Sunday, Apr. 9th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Forenoon clean, afternoon short period of shower.

Bible reading & prayers, cooked breakfast, partook thereof, washed the dishes, picked out songs & a bible lesson – Rev. xx. – then discovered by making inquiry of a sentry across the street from No. 2 that it was 10.10 a.m. Prayed God to bless the services; then started out on foot up Paseo Azcarraga for Bilibid. Arrived whiled Lieut. Wolf Provost Sergeant Ryan and another man were inspecting the prison. I sat down on a low stone wall in front of the Sergeant’s quarter in the center of the prison yard under some shade trees, until they finished. The Sergeant then marched quite a long possesion of military prisoners, 2 abreast, to my place. The men ranged themselves on the stone wall, steps & some stood. I stand likewise. Brought with me Trestle Glen (California) Camp Meeting song books. Passed them to the prisoners. They helped me sing. I prayed twice, led the singing, read the Scriptures and urged the men in a brief address to repent of a sin, seek Christ for pardon of past transgressions & after a change of disposition thro’ the power of Jesus to serve Him faithfully. My time was limited so had to cut every thing short. No one professed conversion. Audience including soldiers about 40. Filipino convicts peered thro’ the bars of their windows & watched us with curious eyes. I walked back home rejoicing because so many men came out – about half the military prisoners. Held no service with the civil (white) prisoners.

Spent considerable time after my dinner of peach pie & lemonade reading. I expected Private Haslem of the 1st Colorado Vol. Inf. but he did not come.

Private Clayton Scott, mounted quartermaster’s orderly, rode up to No. 2 late in the afternoon. After conversation, he & I repaired to the “Old Folks at Home” restaurant down in San Nicolas district (run by a negro man & woman) for supper which Scott paid for. Scott’s brother is en route home – unsaved.

After dark heard shots fired in rapid succession in our neighborhood. Don’t know what the trouble was. Rev. Owens is talking of returning home on a transport.

Gave 4 New Testament to the military prisoners.


Saturday, April 1st, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

We are now tackling another month. Time flies fast. Since my disembarkation on the Philippines have been kept very busy. Started the day with Bible reading, Exodus and Psalms, then prayer; next breakfast & cleaning up. Gave myself to writing & added 8 pages more MS to my narrative of Philippine experiences for the War Cry.

Private Clayton Scott, mounted quartermaster’s orderly rode around to my domicile. A spiritual talk was a feature of the call which ended with prayer. His brother Alfred is going home. Is in a spiritual condition – unsatisfactory Clayton cannot assist me tomorrow; is kept too busy.

The Utah Light artilleryman who brought me back numbers of the “Freedom” yesterday brought me the remainder today which gives me a complete set with the exception of No. 4 edition. Re American soldier publications issued since the occupation of Manila by the American, I have full sets excepting a few missing copies of “American” (daily) “American Soldier”, (weekly) “Times”, (daily) “Uncle Sam & New Orient”, “Freedom”, “Soldiers Letter”. Have also almost a set of “La Independencia” (Aguinaldo’s official organ) & many copies of “La Republica Filipino” & other prints.

Called at the post office this afternoon & purchased supplies for my table from a Filipino girl & a Spanish firm. During the day dealt with several men about their souls salvation – one of them a 23d Infantry (regular) soldier. Been on a drunk long time; wants to change for the better; showed him where I reside, had to go on guard; promised to call & make a start for a better life tomorrow at 3 p.m. God grant it.

Rev. & Mrs. Owens accompanied Capt. & Miss Morrison of Plainfield N. Jersey, out on Manila Bay. They expect to remain on a ship overnight. The Owens are dissatisfied & want to return to Washington state as soon as they can get their fare. They think their advent premature on the Philippine Islands. Their fare out & support have cost probably all of $1,000 U.S. coin, and the end is not yet.

I read a translation today from “La Republica Filipina” printed since hostilities commenced. According to that trustworthy paper the Americans & having a terrible time of it; they couldn’t last much longer the way the Filipino terrors are handling them.

