Friday, April 14th, 1899

Got up at 5 a.m. and after eating Breakfast we broke Camp and took all our Stuff to the depot a 9 am we all boarded the train and started for Manila ariving there about noon we then boarded 6 lighters wich towed us over to Cavite we then went into Barracks located by the Ioways while crossing the Bay we seen the T.S. Sheridan from New York with troops aboard her we also passed Manaduok Monteray and Oregon and the Olympia. I slept all Night in the Navy Yard wich is patroled by Dewys Marines our Quarters are the best we ever had the Ioways are still ocupying some of them until the nesct morning

Got up at 5:00 a.m. and, after eating breakfast, we broke camp and took all of our stuff to the depot. At 9:00 a.m. we all boarded the train and started for Manila arriving there about noon. We then boarded six lighters which which towed us over to Cavite. We then went into barracks located by the Iowans. While crossing the bay we saw the T.S. Sheridan from New York with troops aboard her. We also passed the Montauk, the Monterey, the Oregon and the Olympia. I slept all night in the Navy yard which is patrolled by Dewey’s Marines. Our quarters are the best we ever had. The Iowans are still occupying some of them until the next morning.

Sunday, November 27th, 1898

Cavite, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Weather comparatively cool – Heavy clouds but no rain to amount to anything.

Up early. Prayed, read bible cooked breakfast, washed dishes. Then hastened down to the ferry – Private Scott with me. He paid the fares to Cavite & back. Arriving there a large steam launch, the “Iona”, came specially to take us out to the monitor “Monterey”. In a short time we were set on the deck of the great war vessel. Capt.        Leutze received no personally; also Lieut. Hughes, officer of the deck. Were very courteous; had the crew to set the seats on the starboard side of the turret containing the two inch rifles – aft. The 2 forward rifles are 12 inch. Had an audience of 30 Officer of the deck brought out silver pitcher of ice water & 2 glasses. After service, a man was detailed to show us about the monitor. Examined the rear turret. Mr. Ed Collins, blacksmith (unsaved, but friendly) was specially kind. Down below found Bert Howlin, who professed to be a Salvationist. He was in double irons – leg shackled, ditto hands. Struck a petty officer. We & he kneeled down & prayed.

We took dinner with the sailors. At one o’clock the “Iona” put us ashore in the arsenal.

Looked for the black hole where Spaniards formerly drowned men. Was said to have been thro’ the floor of the round – top sentry box – brick – right hand corner of fort on the point looking Manilaward below the arsenal. Is bricked up & a Filipino family resides there. The whole fort is filled with them.

On way over to Cavite urged salvation on attention of an engineer.

Returned to Manila on the 2 p.m. opposition ferry boat. Scott paid fares.

Found Dansare, sailor of the U.S.S. “Charleston” waiting for my return. Bought 20 Trestle Glen, Camp Mt’g Song Book to him at 10 cts each. Mex. He joined the Tenth League. Sent by him ot the Charleston for distribution 20 Crys: S.F. – 5, 568; 5, 567; 5, 565; 5, 563.

Sent 11 assorted Crys, same kind to the 2d Oregon Vols.

On the “Monterey” we distributed 5 copies each of the above numbers.

To Private G. Oden of H. Battery, 3d Artillery, I gave for force distribution War Crys (S.F.) 1, 563; 10, 565, 4, 567; 4, 568.

After my return from Cavite cooked supper. Privates Hines and Scott took supper with me.

Visitors, 25 today at No. 2.

About 7 o’clock p.m. soldiers came in from various regiments & batteries, numbering 23, which was the largest audience we have had up to date at this place. Brother Schurmerhorn, a new recruit who just came from the U.S. to join the 2d Oregon Vol. Inf. last Thursday, brought some other 2d Oregon men. Sergeant Coltner could have (or ought) to have done so long ago) but he always had an excuse not to come & was conspicuous by his absence again. Salvationists of this character generally finish up by backsliding.

Some of the boys are beginning to talk of wanting to become bona fide Salvationists.

Rumors are going the rounds that several commands are marked for Iloilo in the islands of Panay. I have a desire to accompany the first crowd down to remain a short time.

God is my portion; He is very good to me.

Wednesday, November 23d, 1898

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Days are cool now, but a little exertion makes underwear wet with a cold perspiration.

Remained at home during the forenoon reading and writing, after cooking breakfast. Wrote a letter to Capt. Leutze stating (D.V.) I will lead a service on the “Monterey” next Sabbat. Mailed the letter.

