the secret orders if anything untoward happens to me has alarmed them of the military taking over. But this only if all the civilian government leaders are liquidated which is far-fetched.


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February 20, 1970

Friday

 

 

10:00 PM

 

The report of the IMF and the solution acceptable to them has come in with Gov. Licaros. It is a multiple rate – a floating rate for all imports; all earnings of principal exports of copra, logs, sugar and copper concentrate to be surrendered to the Central Bank at the legal rate of ₱3.90 to the dollar except for 20% which will be allowed to be retained by the exporter and sold at the floating or free rate. Imports of luxuries and travel should be restricted. This will be an industrial development scheme. All the lesser exports will benefit and will be encouraged.

It should be approved by our Monetary Board by now, effective tomorrow, Saturday, morning at 6:00 AM to coincide with the approval of the IMF Executive Board in Washington. We must watch prices.

Met with Byroade and Jim Rafferty to offer my personal apologies. Those crazy Americans for a time thought that I had deflected the rallies from Malacañang to the U.S. Embassy to get them involved. Ridiculous!

But Romulo is getting senile. That note of his in answer to the stiff protest of the Americans was off the beam. It speaks of there being valid ground for the attacks against the Americans and the Americans to ponder on the solution of the problems between the two countries. I have to replace Romulo soon. This is not the way to treat a wounded ally.

More and more people are demanding sterner measures against the demonstrators. The Chamber of Filipino Retailers and small merchants demand protection for life and property.

Met with the Moslem student leaders with their demands – specially Zamboanga and Basilan.

 

February 12, 1970, Thursday

12Feb1970_1 12Feb1970_2

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February 12, 1970

Thursday

12:00 PM

Against predictions of violence, the Plaza Miranda rally turned out to be peaceful. Some of the leaders shouted for the crowd to go to Malacañang but the crowd would not follow.

But the KM and SDK violated their word and went through with the rally in Plaza Miranda when they had said that they would not leave the campuses. Some 40 trucks came from Angeles City. The men in them did not look like students and they were the ones crying out for blood.

The northern congressmen, senators and governors came to the palace with completely armed men. I dissuaded them from infiltrating the demonstration and inflicting harm on them.

For a time I secretly hoped that the demonstrators would attack the palace so that we could employ the total solution. But it would be bloody and messy.

Anyway I told the northern political leaders that the situation may develop into a revolutionary situation during my administration and that we should prepare for a military confrontation with the communists. The North should be developed as a last bastion, just in case. We must now cache arms and ammo there, prepare Laoag for jet landings, Lingayen Gulf for our navy and organize provincial strike forces, at the rate first of at least 100 men each province.

But we must win the hearts and minds of our

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people. So, I argued, we must all be ready to sacrifice our personal interests for the common good. They agreed to this but begged that the men who had sacrificed in the political battles be not forgotten.

We had dinner and a movie. Blas Ople was there for dinner. And so was Emong Salvador, my old Maharlika comrade. Blas is an enigma. Many of the leaders distrust him. Even Col. Ver feels that he is actually one of the communist leaders and that all the attacks in the media against me and the administration may have been his brainchild. But it is best he is in the palace when there is a crisis. Then we can neutralize him or use him.

As of now I am convinced we have to wage a tedious legal, propaganda and economic battle against the communists. So this afternoon I asked the military leaders, Ponce Enrile, Yan, Garcia, and Ramos to prepare for this. There must be an assessment of the voluminous documents captured from the Ma-Maos – for legal action. The intelligence agencies must be sharpened to the sophisticated finesse of the intellectuals and urban communists. For this the NICA and NBI must be reorganized. And we must fund the various anti-subversion and anti-insurgency teams.

If they want a revolution, I will give them one in the economic field. Drastic, dramatic and effective like the rechanneling of the excess money into agro-industrial projects in the farms and resettlement centers.

I met with Vicente Araneta to listen to his priming plan. Assigned Usec. Roman Ong Jr. to study it.

Saturday, January 31, 1970

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Saturday

January 31, 1970

Malacañang

10:00 AM

I write this tonight having been a little occupied last night during the demonstration or riot. I am glad I was able to hold back on the repeated requests to fire at the rioters, the first request when they took over a fire truck burned it and rammed it against Gate 4 broke the lock and rushed into the compound near the new Administration Bldg, the second when they threatened to do the same on Gate 3.

Have delivered a TV speech, called all the mayors of Metropolitan Manila and Gen. Rodriguez to work out a coordinated plan. Mayor Villegas kept explaining why the MPD police did not come to help us in Malacañang (nor the fire trucks of the MFD either).

Conferred with the military (Sec. of Nat Def, Chief of Staff, Chiefs of the major services and their staffs.)

Then with the political leaders.

Most felt there should be no repression. So I have had to delay the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. We will await developments. I understand the demonstrators will hit the PNB and Metropolitan Branches next. The PCC demonstration of Prudente was called off. But I gather there will be a big demonstration next Tuesday and/or Mar. 3rd.

When they do so again, they may be armed with firearms. In the meantime I can only gnash my teeth and wait.