Saturday, March 25th, 1899

Caloocan, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo

Sky cloudy but weather hot & oppressive. My overshirt was wet with perspiration. Tonight I am tired; don’t feel like writing.

Bible reading, prayer, breakfast –cooked & eaten– then leaving my dishes for “Muchacho”, the Filipino servant boy to wash. I took my Kodak & umbrella & walked over to the Dagupan railroad depot to catch the 9. o’clock train. I waited in the depot with a party of soldiers & civilians until 9.45 o’clock a.m. when a mixed passenger & freight rolled in from Pasig quay near the Port Captain’s office. Without asking leave of anybody I jumped into a box car with some U.S. troops. The floor & wall in places with fresh wet blood, from wounded men. At daylight this morning a combined advance movement was made all along the line. While Bible reading in my bedroom this morning I heard firing at the front. The work of death commenced early. A company of soldiers came out on the train. Going over to the bluff back of the post office overling Dagatdagalono bay from whence a fair view was had of Malibon [Malabon]. Heard constant firing over there but could see nothing. Went over to the temporary fort back of the cemetery & watched Section 2, Battery A. Utah Artillery put some shots into Malibon [Malabon], The 2 guns face the causeway. Here a German –photographer, Peter Dutkewich* [*See page 239 re Private Julius Kuester], of No. 15 Plaza Santa Ana, Manila, joined me. He is taking pictures for G.M. Davis, No. 21, Washington St., New York. for public sale, stereopticon views & newspapers. This was the German’s first trip on the battlefield & was hard on him –the heat & work. An Englishman had joined me before. Together we visited the Filipino trenches, abandoned this morning. Found piles of empty catridge shells in the holes under the thatched roofs covering the holes. What a quantity of lead was shot at our men! Followed these trenches about one mile. No dead in them, but back I counted about 8 dead Filipinos. One I saw with brains oozing out of his head. Photographed the corpse.

By the roadside saw the dead body (alone & deserted) of Private Thompson, K. battery 3d Reg’t Heavy Artillery, lying in the shade behind a clump of tall bamboos. His neck & face were purple. Ants were attacking Thompson’s face.

Down in the forest North west of La Loma cemetery I separated from my 2 companions. German returned to the city. Pushed on alone north by a forest road. Came to 2 dead American soldiers –a lone sentry stood guard over them. In a bamboo & nipa shack (village of Balintaoag) [Balintawak] opposite the old ruined stoned church I saw a Filipino man stretched out wounded in the hand & leg. Asked me in Spanish for some “chow”. Gave him boiled rice. Then rustled around the houses near by & in water jars managed to get a little water, which I fetched him. Not wishing to have the poor fellow lie there & perhaps be burnt with the hut, seeing a book lying on a table, hastily tore a double leaf, meteorlogical report out & on the back wrote with a lead pencil:

“Attention There is a wounded Filipino in this house Take him to town. Milsaps.” Hung this paper under the eve of the hut facing the road & went on. Here Bro. Arthur Temple of the 2d Reserve Hospital (Salvationist of No. 1 corps San Francisco) came up with me. He was driving 4 ponies hitched to a hospital ambulance, going out to the fighting line. Climbing on to the back end of the vehicle I accompanied the 3 men to the road –& a rough road it is– about one mile. They halted for orders & I pushed on afoot. Ober in the forest to the left –bay side– came the sounds of a battle or engagement. In an open plain between the first line of forest & the 2nd line skirting the Tuliaha [Tuliahan] o Taasá (probably) river, I saw a picture of more than usual interest –a mass of army teams– mules drawing covered wagons, cavalry, Chinese, with arms & in U.S. soldiers uniforms, carabao carts, & in infantry guarding the same. This mass of men & animals stretching out perhaps a half mile long was halted awaiting orders. They stood there, the teams, loaded with commissary supplies, ammunition & baggage. A grand spectacle of war. Halfway down the line, 2 soldiers grimy and black, were sitting on the ground making dinner of jelly, bread & water –the latter tepid, out of a canteen. Asked me to share their meal. Did so gladly as I had nothing to eat since morning it was now about 2.45 p.m. Retraced my steps back. Near the rear of the train saw Chaplain (Father) McKinnon, of the 1st California vol. Inf. We shook hands. I remarked “I see most of your regiment has gone south?” (Negros & Panay Islands) Replied “Yes they have about left me all alone.”