After dinner started out with Rev. & Mrs. Owens. Visited post office first where I rec’d quite an important mail. Capt. Dyer of the “Baltimore” wrote that I can hold service among Sunday during forenoons but not on Thanksgiving day. Will put boats at my disposal at Cavite arsenal.

80 copies War Crys (S.F.) No. 568, Oct. 15th ’98 came.

Visitors today at No. 2, 10.

Got shaved in a Spanish barber shop on the Escolta.

With the Owens’ visited Old Manila to search for the notorious Black Hole in the Old Citadel. The 23d U.S. Infantry are now quartered there. Is a remarkable pile. On the Pasig river at the intersection of the passage into the Bay behind the Sea wall at the point where the moat surrounding the walls begin. A half circular bastion projects into the river. A sentry box surmounts the same. This was pointed out to me as the place in which is the horrible dungeon. We went on top of it & found 2 wooden trap doors but could not raise them to look in. U.S. officers when questioned one in particular said the dungeon is in the powder magazine, but is now filled with masonry & covered with ammunition. The answer was not satisfactory. Must try again.

Saw Mr. McCullough at the Palace. My receipts are not ready yet. Not quite satisfactory.

Utah battery men put caisons in the house across from No. 2. Rumor says they go south to Yloilo.

The “Senator” & “Valencia” arrived bringing reinforcements night before last.

Clayton Scott’s brother bought me a gift of bananas & oranges. One family of mestizos or Spaniards in the room below us came up after the soldiers went away & asked for bread. I gave them bananas & oranges & Mrs. Owens gave bread.

The mail brought me a commission signed by General Booth promoting me to the rank of major. This came thro’ Staff Captain Fenis of the Legal Dept., New York. I have another signed by the Booth – Tucker’s. Can’t understand why a second has been sent me. The Booth’s act queer sometimes.

Picking up the Chicago Ill. “Tribune” of    I read that Colonel & Mrs. Keppel took part in a council of “American Volunteers” in Chicago. Wonder if they have left the S.A.

Apropos of the commission or promotion to major which arrived today, will say, I was called by telegram from Philadelphia, will say, I was called by telegram from Philadelphia. Pa., to New York City, Thursday May 28th 1896, & in the Consul’s (Booth-Tucker) office was verbally promoted by her to the rank of major. (See diary for 1896) December 1st 1897 a commission was made out for me signed by Commander F. de Lautaur Booth-Tucker; and now for the same promotion comes another commission signed by Gen. Wm Booth, bearing the date: Sept. 1st 1898.

Monday, November 21st, 1898

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Clean day; slight drizzle early part of forenoon. Took breakfast with the Owens. By 9 o’ clock Bro. Lloyd called with a “vis-à-vis” to take the Owens & myself out to Paco cemetery to witness the disinterment of the dead. We saw the dirt & mold in tombs raked over & the bones collected. The same to be thrown into the receptacle back of the mortuary chapel.

Wrote 2 letters & copied them (1) Nagerb Hashim, stating that I stayed at his place No. 17 Calle Gandara, 19 days: can make it 20 in his changes; (2) to Capt. M. Dyer, asking the priviledge of holding a service Thanksgiving Day as his vessel –“Baltimore”.

Spent part of the afternoon reading purposes & a magazine. Am watching closely the drift of events, particularly as they affect the Philippines. Rumors are plentiful. News is out that the Utah battery, Colorados & the Engineers are going South.

Rec’d a letter Capt. Leutze granting permission to hold a service in the Monitor “Monterey” next Sabbath. Praise God.

Visitors 7.

Gave Private Myron Stearns for free distribution among companies E.B. H & G of the First Nebraska Inf. War Crys; No. 565 (6 copies) Sept. 24th: No. 566, 15 copies, Oct. 1st; 11 copies No. 567 Oct. 18th Stearns donated me 50 cts. Mexican for the work.

Breakfasted with the Rev. & Mrs. Owens; made my dinner of gayara jelly, bread & lemonade & supper of cornmeal mush, friend bacon & lemonade.

Am weary & sleepy tonight.

The Holy Ghost blessed me in my soul last night & the preceding night, praise His name forever.

Prayed with the soldiers who gathered after supper at our reading room.

Prayer & Bible reading was my first occupation today.


Thursday, November 3d, 1898

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Busy day. I would like to study for mental improvement but am kept too fully occupied. First thing after getting out of bed & washing – prayer & bible reading. Cooked breakfast, cornmeal mush, fried bacon & cocoa. Dinner jelly bread & lemonade . Supper cornmeal mush, fried bacon & lemonade. Housework is that cause of so much time being taken from my days.

