September 26, 1944

Big posters were displayed in various parts of the city, depicting the barbarism of the American bombers, inciting the people to air their indignation and to rise in unison to fight for their independence and national integrity.

Instead the people are feeling not indignation but joy. During and after the raids, they are not angry nor fearful but trustful that the bombs would fall only on military targets, and hopeful that these incursions will put an end to their captivity and their miseries.

What really cause public indignation were the abuses committed by the Japanese after the bombings aside from those they had been regularly committing.

After the bombings, the Japanese hurriedly emptied the Port Area of their gasoline tanks and anti-aircraft equipment.

Many of the Japanese anti-aircraft batteries have been installed in residential and commercial zones, in vacant lots, on terraces of tall concrete buildings, and in front yards or campuses of schools. In some case, the anti-aircraft nests were transferred to new locations, for fear that the former sites had already been installed, so that the greater part of the city has become a military target.

The Army has started commandeering Churches and convents, at least those within the city, which up to this point had been spared. The Sta. Cruz church is being used as a storage for ammunition barracks; Binondo Church was burned, and this left the three most populated districts of Manila without churches. The churches of Mandaluyong and Diliman are also being commandeered. The convents of the Franciscans, Augustinians and Recollects are now finally occupied after a month of fruitless protests.

September 22, 1944

Didn’t know we still had baloney these days until I read the Tribune. It was crying out loud about Filipinos being angry due to the inhuman acts of American aviators.

More baloney: Laurel declares the Philippines under martial law. The problem with our puppet president is that he doesn’t leave his room in Malacañang. If he only took the trouble of going downtown, he’ll know who’s running this country. You can’t walk around without showing some piece of paper with Japanese scrawl to hundreds of Japanese soldiers posted in every street corner. If that isn’t martial law then what is!

The Americans came back this morning again with more bombs, hooray. They dove at all the ships in the Bay area and they destroyed Piers 3, 5 and 7. The tower of the Customs Building has disappeared and the warehouses at Malecon Drive were wiped out by incendiaries.

U.S. planes flew very low over the heart of Manila. Two planes circled below the dome of Binondo Church. People waved handkerchiefs at them and the aviators coolly waved back. Japanese sentries looked on sullenly. The happy incident was marred by Philippine Constabulary soldiers at the Oriente Building who machinegunned the low-flying planes under orders from Japanese soldiers. The bombers circled around the Oriente Building, headquarters of the Constabulary, dropped two incendiary bombs and flew off.

Far Easter University and San Beda College which are being used as garrisons by the Japanese troops were also strafed. Several civilians were hit by stray bullets but more deaths were caused by the anti-aircraft guns of the Japanese.

Joe Meily said a ship near the Boulevard was hit by a bomb and a lot of hundred-peso bills were blown to the shore. Some of the bills reached Ermita and Malate and the people scrambled for them.

The Japanese are taking their supplies out of the piers because they expect more bombings. They’re quite sad about the fact that their planes don’t even go up to challenge the Americans.

There were no bombs dropped this afternoon. Maybe they’re resting. Joe was disappointed.

This is bad news. We’re going to leave our house. The Japs are taking it. They said “So sorry” to Dad’s appeal. Mama is crying. I told her to stop. “Anyway ma,” I explained, “We will get the house back in a few months. They’ll be here soon.”

Am very tired. Perhaps due to the excitement of the last two days. But it doesn’t matter. My heart is happy.

September 22, 1944

Yesterday, the sky was filled with dark clouds. Today the horizon is even darker and gloomier. We had a reveille, and although the enemy came behind the thick clouds, the siren operators were not as sleepy as they were yesterday. At 7:15, the whining signal shook everybody out of bed. In fifteen minutes, the infernal blasts of engines, anti-aircraft guns, bombs, machineguns and guns filled the air. The vanguards burned the gasoline depot in Pandacan and riddled the Neilson Airfield in Makati. The main corps of the American attackers worked on the ports, the piers and the warehouses of the Port Area. A wave of planes attacked the premises of the Japanese Embassy (formerly of the American High Commissioner) where a very powerful anti-aircraft battery was installed, thus burning part of the building. One of the planes dropped its bombs behind the Binondo Church, razing a whole block of Chinese houses. A strong wind caused the fire to spread rapidly to the La Insular cigarette factory. The Oriente Building, the general headquarters of the Constabulary where some anti-aircraft guns are furiously firing, was also burned, and so were the Church and convent of Binondo. These three historical treasures were offered in a fiery holocaust to the implacable fury of Belona, the sultaness of Pasig. The three buildings were constructed during the Spanish era. The Oriente Building was a hotel, the biggest and most sophisticated during the past century. The La Insular building was constructed in 1888 by Don Joaquín Santamaría, founder of the tobacco factory of the same name. The Arabesque facade, unique of its kind in Manila, were imported from Spain. The Binondo Church on the other hand, was reconstructed after the earthquake of 1863, through the Chinese whose help was solicited by the Dominican fathers. It has actually been the parish of the Filipino residents of the district and of the Chinese Community in Manila.