Mr. Peters (artist) was also there. We exchanged a few words. Knew each other on the S.S. “Newport.”

I should state before going further with my narrative that crossing the battlefield from Caloocan to the northwest forest (from La Loma) came up to a party of soldiers & 2 Chinese in the shade of trees by the roadside. The Chinese weak, puny fellows, gave out. Chinese are employed largely to carry wounded men on stretchers. One of the two was lying asleep on the ground –completely used up. A wounded soldier, Private Julius Kuester* [*See page 235 re Peter Dutkewich, photographer], Battery K. 3d Reg’t Art’y., was stretched on the littler, with a bullet hole thro’ one leg, the stretcher was saturated with his blood. Spoke to him about Salvation & called his attention to advice given him on that line before. Acknowledged the advice, but excused himself when advised to seek Jesus. Some strong Chinese came along. They were made to take Kuester to Caloocan.

When I got back to where Bro. Temple was left beind, found him still waiting orders. While in conversation another Salvationist drove up with a 2 horse wagon, Brother Peter Shipper of the Engineer corps. Came in from Tuliaha [Tuliahan] o Taasá river, where a party of Engineers are throwing a bridge across the stream. Shipper had a lot of S.F. War Crys under his wagon seat. Gave me 3 Washington Crys. I passed some on to Temple. Shipper said some one at Headquarters (.S.F.) send him big packages of S.F. Crys. Which he distributes. For some reason unknown to me, I only get 3 copies now. Mistake somewhere; I am glad to learn that Shipper puts them in circulation. Mounting the seat by his side after bidding Temple good-bye, we drove back across the morning’s battlefield into Caloocan. In answer to questions Shipper said he is getting along well in his soul. Praise God. Seeing a big pile of Springfield rifles cartridges by the roadside, hundreds of them, we stopped & threw them in the wagon for the U.S. Army to have the benefit when needed for use. On the battlefield near the spot where Thompson’s dead body lay, we also saw a copy of the S.F. War Cry, Washington number (1899) by the roadside. Left it there for a soldier to pick up.

Arriving at Caloocan R.R. depot I said good-bye to Peter Shipper (gave him spiritual advice) & lo met a 3d Salvationist on the depot –Bro. Geo. Schurmerhorn of Co. D. 2d Oregon Vol. Inf. Has had a hot time today. Detailed to take ammunition to his regiment at the front. Related to me that the Filipinos tried to get him but did not succeed. God care’s for His own, blessed be His holy name.

Scenes of blood met my sight at the depot. Nine dead Americans were taken out of a room & laid in a row on green grass or hay just cut, in a box car. Railroad depot blanks littered the floor, & were sprinkled & smeared with blood. In the depot waiting room, one American lay on the floor. An attendant sat at his head fanning him. On a table lay another. A surgeon & attendants were dressing his wounds. He would cry out with pain. A basin of bloody water the surgeon used.

Gave Bro. Schurmerhorn words of comfort & admonition, we parted, he for the front, & I for Manila. I got into a compartment passenger car with soldiers & civilians, & about 5 p.m. arrived in Manila down near the Port Captain’s office. No one asked me to show my pass today.

Reached home tired & hungry & hot. Found a letter awaiting me on the parlor table which read as follows:

“Major Milsaps: I thought that I would run up and see you. It is the same old story. I have been gambling and I am so tired of it and hate it, but yet I cannoy get the power that I need so much. Major I (ask) you to pray for me, that the Lord Jesus may forgive and bring me back to him, for I have been very unhappy. If we do not go up or out to the line tomorrow, I will come up, but I shall try and make one more fight to overcome the devil.