Visitors at No. 2. 7.

Wrote & copied 5 letters; 3 to notify Hawaiian officers that Philippines belong to Australasian Division so American officers will not be necessary. Letters (2) to D.O. (2) Rosie Young, (3) Maud Sharp (4) Letter to Brig. leutz New York notifying her of Comd’t H. Booths letter & requesting her to learn if Consul and Com. Booth-Tucker sanctions me making a tour in Australia & writing the country up for War Crys. Also sent a letter to Capt. E. H. C. Lentz of U.S.S. “Monterey”. Asking permission to hold service in his vessel bet 10 & 12 next Sabbath. This in place of “Charleston” which sails for a cruise today among the Southern islands of the Archipelago. The newspapers are confirming the reports that the U.S. will keep the Philippines. Praise God.

Called at the post office and U.S. Commissary.

After supper walked over to Place [Plaza] de Phillip II barracks & in the courtyard led a meeting with the artillerymen. 35 present. Private Hines & Lloyd of 1st Montana Infantry testified. No souls forward. Got light from candles in lanterns. Visited Hummer and Amie of H. battery who were in bed unwell. Prayed with & for them.

Weather warm & shower. Caught some fresh water.

Tuesday, November 1st , 1898

Manila, Luzon Island –Entry made in parlor of No. 2 Calle Santa Elena, Tondo.

Sometimes a day comes which stands out from its fellows as a red letter day or day of crisis. The present day give promise of making a radical change in my future. A letter dated September 7th ’98 was received from Commandant Herbert H. Booth who is in command of the Salvation Army in Australia & Oceanica. The Com’dt informs me that I am poaching on his territory, for which he does not blame me, but he is writing London & New York re the matter. Intended to occupy the Islands but hesitated because of Spain having control. The war put a new face on affairs. He now intends to occupy them. Would like me to take charge, but fears New York will never consent to giving me up. However, if the Australasian Division cannot have my services, I must return home via Australia & see the work there & will be a “great hit” for the American War Crys, ask me to write him an exhaustive report re the Philippines – also one for their publications & wants photos. Promises to send a contingent of officers here. Evidently, the archipelago will go under his wing. I commenced writing the report. Did 3 pages.

Called at the port office twice. Another letter of importance came from Deputy Surgeon-General Henry Lippincott, who sent me a written permit to visit the U.S. hospital. Divisional – at all times. To my God be the praise.

The post office clerks furnished at my request the full names of all the captains in Rear Admiral Dewey’s fleet as follows:

“ Olympia” Capt. B. P. Lamberton;

“Boston” Capt. H. Wilds;

“Charleston” Capt. H. Glass;

“Raleigh” Capt. J. B. Coughlan;

“Baltimore” Capt. W. H. Dyer;

“Monadnock” Capt. W. H. Whiting;

“Concord” Capt. Asa Walker;

“Petnel” Capt E. P. Wood;

“Nero” Capt. G. Belknap

“Monterey” Capt. E. H. C. Lentz;

“McCullock” Capt. C. H. Hooper; also

“Brutus,” Capt. V. L. Coltman; “Manila”, Capt. F. Singer; “Callao”, B. Tappan; “Manshan”, Capt. B. W. Hughes.

This list will be of value to me when planning for services on board the main vessels.

Took Bro. Clayton T. Scott’s photo, on horseback. Also gave him for distribution among the Astor battery men, 10 copies No. 557 War Cry (S.F.) July 30th ’98, containing my first published report of Philippine expedition. (20) copies No. 563 Cry, Sept. 10th ’98 printing 2d report. Scott brought me a gift of fresh steak – Australian brought in a refrigerator ship, which was highly relished fried with onion for supper.

Visitors 4.

Spoke to several soldiers on the street personally about Christ & salvation.

Saturday, August 27, 1898

“United States Supremacy Must Be Absolute”

On August 18, Admiral Dewey, through his aide-de-camp, informed his squadron that as a result of the preliminary talks in Paris, Manila would fall under American jurisdiction until a definite treaty would be signed.

A few days later, on the occasion of the farewell visit of a foreign admiral, Admiral Dewey was heard to say, “I am very pleased to have the Monterey and Monadnoch as reinforcement but I am disturbed by these insurgents who are becoming increasingly demanding.” General Merritt totally agreed with him. Nothing is more cumbersome than trying to dislodge a people from their own land. The law instituted by Judge Lynch is by its very nature the only means of extricating his American compatriots from this complicated situation.