August 25, 1942

The Japanese are raking in more and more wealth, and the poor Chinese, next to the nationals of enemy countries, are the major victims. They are gradually being dispossessed of their holdings. Aside from taking over their stores and warehouses, the Japanese are requiring them to make “voluntary contibutions” of some ₱20,000,000.00. The individual amounts vary from ₱1,000 to ₱100,000, depending on the paying capacity of the contributor.

In spite of this, the quota has not been reached. All the Chinese are required to join a Chinese association organized by the government, the membership fee of which is ₱13.00. Not one of the Chinese is enthusiastic about joining, much less, paying the dues. But the Japanese are not to be outdone. They have posted sentries with fixed bayonets at all street corners around the Binondo area. Every Chinese passerby is accosted and his certificate of membership required. All those who are unable to present one are arrested and loaded into a wagon. Hundreds of them were herded and brought to no one knows where.

Sunday, April 30th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island – Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo

Rain last night; cloudy & comparatively cool today.

Read Leviticus & part of a psalm this morning; prayed to my precious Lord, then cooked breakfast. After eating thereof and washing dishes, looked up some songs & a bible lesson, by that time the clock marked 10.25 a.m. Prayed for God’s blessings on my prison service & walked down Paseo Azcarraga to Bilibid. Am quite well known there now & am admitted by the sentry of the 20th U.S. Infantry & the Filipino gate keeper without trouble. I found Provost-Sergeant Houser in bed complaining of feeling unwell. However, he got up & opened the wards for such prisoner as cared to attend my service. Six or eight came out & we adjourned to the civil prison, where sailors & beach “comber” are confined –- a pretty hard set are they are too. Had an audience of 22. The men (some) complained because I came just at the time they dished up their one daily meal. Some prisoners went outside but others remained inside & listened attentively. The sergeant went away & looked the irongate behind him leading into the yard & left me alone with the prisoners. At the conclusion of the service, in which I had to do everything alone except distribute song books & sing I bade them adieu. One asked me for 30 cts. I gave the men 2 New Testaments. The military prisoners who came in with me pulled some of the iron rods serving for pickets out of their sock, etc. I squeezed thro’ the opening & got into the main yard. One of the prisoners, a backslider Baptist & I had a talk re his soul; also spoke to another backslider; both seem interested.

Leaving Bilibid walked back via Paseo Azcarraga house. I saw my portrait, cut from a San Francisco War Cry, stuck on the wall of the civil prison over a bunk, with 2 pieces of green ribbons decorating the bottom. Where they secured the picture in a mystery to me.

Arriving home I was surprised to meet 2 U.S. soldiers 9th Reg’t regular waiting to see me –- Bro. (Private) Walter I. Mason of Co. D. & an unconverted friend. I spoke to the latter advising him to be come a Christian. Mason is member of Boston 1 Corps. (Mass.) Saved 3 years. Said Lt.-Col. W J. Cozens & Staff Capt. Sam Wood of Boston send regards to me. We had a long conversation & parted with prayer.

Must not neglect to state that on my return –- passing down Azcarraga, I was stopped by a 20th U.S. Infantry soldier, who introduced himself -– Private Wm Clark Co. M. Was converted in Philadelphia I Corps. (Penn.) 2 years since. Claims to be saved but smokes. Promised to call & see me. After my company left commenced writing more copy for “All the World” magazine. Private Clayton Scott dropped in & I ceased writing. At close of our conversation we prayed together & went down to Binondo Dist., beyond Puerta General Blanco to the “Old Folks at House” restaurant for supper. Three negroes, a Chinese & a white man are connected with this establishment in various capacities. The dinner was so inferior compared to the price charged that we concluded that this our second visit shall be our last. Scott intended to stand treat but his money was not equal to the bill, $1.20 Mex. The 20 cts I paid.