Edward Stockton, Com. H. 1st Colorado.”

May God save poor Stockton, amen.

I turned to and cooked supper, very tired.

While eating thereof Private Clayton Scott, mounted Q.M. orderly dropped in. Said he will busy tonight & tomorrow. Went out & pressed into U.S. service 50 carabao carts & drivers today. Lost his temper while so doing, but God forgave him.

The battle today has been hard on our men. This evening’s train brought back 12 dead American soldiers. Many have been killed & wounded. We look for another fight & capture of Malibon [Malabon] tomorrow.


Tuesday, March 21st, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Clean day; generally hot; occasional cool breeze. Bible reading, prayer, cooking, breakfast & dish washing. Gave some time to reading.

About the dinner hour Albert Scott Co. D, 1st North Dakota vol. inf. called with a cigar in his mouth and acting strangely. Had a long straight talk with him. He confessed that he is on the back track. Returned to his opium smoking habit & uses tobacco. Says he is not backslidden. I take but little stock in such talk. Scott is unstable. This Scott is quite a different character in contrast to his brother Clayton who is a humble, zealous, spiritually minded Salvationist. May God give us many more such men, amen. Albert went away for a short time & presently returned with a box of sardines, some buns and 2 bottles of soda water. Made dinner of the same & caused me to share the same. After counseling him faithfully to get Christ to restore him, then to give up opium & tobacco & serve the Lord faithfully, I prayed with him before we parted. Requested him to pray but he refused. Scott is getting deaf. Expects to return to the United States in a short time. Has been discharged from Bilibid. I dared hope he would be a bright trophy of the saving power of Christ, but alas for hope in Scott’s case I have been disappointed. The fault is all his own.

When Scott left I went down to the post office. No mail.

The daily “American” is an uncertain quantity. I am supposed to receive it daily, but the clerk at the delivery window this p.m. said I get it “semi-occasionally.”

Returned home late & cooked supper. While in the kitchen, Private Geo. Schumerhorn of Co. D. 2d Oregon vol. inf. dropped in. His regiment is in fresh from the front. It formed part of the flying brigade –the right wing that did the fighting recently over at the town of Pasig & adjacent towns near Laguna de Bay. The Filipinos have disappeared from their & the regiment returned to the city. At present there is a lull in hostilities, but something decisive is likely to be done soon after the arrival of the reinforcements en route.

The Lord kept Bro. Schumerhorn saved in soul & safe in body.

Bro. S. brought sad news back. James Page, of Co. D. 2d Oregon vol. inf., was shot in the head & killed last Sunday by the Filipinos. Page was a backslidden Salvationist, hailing from La Grande, Oregon. Schumerhorn tried to persuade him to attend the Salvation Army meetings in No. 2 but failed. His opportunity on that line is forever past. It must be an exceedingly terrible thing to die a backslider.

Before Schumerhorn returned to his quarters himself, the writer & Rev. Owens prayed together in my bedroom.

I wrote & copied a leter to Ensign V. Post, 1139 Market St. San Francisco, acknowledging receipt of copying books, films, etc.

The battleship “Oregon” is in port. She arrived .     .

Rev. Owens said thro’ the authority of Capt. Morrison of the ship “Vigilant” (now sunk in Manila bay) that the “Iowa” and “Texas” are also bound for this port. News of deep import if true, Morrison brought, which Consul Williams told him; viz., that Russia, Germany and France have formed a coalition against England. This union of the three great powers it is surmised will in some way affect the United States. The local newspapers have nothing to say of this important event. The military authorities exercise a strict censorship over the newspapers of Manila.

Sunday, Mar. 19th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Sky quite clear and weather warm.