On the 21st of August, Aguinaldo sent President McKinley a telegram requesting the representation of the revolutionary government of the Philippines at the Paris Conference. The request went unanswered. And yet, General Merritt, this “gringo” officer who wielded his authority over Manila with such clumsiness, has been designated to participate in this conference. The absence of a Filipino representative clearly proves that the United States intends to push its objectives to the utmost limits.

The Americans are keeping the Philippine capital under the strictest surveillance and unscrupulously maintain that their duty is to govern the entire archipelago. United States supremacy must be absolute.

Sábado 13 de Agosto 1898

Hoy la plaza de Manila se ha rendido a los yanquis. Las primeras horas del día no anunciaban novedad alguna, (…) De repente se ha puesto en movimiento toda la escuadra yanqui. Los Vapores que estaban de guardia han ido á reunirse con los demás y se han dirigido hacia el fortín de S. Antonio. Cuatro barcos grandes que debían de ser el “Olympia”, el “Boston”, el “Raleig” y el “Baltimore” han cañoneado aquel fortín. Luego la han emprendido contra las trincheras perpendiculares á la línea de la playa, jugando el principal papel en el ataque un Cañonero que debía de ser el “Leyte” ó el “Callao”, En medio del cañoneo ha sobrevenido un fuerte chubasco que nada ha estorbado el ataque, A las cinco cuartos de hora de fuego han juzgado los Yanquis que el campo estaría completamente despejado, por lo cual han suspendido el fuego de los barcos empezando á marchar el ejército de tierra en formación hacia Manila. Nuestras tropas agazapadas en las trincheras que aún quedaban, han sorprendido con dos rociadas de balas á los yanquis que entraban con toda seguridad y que se han quedado parados. En esto el “Olympia” y el Monitor “Monterey” se habían colocado frente á Manila, y este último tenía sus cañones de 30^5 centímetros apuntando á la batería de dos cañones de La Luneta, Ha disparado el “Olympia” un cañonazo sobre nuestras trincheras cuyos soldados han recibido luego orden de retirarse mientras sobre las murallas de la Ciudad se levantaba una gran bandera blanca. La plaza, llena como estaba de gente indefensa, no ha hecho fuego sobre los barcos por no atraer sobre sí las balas enemigas. Ha habido parlamentó en el cual parece que los Yanquis se han mostrado generosos en todas las condiciones, con tal que se les entregue la plaza. Los insurrectos han estado á la mira con ánimo de sacar todo el partido posible de nuestra desgracia. La amistad que mostraban estos últimos días, era la simpatía que por el rico moribundo sienten sus domésticos quienes procuran apoderarse de sus riquezas , antes que de fuera venga otro á tomárselas. Un poco antes que los Yanquis han atacado ellos las trincheras y luego han entrado por la brecha que han dejado abierta nuestras tropas al retirarse. La Vanguardia Yanqui que iba á preparar sitio á los demás se ha dirigido al Observatorio…

(..,) hasta las 6 de la tarde se ha visto pasar por las calles de Manila diversos Cuerpos del ejército español que iban á dejar las armas en la fuerza de Santiago. A las seis la bandera española que coronaba esta fortaleza ha sido arriada, siendo izada en su lugar la bandera Yanqui. Los Yanquis que estaban en la fuerza han saludado la bandera con el grito de “urra”  y una banda de música ha tocado el himno nacional delante de la bandera en el paseo entonces solitario de María Cristina (…).

Las trincheras de la parte de Binando y Sta Mesa, continúan defendidas por nuestras tropas mandadas por el GraL Monet y el Coronel Carbó. Hay por aquel lado mucho tiroteo y mañana abandonarán los nuestros aquellas posiciones para que las ocupen los yanquis si les viene en gusto.

Las bajas se calculan en 400 por nuestra parte, y 2,000 por la de los Yanquis. Es probable que estas cifras sean exageradas como de primera impresión (…). Al caer la tarde se ha embarcado con su familia para Hong Kong el General Augustin.