After dark Orderly Kelch of the 3d artillery called with a companion. He (Kelch) brought a letter from Private M. L. Devine (Landon) of K. battery 3d written at Malolos Apr 30th requesting the loan of $5 or $6 Mex. as he is unwell & the food is wretched. I sent by Kelch $3 American silver, also a letter. God bless Landon & the other boys.

Thursday, March 16th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

The night closes in dark, with a slow, steady rain falling. Must make our boys very uncomfortable out at the front. The shooting I heard last night 9.30 p.m. was along our line from Caloocan to La Loma cemetery; otherwise Binondo cemetery. Prayer of Bible reading this morning. God the Holy Ghost manifested His presence in my soul last night, revealing His love.

I love my God.

Cooked breakfast & supper. Washed the dishes. My dinner consisted principally of dry bread lemonade & peanuts.

Remained at home until about 2 p.m. Considerable company called to see the Owens’ –Americans.

Mounted a street car & went directly out to the Brigade or General Hospital on the north side of the Pasig river. Called at Ward No. 10 & met Private Albert Scott of the North Dacotas. Scott is under treatment for his ears. Said some kind kind of an insect in this part of the world destroys the drum of the ear. He thinks this pest caused the destruction of one drum & the subsequent deafness. S. smoked a cigarette in my presence. Has lost ground in his soul, but claims to be not wholly backslidden. I was saddened by this confession. Advised him to give up tobacco & be a whole-hearted Christian for the reason that he cannot half-heartedly serve God successfully. Also counseled Scott to be a man of prayer & work for the salvation of souls in the hospital. S. has been discharged from Bilibid prison. Held one meeting in that place. When he tried to sing a Salvation song the men took it out of his hand and turned it into vulgar singing. Scott said he was glad to stop. Promises to call & see me tomorrow at No. 2. I hope by God’s grace to get him to the foot of the Cross for a complete victory.

Together we visited the morgue or dead house attached to the hospital. No dead bodies were in there at the time of visit, but a corporal was washing the floor with a hose. The place made me think of a butcher pen; only this was for butchered men not animals. All the killed and wounded are brought to this hospital from the field. Very suggestive indeed of war’s work was a pile of black coffins under the verandah in front of the morgue., two standing up on end near the entrance and another close at hand. These are all waiting for occupants & will probably not wait long. Dead American soldiers are embalmed & sent back to the United States.

From the morgue we went outside main gate to the rows of tents pitched for overflow cases. In two rows of tents Filipino wounded are kept. We passed between the cots, giving a smile or speaking a kind word here and there to the poor fellows. A very sad spectacle they present to the visitor. Arms & legs are gone, others are wounded in different parts of the body. None asked us for food. All have sufficient, but they did beg for cigarettes & cigars. However I would not grant such requests. Don’t believe in the tobacco vice.

I was surprised & rejoiced to meet the old white haired woman we discovered the evening closing the Tondo Dist. uprising behind the monument by the canal, near the tramway where it crosses the bridge out towards Caloocan. She was carried by our crowd to the street car & taken to the city & here she is. In spite of her age the old woman seems to be doing quite well. One poor Filipino was far advanced towards the shadow land –consumption is killing him.

Dealt personally with several men today about their soul’s salvation. On the Escolta, a soldier from Cavite, member of 1st California vol. heavy artillery; corporal in charge of the sentries at gate of the Brigade Hospital; a patient –20th Infantry– U.S. regulars; a teamster who was driving a 4-mule team into the Hospital courtyard. He stopped. Recognized me; knew me in San Francisco.

Called at the post office & mailed 2 letters for Scott. Rec’d several packages of papers –3 new S.W. War Crys. I receive no more the 120 War Crys of each issue from S.F. Neither do I see any more articles from my pen in that War Cry. They have written me nothing on the subject so I am at a loss to know what they are doing.

Purchased some Mindanao Island sea shells, also a couple of magazines.

At the hospital heard that 17 men were wounded again. Fighting every day on the right wing over at Pasig town now.