Reading in Exodus, prayer & then cooked breakfast. Dishes washed my next thought was to get a Bible lesson for the military prisoners incarcerated in Bilibid. Walked down the broad street, Paseo Azcarraga, to the prison. The sentries passed me in without difficulty & I was given the liberty of the place as it were. Arrived about 11 o’clock & passed about 30 minutes looking for Provost Sergeant M. Ryan. When I found him he unlocked 2 wards & announced my meeting in four, including the bakery. I had an audience of about 15, which included the sentries. The prisoners seated themselves in the abutting stone foundations of the first right hand building as one enters Bilibid from the main iron gate. Handed them California (S.A.) camp meeting Song Books & the prisoners (American) helped me to sing. The praying (twice) Bible reading and exhortation fell to me without aid. At the close I put a vote to the men to hold up their hand if they wanted me to come again next Sunday. Every man held up a hand.

One prisoner, a backslider, asked me to pray for him. Said this is his first experience behind the bars. Has been praying & claimed to have returned to Christ since his incarceration. To God be the glory.

Spoke to Lieut. Geo. Wolf & also Major Bean re a pass to come in (myself) & for others in case an alternate should be needed to take my place, when I go elsewhere to hold a service on Sunday. The Major replied that none is necessary.

This forenoon before going Private Clayton Scott called. He longed to be free to accompany me. He was out hunting caraboa [carabao] carts & drivers to do transportation work for the U.S. Quartermaster Dep’t. Took a little time to drop in and see me. We had prayer & conversation together.

During the afternoon glanced over a pile of Washington D.C. & New York secular papers sent me by an unknown party. Cooked supper, washed dishes and then turned to write some copy for the San Francisco War Cry as per request of Lieut-Col. Wm Evans. Wrote 5 pages MS. under the subjoined sub-heads: “Keeping Early Hours,” “With the Fifty-First” (Iowa Vol. Inf) “Prepared for a Siege” and “In Prison.”

This day has been unusually quiet. No sound of fighting at the front, and no fires. Night closes in quiet.

Wednesday, March 8th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo Dist.

As usual after morning ablutions, read Scripture –chapter in Exodus– & communion with my precious Creator. To such thrice blessed souls as have had a revelation of God in His “new best name of Love” He is precious. Cooked breakfast washed dishes took dinner late with Rev. & Mrs. Owens & made supper of dry bread & lemonade.

Such is batching in Manila.

Remained at home all day; only went as far as the Cuartel Meisig to purchase a loaf of bread.

Wrote & copied 3 letters (1) Lt-Col Wm Evans, sending him 7¼ pages Ms. copy for S.F. War Cry –narrative of Philippine experiences. Subheads: “Fort Rice”, “A Mummy”, “Damasa Garcia” & “Wild Boys.” Sent him 7 Kodak views taken by myself, to illustrate the same.

Time seems to fly remarkably fast. Days go by & I wonder what has been accomplished. (2) Lt-Col. Alice Lewis, New York, 18th weekly letter. (3) Wm Eletson on Flagship “Olympia.” Encouraging him on spiritual lines, asking movements of the flagship’s launches with a view to trying again to hold a service aboard & also asked names of commanding officers of the vessels.

Private Clayton Scott came in this evening. Sent the letter to the post office, also a bundle of mixed War Crys for the “Olympia” & H.M.S. “Narcissus” –British. Prayed with Scott. Said his brother will probably be released from Bilibid prison today & tomorrow.

At the Utah bakery a Utah artilleryman said a big advance will be made tomorrow by American troops. Lying in trenches is growing monotonous to the men, when rain commences will be very disagreeable.

General Order No. 6 –issued by Major General Otis is quite an inconvenience to such as I who desire to conduct evening services. The second & last paragraph reads as follows:

“2. Until otherwise ordered the inhabitants of Manila will confine themselves to their homes after 7 in the evening & at that hour the streets will be cleared by the police. Very active demonstrations will be made against incendiaries or suspected incendiaries who are discovered in any locality of the city.

By command of Major General Otis.

Thomas H. Barry, Asst’g Adj. Gen’l.”