Today the plaza of Manila surrendered to the Yankees. The early hours of the day gave no new signs at all. The Boston was guarding off Parañaque, the Petrel and McCallouch off the mouth of the river. The rest of the squadron was idling off Cavite. It must have been about 9:00 when we saw sailing into the bay a merchant vessel flying the German flag. Someone said it must have been the boat bringing peace, and secure in this, we positioned ourselves to watch it as she entered the bay. She was signalled off Cavite where she was heading, and turned back to join the rest of the German squadron near Pampanga. All of a sudden the entire Yankee fleet was in motion. The boats keeping guard sailed away to join the rest and headed towards Fort San Antonio Abad. Four big boats, which must have been the Olympia, Boston, Raleigh, and Baltimore, cannonaded that fort. Then they aimed at the trenches perpendicular to the beach . . . . During the attack, a heavy squall fell, but without disturbing the bombardment in any way. After five quarters of an hour firing, the Yankees thinking the field was already fully cleared, ceased firing their guns, while the land forces began their march towards Manila. Our troops crouched in the trenches still remaining intact surprised with a shower of bullets the Yankees who confidently came and were stopped in their tracks. At this moment, the Olympia and the monitor Monterey had moved themselves in front of Manila, the latter with her 30.5 cm. cannons pointing at the battery of two cannons on the Luneta. The Olympia fired a cannon shot over our trenches, where the troops subsequently received the command to retreat, while over the walls of the city a huge white flag was being hoisted. The plaza, filled as it was with noncombatants, had not fired at the ships lest it draw enemy fire. A parley followed during which apparently the Yankees have shown generosity in all the conditions, provided the plaza be surrendered. The insurgents have watched from the sidelines, intending to take all possible advantage of our disgrace. The friendship shown these past few days was that which his domestics feel for a dying rich man, and who seek to take possession of his riches before others come to claim them. Ahead of the Yankees, they had attacked the trenches, and later entered through the breach left open by our retreating troops. The Yankee vanguard which came to prepare the ground for the rest went to the Observatory, asking Fr. Algue if they could lodge there. Father answered politely he did not think so since the ground floor was filled with refugees, and mainly because if the city resisted anew (for the result of the parley was not yet known) the Observatory despite being a building of an international character would be a target of the cannons of the plaza. Accepting the explanation, they asked Father if there was a place where they could shelter themselves, and he indicated the volodrome. Within a few minutes, some insurgents came to the Observatory, and very politely asked the Father’s permission to put by the window grating the insurgent flag, lest the Yankees claim the building. While Father was trying to dissuade them from it, others proceeded to place it nonetheless. Two lieutenants ordered a soldier to remove it, and on obeying, he was rattan-whipped and the flag remained where it was.

[From the time of the noon meal] until 6:00 in the evening, one could see various units of the Spanish army passing through the Manila streets going to deposit their arms in Fort Santiago.  At 6:00 the Spanish flag which used to crown this fort was furled, in its place the Yankee flag was hoisted. The Yankees who were present in the fort saluted their flag with shouts of “Hurrah!” and a music band positioned at the time of the solitary passage of Maria Cristina played their national anthem before the flag. -— Since the Yankees have taken possession of all the barracks, the Spanish authorities cannot find sufficient place to lodge the troops who are retreating to Manila. The former have filled some churches, and our church, too, if we had not offered them a place in the Ateneo, where the native Regiment No.73 and two artillery companies have stayed.

The trenches along Binondo and Santa Mesa are still being defended by our troops under the command of General Monet and Colonel Carbo. There is plenty of shooting in that part and tomorrow ours will abandon those positions that the Yankees may occupy them if they wish.

Today’s casualties are calculated to total 400 on our side, and 2,000 on the Yankee side. Probably these numbers are exaggerated from first impressions. The family of Gen. Augustin boarded the ship for Hongkong at sunset.

Saturday, August 13, 1898

The final act of this conflict between the Spaniards and the Americans has taken place. It lasted two hours this morning; the simulated attack was met by a simulated defense.

At 9 o’clock, the American fleet readied itself by raising its flag, positioning the Charleston in front of Parañaque, and rallying the other ships behind the Petrel right in front of Manila. The Concorde is moving to the north of the Pasig, where she will keep watch over the Tondo coast until the city surrenders. It is hard to believe that the cannons on the southern pier have been ordered not to fire to prevent the likely bombardment by the Americans.

The fleet coming from Cavite is sailing in the following order: Olympia, Monterey, Raleigh, Charleston, Baltimore, Boston. The small ships are moving independently of this formation.

At 9:38 the Olympia opened fire west-southeast, at 5,000 meters, followed by the Monterey and the Raleigh a few minutes later. All three ships aiming their shots at San Antonio were missing their target completely. As I watched the continuous fire to the finish, the following words of a Spanish officer ran through my mind: All this cannon fire is merely a bluff and Fort San Antonio would not be threatened if they did not fire at the American troops.”