P.S. The teamster said he read an article of mine in the S.F. War Cry in San Francisco before his departure from that city, re the Philippines.

Saturday, March 4th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

7.45 p.m. The night is dark; no moon & heavy clouds in the sky: quite a breeze is blowing. A lurid light over towards Malate & Ermita shows that a building or buildings are on fire. The last thing this evening as the daylight faded that I could see were men –soldiers, up in the tower of Binondo and Tondo Roman Catholic churches, watching the city. Dr. Kellogg brought word this evening that great trouble is expected tonight in Manila. Stiff skirmisheng has been in progress today at San Pedro Macati. Praise God for the news that the transport “Senator” arrived with the 22d U.S. regulars. Will be quite a help in case of an uprising. Have collected some of my valued articles in a valise in case of fire or other causes should drive me out of No. 2.

The first thing this morning read the Bible & prayed. Cooked breakfast, washed dishes, wrote & copied a letter to Bro. Wm Elletson of the “Olympia”, giving him spiritual advice & enclosing the S.A. Army & Navy League paper (about 8 p.m. 2 Spaniards have just come up stairs to point out a fire which they say is Santa Cruz district.) Also corrected copy of an article –narrative– written for the S.F. War Cry. Added some more matter to it.

About 3.30 p.m. called at the post office. On the street car on Calle Jolo I understood a 13th Minnesota soldier to say that there are 30,000 Insurrectos in Manila.

After returning home to No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Bishop Thoburn and Capt. (Chaplain) Stephenson came in with Rev. & Mrs. Owens & myself, a general conversation ensued in my front room or parlor used for reading & writing. The Bishop inquired my business in this part of the world, replied that I was reporting the country, looking after Salvationists etc. Said he was reporting on the country too. He remarked to Rev. Owens that the present is a good time to see but not to do. Referred specially to missionary enterprises. Cooked supper, & washed dishes after eating supper. The latter work was spiced with the exciting rumors of trouble tonight.

Tuesday, Feb. 28th, 1899

Fort Rice, Luzon Island — Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Manila.

Am quite tired tonight as I pen these lines. Have been out almost all day in the hot sun much and walking much. Out of bed early. Read a couple of verses in the Bible, prayed, cooked breakfast then walked down to the ferry boat in front of the U.S. Quartermaster’s warehouse. Paid 20 cts Mex. passage to Cavite. A party of whiskey and beer sellers, civilians, sat down near me on the upper deck & one commenced to burlesque Christ. I took up the gauntlet thrown down. Liquor man subsided in a short while.

Arriving in Cavite I went to the Provost Marshal’s office on Calle Arsenal for a pass out of Cavite. Captain D. Geary granted me one to San Roque & back but could not beyond that point. The Captain is a zealous Roman Catholic & engaged in a religious & kindred conversation including apostolic succession. While we were so engaged Major Frank B. Rice after whom the breastworks facing causeway joining the small island to the main land 4 miles beyond San Roque, came in. Capt. Geary kindly stated for me what I wanted. The Major thereupon wrote me a pass granting permission to take photos at the outpost — Fort Rice. Going down stairs I asked for a drink of water. Had none. A soldier treated me to a glass of soda water. Private Geo. Baker of A. Battery 1st California Heavy Artillery introduced himself to me. Invited him to go with me to Fort Rice. Agreed if I could get him past the sentry. The sentry passed him out at my request. Together thro’ the hot sun we walked out thro’ the forest to Fort Rice. I learned that Baker was born in Cypress, Harris Co. Texas, the county in which I was born. He is a Christian. Requested me to hold a meeting in Cavite. I agreed to go over Sunday next –for an afternoon service. Asked him to arrange things.

The earthworks supported by plaited bamboo uprights & mounting 2 guns engaged my attention. Took a picture of the same. Detachments of the 51st Iowa, & Battery B. 1st California Heavy Artillery are stationed at this point which commands the causeway* (*Note: This causeway is called the Isthmus of Dalahican.) leading to Cavite Viejo (old C.) & the main land of Luzon Island. Private Frank Tarr, a Christian, who accompanied me on my rounds, Geo. Baker wanted to visit the San Roque Roman Catholic cemetery, because he heard bones were thrown out of graves & he had never seen anything like that. The 3 of us cut thro’ the forest to the cemetery. Visited unburnt native shacks & the burnt ones too en route. In San Roque under a verandah Baker showed me a wretched Filipino man, covered with syphaletic sores; a pitiable case. He gave him 10 cts Mex. & I 04. Tried to teach the poor creature to pray to Jesus.