The war so far has not been destructive to American life seriously. The “Times” of 7th March reports: Total dead in field and hospital, 87; total wounded brought in, 247. Total dead & wounded brought in 334. Cases of exhaustion since returned to duty 22; wounded men returned to duty, 58. God has favored the American cause, praise His name.

President McKinley by proclamation restored property of Cortes family, No. 17 Calle Gandara where I first resided in Manila, was the city residence of Senor Maximo Cortes.


Tuesday, Feb. 14, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Our troops are now taking a respite from the tempest. The Idaho regiment returned to town for a rest. Other regiments are giving soldiers passes –that is, a few. The city looks very dull, and business very quiet. The streets are quite deserted.

Got up early this morning. Prayed over Scripture. God the Holy Ghost blessed me in my soul last night by abroad in my soul. His precious love. Praise to His dear name forever. Amen.

Cloudy weather & comparatively cool for this climate. Visitors 3. Brothers Rev. Oden & Lloyd came in from the front with their guns. The troops are required to carry arms as we are living just now in troublous times. Brother Clayton Scott called, having just been dismissed from the General Hospital. I treated Oden & Lloyd to lemonade & Scott to a lunch of lemonade & pie/ Prayed with my comrades.

Visited the post office. Rec’d a letter from Peter Kirkwood, Johannesburg, South Africa. Read some of my write-up of Philippine experiences.

Got shaved in a Spanish barber shop. Saw an extra there issued by “Freedom” announcing surrender of Iloilo to the Americans last Saturday, & that Aguinaldo has “thrown up the sponge” –run away.

Put in considerable time writing for the San Francisco War Cry; narrative of affairs down here.

The supposition that Major General Otis is awaiting the arrival of reinforcements from the U.S. before pushing the war.

Friday, February 10th, 1899

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

It is late in the afternoon. The Utah Light Artillery guards have half closed the double doors of their commissary warehouse; a very unusual proceeding. The Spanish men –2 of them– on the lower floor of No. 2 Call Santa Elena have come up stairs again. They are apprehensive of danger. The old Señora down stairs also excitedly drew her hand across her throat signifying what is expected. Word has been sent to the American military guards to look out for an uprising of Filipinos. With a telescope loaned me by one of the Spaniards I saw a few minutes ago the two towers of Tondo Roman Catholic church full of American troops. The heavy, barred gates of our basement have been closed on the street side. The streets of Manila are look deserted. During an hour the heavy roar of great guns from Dewey’s fleet has been heard here in our house bombarding either Caloocan or Malibon [Malabon]. Aguinaldo is massing his troops at Malibon [Malabon] and a decisive battle is expected.

I feel very sleepy. Captain A. Jensen of Co. E., 1st Montana vol. inf. found me sleeping or rather lying down on the ground among his men in the Spanish blockhouse* (*Blockhouse No. 2). He instructed a sergeant to make me get up & go to another part of the fort. Kept my clothes on & sat up almost all night with the noise of shooting to help keep my eyes open. Hines said the men of Co. E. did not like the way I was treated by their Captain. Says he has been drunk the last two or three days.

After breakfast Private D. Hines & I walked down the lines to almost the end of our left wing in the forest skirting the railroad where so much fighting has been done of late. The Americans 20th Kansas vol. inf. have constructed trenhes & rifle pits & are still at work. The Filipinos attacked our troops last night. While we were in the forest sharpshooters were still pegging away. A bullet came unpleasantly near to us.

Desiring sleep & feeling the need of recuperating I gathered up my belongings and struck out for home on foot. A long, hot, dusty walk. Arrived at home at last glad to be back. Civilians are not usually welcome in a military camp when war is in progress. They do no good (from a military standpoint) & may do much harm.

4.40 p.m. The sound of cannon is still heard in the distance. Rev. & Mrs. Owens treated me to dinner — ham & cabbage. Mighty glad to get it.