Some missiles landing on Spanish trenches have caused some lost lives. After the Monterey took the lead position at 9:49 a shell fell on Malate. By 10:00, a heavy shower of rain hid the details of the struggle, if there actually was one. I would say it was Much ado about nothing.

At 10:25, the weather cleared to show the Americans drawn up in two columns pointing approximately north-northwest. The Petrel and the Callao approached land, with the latter merely 2,000 meters from San Antonio, and the next day’s observations showed that six shells penetrated the fort, one of which was responsible for the death of three men manning a cannon. Another flattened the ramparts at the point where there were no gun emplacements. A shell, apparently fired from the Callao, exploded close to another cannon, lifting its parapet and killing several servants.

At 10:40, the fleet stopped firing. The only shots heard were those directed towards San Antonio and the trenches, but the Spaniards were not responding to the enemy fire. At any rate, from our decks we saw no counterattack. If we can believe the Americans, 20 projectiles were fired from the fort, killing two men and wounding six. They could scarcely have done less. The start of the siege is not exactly like a ballet performance. The 24cm and 25cm cannons at the ramparts of Manila remained silent for the same astonishing reason, the “prevention of the city’s bombardment” rapidly becoming a proverb since it was being heard constantly everywhere.

At 10:52, the artillery fire resumed both at sea an on land. Undoubtedly, the infantry had not been able to take over the trenches. There was one final burst of cannon fire from the fort. One minute later, a massive shell smashed into it.

By 11:00 the American flag crowned the crest. The soldiers retreated from the trenches which hardly showed any trace of battle. From this point onward, the Spaniards were obviously on the defensive. The troops from San Antonio and the surroundings either capitulated or beat a retreat. In the direction of Paco, the confusion continued as the insurgents attacked a battalion of sailors and captured two sections.

The victorious American troops were suddenly everywhere, coming from Malate and arriving in Luneta at 11:30. Along the way, they took over the 24cm cannons without firing a single shot, making one believe that a tacit agreement did exist between them, since both camps did not use their cannons.

The Spanish volunteers guarding the ramparts fired only a single volley as the Americans appeared. There again a situation of pure bluff. The Americans replied with a few shots, and then gave orders for an immediate ceasefire. The end result showed a few wounded on both sides. The white flag was raised in the southern part of the city as the comedy continued to unfold. When the Olympia finally signalled the city to capitulate, it was obvious that no reply came since the city had already surrendered.

From noon to 2 o’clock we took a much-needed rest. Then we dined. At 2:35, a Belgian vessel flying a parliamentary flag came alongside the Olympia. Admiral Dewey boarded a small American steamer full of troops which entered their new port. The Callao followed it. This is the end. They are negotiating the terms of surrender. The general feeling is that this whole scene has been meticulously prepared since yesterday, or perhaps earlier. W find this deception completely offensive.

At 3:38, the American squadron anchored 4,000 meters south-southwest of the Walled City. By 6:00, they celebrated their victory by lowering the Spanish flag and replacing it with the American fla to the thundering sound of a 21-gun salute.

This is definitely a great American victory, but a humiliating defeat for Spain, and undoubtedly, for Europe. Someday we shall discover the real truth. Spain is finished, and no matter what she chooses to believe, she has lost both her influence and possessions throughout the world primarily through her own fault. Her ferocious presence will fade away and, as it often happens, will end in ridicule and absurdity. And thus, the final curtain drops on this shameful tragedy. The sun which has shone for 400 years on the pearl of the Orient seas will no longer shine over Spain.

The Americans are festively marching into Manila with their rifles on their shoulders. Not a single gunshot is heard. The Spaniards do not show any resistance, except for the artillery unit in Luneta which fired this morning against the rebels in the north. One thousand five hundred Spaniards, a thousand Tagals, and one sole American regiment took part in the struggle. The next day, those in the garrison who were not involved in the fighting left their trenches, taking their guns with them.

Some details about the Americans. Some Yankees were seen entering the Pasig on a small steamboat; instead of hoisting their flag, they put up some sort of American publicity. Even worse, before the end of the day, two drunk volunteers were beating up the natives and pushing them around with the butts of their rifles.

And soon after Manila opened its gates, a formal order posted on the road to Paco prohibited the Tagals from entering the city. A group of natives, refusing to take heed, were blocked by the Americans, who harassed them with their bayonets.