When we entered the arched entrance to the San Roque cemetery we saw a box made in imitation of a coffin of box lumber. A sling was around it. Evidently the same had been brought out by 2 Filipinos slung to a bamboo pole. While we stood looking at the strange coffin an artillery sergeant –Ernest Koenig– hastened out of the cemetery & warned us to beware of the corpse as it was that of a 2 year old child who had died of small pox, in a casco down in the navy yard at Cavite. One Filipino was busy digging a shallow grave in the coarse black sea sand. With the sand he threw up the bones of other dead humans. Leaving the funeral party we went into the mortuary chapel. Confusion certainly struck this place since the war began. Boxes of bones had been dug up all over the floor & the remains scattered over the same. On either side of the altar at the back end were 2 tiers of tombs probably for priests. The tombs were open. A coffin containing a mummified priest dressed in a long drown robe was dragged out and dropped on the floor. The wood coffin broke open & the priest lay partly in & partly out, his hip bone got disjointed by the fall probably & broke thro’ his parchment-like skin, a ghostly, loathsome sight. The alter with its crucifix was a wreck & moved from its place. Between it & the wall was a litter of garments & smashed odds & ends. While engaged contemplating this scene, Sergeant Koenig entered the chapel & inquired if I would not hold some kind of service over the grave. Certainly! Taking our stand on the windward side of the little grave, the 2 Filipino men, holding one each end of the coffin, with Sergt Koenig & privates Geo. Baker & Frank Tarr as witnesses I consigned to mother earth the remains of little Damasa Garcia. While lowering the coffin of his child into the grave the poor father wept. It was a touching scene.

After the burial, we passed thro’ a back gate into a yard where were heaps of bones. Indeed they are everywhere under & on top of ground in this cemetery. A row of skulls from the limb of a tree faces the front gate, & outside the wall one surmounts a pole as if put there in derision. The very atmosphere of this horrible cemetery seemed to be saturated with death.

Returning to Cavite, just outside the city gate where the American sentries are stationed I met Corporal Jack Fitzpatrick of A Batter 1st California Heavy Artillery. He presented me with a small Spanish Flag, which he secured at the burning of San Roque.

Having nothing to eat since breakfast save some roasted peanuts purchased at a Filipino store, & some tamarinds picked up under a treet by the roadside, Private Geo. Baker conducted me to a Chinese restaurant on Calle Real & treated me to a cup of coffee & a piece of apple pie. I took the 4 p.m. ferryboat to Manila.

x x x x x

Walked from the ferry back to No. 2 Calle Santa Elena –my domicile. On Calle de Jolo I overtook a party of Americans. Brother A.W. Prautch and wife and Bishop Jas. M. Thoburn of India & the latter’s private secretary –a young man. Mr. Prautch introduced me to the Bishop. We exchanged a few words. The party were looking for Rev. Owens, so we came up to our residence.

After my return home cooked supper & washed dishes.

Rev. Owens brought word that Capt. D. Elliott of the 20th Kansas Vol. Inf. was killed today –shot with a brass bullet by the Insurrectos. I was very much surprised at the Captain’s sudden death & yet such things are to be expected in time of war. This captain if I mistake not, is the one who was in charge of Co. G. the night I stayed in No. 2 blockhouse, near the Caloocan battlefield, back of Binondo cemetery.

Thursday 2-23-99

The ins. threw out a strong skirmish line –200 yds in front, last night– but we set with our rifles in hand all night. Only a few shots fired & it is tho’t to have been a trap to lure us in and ambush. today has been quiet so far –3 p.m. We strengthened our position and the bait, cut loose occasionally at the church and ridges to s. Heavy firing on lft. back towards Manila. Manila is burning –& the atmosphere is heavy with smoke. Chinese quarter was burned last night & today. Cooler with a slight shower. Paco in ashes –Senora sent me a note –she is safe. took the note 13 days to reach me. Detailed with scouts tonight. Rested them at 9 p.m. Could hear the filips talk & cough. In such places you can hear the heart beat. They came to spring for H²O. Withdrew scouts at 9 a.m.