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These are difficult days for everybody. But I pity the citizenry caught in the crossfire last night. For the rioters were sniping at the MPD, Metrocom & soldiers with .22’s.

I suppose that the people now sympathize with me, specially if these vandals continue their destructive anarchy.

But Chino Roces still seemed hostile in the meeting with the publishers when I requested support for my position in the matter of the rioters. And Teddy Locsin tonight could not see in it anything but that reform must come by violent means. I had forgotten that he had always written sympathetically of Mao Tse Tung.

We should ride this out with patience and perseverance.

Teddy apparently was warning me that if there was repression by the arrest of the leaders of the communist movement, there would be retaliation and Central Luzon would be transferred to Manila with the slums becoming the jungle.

If I let these fears deter me from fighting communism then we are lost. But I must continue to restrain myself lest we lose the support of the people by a stance of tyranny.

January 25, 1970

01 Diary of Ferdinand Marcos, 1970, 0001-0099 (Jan01-Feb28) 52

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Office of the President

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Malacañang

January 25, 1970

Sunday

2:55 PM

The President must do almost everything in the government. Nothing moves unless he pushes it.

So I had to meet the student demonstrators themselves. Their speeches were getting obscene and lewd. I told them that I was sad that they could not deliver more moving speeches in more elegant language. We settled the matter but I frankly told them no release of funds until after July.

I met with the labor leaders for breakfast after the oath-taking of the new Court of Appeals Justices including Vicente Rafael, labor leader is objected to by Justice Roman Ozaeta of the Philippine Bar Association, as he (Vicente) was allegedly an undistinguished labor practitioner. Also met the extended generals who I am retiring. Gen. Sangalang says he has no truck provided that they will all be terminated at the same time. I referred the suggestion to the Sec. of Nat. Defense thru the C of S Gen. Yan.

Sec. Romualdez has his misgivings about the plan to free the rate of exchange and to allow it to seek its own level. He is worried it may plunge down too low. Dr. Zabvkar says from his experience it will not. Anyway I have ordered that we be ready with some foreign exchange to support a more stable rate and to finance the importation of essentials.

January 24, 1970

01 Diary of Ferdinand Marcos, 1970, 0001-0099 (Jan01-Feb28) 51

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Malacañang Palace

January 24, 1970

1:00 PM

I have just directed the retirement of Gen. Raval and all the extended generals effective Feb 1st and April 1st. I will retain Gen. Yan as Chief of Staff only because there is no one who is qualified to take his place. I will put Gen. Eddie Garcia presently CG of the Tabak Division as PC chief.

I do sympathize with Gen. Raval who claims  he had nothing to do with the abuses of the Special Forces but there is discontent in the rank and file of the Armed Forces and Gen. Raval is one of the reasons. Another is the feeling of the lower ranking officers that they have no hope of advancement. And with the efforts of the Liberals to intrigue the military into a coup d’etat, it becomes necessary to remove all causes of grievance.

The truth of the matter is the retiring officers are better than those who will succeed them. I hope to place some of them in civilian positions.

I cannot choose a replacement of Sec. Mata. I am trying to get a civilian and non-military man. But I guess I will ultimately push Gen. Yan up to Secretary of National Defense while I ultimately push Ileto up to Chief of Staff.

January 23, 1970

01 Diary of Ferdinand Marcos, 1970, 0001-0099 (Jan01-Feb28) 49 01 Diary of Ferdinand Marcos, 1970, 0001-0099 (Jan01-Feb28) 50

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Office of the President

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Malacañang Palace

January 23, 1970

12:00 PM

I have just talked to Joe Maristela who is our informer in the Adevoso group planning a coup d’etat. He feels the plan, though fantastic, is serious. Their next meeting is at his house in Antipolo next Wednesday. And the political group backing them up may attend. He feels they have not yet talked to or gotten the support of Gens. Ileto and Tanabe but that Adevoso and Sanchez said “Kasama natin yan.”

He attends a breakfast with Gen. Yan tomorrow at 7:30 AM.

A Col. Navarro now in Vietnam who may be in the CIA and ex-Col. Francisco Jimenez as well as Marcelo Castillo (Annapolis 1939) are with them.

He and Col. Ver have already planned the planting of some more officers and men in the Adevoso group.

Adevoso says that my erstwhile opponent and he went to see Byroade after the elections. While Byroade was apparently non-committal he allowed Adevoso to talk to his staff who (Adevoso says) thought of the idea of a coup d’etat, Patterson DOD attaché suggesting that in order to cut off Malacañang from reinforcements, the three bridges, Quezon bridge, Nagtahan bridge and Ayala bridge be blown up.

Col. Francisco Jimenez’s car was in Commodore Alcaraz’s residence last Saturday in their last meeting, although he (Jimenez) was not there. Jimenez is on of the Valeriano boys. This is a new variable.

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Joe and Col. Ver suggested that we meet force with force and that the conspirators be eliminated quietly before they prejudice our country and democratic institutions. I told them that instead we should obtain evidence to prosecute them in court.

For otherwise we may unleash a wave of violence we may not be able to control and do greater damage to our freedoms.