Private Clayton Scott called this p.m. from General Hospital. Had conversation & prayer. He took back with him 30 War Crys –San Francisco– for distribution among the patients of thew General Hospital viz. 10 No. 575, 10 No. 576 & 10 No. 577. Later Private Sam Jenson, Co. I, 1st Washington Vol. Inf. also called to see me. Had conversation & prayer together, Bro. Geo. Turner of the Ecclesia mission joined. (This brother during my first night’s absence at the front brough his family into No. 2. Came for safety. Some one warned him that he & his family were marked for death by the Filipinos.) Private Jenson donated $10. gold to the S.A. work; praise God. By Bro. J. I sent for free distribution to the Washington troops San Francisco War Crys: 10 no. 575, 9 no. 576 & 10 no. 577.

Rev. Owens who was out near the front returned this evening from near the front. The enemy has been driven back –charged. Dense clouds of smoke I saw rising heavenward was caused by the burning of Caloocan. I expect to go out to the front again tomorrow. Rushed down town at 6 p.m. & purchased some groceries. Wrote & copied a letter (my 14th weekly) to Lieut-Col. Alice Lewis, New York.


Thursday, Feb. 9th, 1899

Caloocan Battlefield — Entry made in stone fort* (*Blockhouse No. 2 at La Loma) early in the morning of February 10th.

Am sleepy this morning. Was kept awake the entire night. Stayed with Co. E* (*Note. Capt. A. Jensen in command) 1st Montana vol. inf. in the stone fort (Blockhouse No. 2) on the hill. Yesterday or rather today commenced the day with bible reading & prayers. Felt refreshed by the night’s sleep in No. 2. Living on half rations and loss of sleep is pulling me down considerably. After cooking breakfast took a bath which refreshed me considerably. Went down town. Called at the post office & rec’d 3 letters. (1) from Chaplain Stephen R. Wood of the 23rd U.S. Infantry, who sent me a printed bulletin advertising me to lead the Wednesday evening (Feb. 8th) services in place of the Y.M.C.A. meeting but he explained that the regiment had been suddenly called into action, so the meeting failed to materialize as the place was turned into a prison. (2) Ensign Jackson, HongKong who acknowledged receipt of the $5. donation I sent her. Wrote that she needed it. Was taken sick and came near dying. (3) Eli Higgins, Niagara Falls, N.Y. an old friend. I answered Chaplain Woods’ letter immediately.

When in town I got shaved in a Spanish barber shop; also called at the General or Brigade Hospital to see Private Clayton Scott. He is up again & getting well. Advised him to do as much work for Jesus as possible among the patients. From town returned home, took a bite to eat, bundled up some things & struck out afoot for the Caloocan battlefield. While trudging out Dulumbayan street through the dust and sun heat, a couple of Utah light artillery men overtook me. They were taking mail out to their comrades in a carromata. Invited me to ride out. I gladly accepted the invitation. Arrived on the battlefield about 4 p.m. Put my luggage in the stone fort. Private D.C. Hines fished me up a soldier’s kit & some supper from the company (E.) cook. After supper Hines & I went down the battle line. The men are about in the same place, but have constructed trenches. Encouraged some of the Christian soldiers to remain true to Christ.

Returned to the stone fort (Blockhouse No. 2), spread our blankets on the ground & lay down with the intention of sleeping but did not sleep all night. About 10 o’clock p.m. firing started up in the forest over on our left wing & with slight intermissions had continued until daybreak. The outposts over on our right fired at real or imagined foes. I could hear them cry out “Pennsylvania outpost” in the darkness probably to let their comrades know their whereabouts so as not to fire on them. Company E. 1st Montana lined up (some) behind the fort walls at the portholes & others went outside into the rifle pit. They fired one volley. A bullet presumably from the enemy struck our corrugated iron roof with a bang.

An officer* (*Note. Captain Andrew Jensen) of Co. E. ordered a sergeant to make me get up and change my bed. Would not permit any of his men to sleep.

The sun is now up but an occasional shot still rings across the battlefield. Brother Lloyd has just brought me some fried pork, boiled potatoes and coffee so I must discontinue this entry and pay my respects to soldiers’ rations. The men are cross this morning because robbed of sleep.