I have that feeling of certainty that I will end up with dictatorial powers if the situation continues – and the situation will continue. The HMBs and the Ma-Maos will continue to try to bring about a revolutionary situation. Massive sabotage is indicated by the crude bombs they are manufacturing and teaching their recruits to manufacture in their training camps. This also means they are not getting any aid (military) from outside. We should allow them to gather strength but not such strength that we cannot overcome them.
We continue to meet the students – a tedious time consuming effort to placate them. For what? They will come back with some more demands later on. But the play must go on.
We must establish a mass base. Father Calles suggests that the women who are getting impatient should be organized. I agree.
Then we must get the Armed Forces working properly. A dry run for Plan X must now be executed.
I talked to Ambassador Byroade and told him I needed his continuous support before I started the drive against the communists now and later when the ammunition is exhausted. There is not a single round of ammunition for our 35 rocket launchers. But we have just received our ammunition reloader.
Have just met with the KM, NATU, MASAKA, from 6:00 PM to 11:15 PM. They claim they will not engage in a hate-Marcos campaign but will limit their demonstration to the campuses and prevent violence.
Now the NUSP also want to meet with me. And so do the Upsilonians.
We are succeeding in dividing the student leaders into the radicals and the moderates.
Have had to grant some of their demands – things that I wanted to do anyway.
But four enlisted men were killed at Mapalacsiao, Tarlac, by men believed to be Maos at 1:00 AM today.
The demands of the radicals are socialistic if not communist – not merely nationalistic. We will have to play along with them, take away their steam while we go after the Maos and the HMBs.
Imelda met with the two Cardinals, Archbishops Gonzaga and Alberto on the problem of the Jesuits and the ultra-liberal priests. They intend to put yup a magazine and a newspaper.
Have asked Gen. Menzi to resign his position as Senior Aide so he can devote his full time to the Bulletin, Liwayway, his business interests and the preparation of a house in Australia and San Francisco if necessary.
I write this as I wait for a visitor who will inform us of all the conspiracy going on behind the Liberal Party. Osmeña has just delivered a privilege speech in the Senate denying his connection with the demonstrators and the riots and rehashing his charges about the elections.
Villalon testifying before the Senate-House Joint Committee should blast this claim to pieces. Col. Jimmy Barbers has asked for an opportunity to present him next Wednesday at 9:00 AM.
Went out of the Palace (for the first time since Jan. 30, 1970) to attend the 31st Anniversary of the Phil. Navy set at 9:00 AM. Stayed until 11:00 AM. Commissioned the new 25-know 87 ft. patrol craft made in Singapore. Our Navy will duplicate it. We have a 100 ft. ferro-cement fishing boat in the making.
Was gratified to see the people waving at me and clapping their hands. The public sympathy has returned to us since the attack on the Palace on Jan. 30th.
Apparently the crisis is over – unless the Feb. 12th rallies turn into violent riots, God forbid.
The whole family was in Scout uniform at the 5:00 o’clock investiture of Imelda and the opening ceremonies of the preparation for the 50th Anniversary of Scouting in 1973.
Conferred with the two Cardinals, Santos and Rosales, on the Jesuits and bishops propagating radical ideas – like Father Ortiz, Murphy (Tom) and Blanco as well as the seven bishops who sent the open letter.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
Now even the student leaders are divided. They seem to be in a state of confusion. Tonight 25 students from the UP have seen the First Lady. Uncivil, arrogant but uninformed, naïve and confused.
I see the KM and Labor leaders with Blas Ople tomorrow at 5:00 PM.
But the NUSP is following the script of making demands which I am supposed to grant – to strengthen their hand. And they are supposed to picket Malacañang tomorrow.
Even if the demonstrations should turn violent because the latest intelligence is that Commander Dante is supposed to be collecting hand guns in Concepcion and supposedly in the province of Tarlac, for use in Manila, it would still be favorable to us for the people are against violence – specially if it is against Malacañang Palace.
We must recast the plans for a total solution of the communist problem. We must prepare for a long, tedious legal fight with the military stepping up the drive in Central Luzon and harassing raids in Novaliches, Caloocan and Parañaque where the HMBs and the Mao’s hold in when they escape from the PC raids in Central Luzon.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
Gov. Licaros sent a message through Bobby Benedicto who is agreed to going out on leave from the Presidency of the PNB, that his mission is a complete success.
We will get the third tranche of $27.5 million $40 m from out gold $40 from the Federal Reserve Bank and $120 million from the consortium of banks plus a five year extension of our debts. If we can get $100 m from Japan, we will have all we need.
Now all I am asking for is to be allowed to start working.
[Marginal note: Played golf with the Malacañang reporters at 5:00 PM]
Everything has returned to normalcy. But I feel that the HMB’s with Dante and Ninoy masterminding them are planning some sabotage.
Talked to Ex-Sen. Rodolfo Ganzon and Ex-Rep Raschid Lucman and his wife Princess Tarhata.
I have asked Roding Ganzon to infiltrate the LP. He says that Lopez, Laurel and Osmeña have agreed on an NP-LP ticket in 1973. Osmeña wants to run again and Doy Laurel may be his Vice. But of course Gerry Roxas and Ninoy Aquino want to run as President.
And Lucman I asked to keep peace in Lanao and to placate the Liberals.
Boni Isip, Joe Luckban and Johnny Echiverri saw me. They told me of Joe Maristela and of Ex-Sen Estanislao Fernandez urging the students to attack at Mendiola and plying them with whiskey from a jeep without any number and loaded with whiskey bottles.
I hope to see Rep. Salipada Pendatun, brother in law of Ex. Gov. Udtog Matalam, leader of the Moslem Independence Movement, tomorrow. As well as Ex-Sen. Domocao Alonto and Ex-Gen. Alonto.
We are building pillboxes at the gates and mortar defenses including baffled walls for my gymnasium where we can seek shelter in case of mortar attack.
We have cleared the lawn west of the veranda and ceremonial hall for a helicopter landing this side of the Palace complete with night landing lights.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
We are preparing anti-subversion cases against Arienda and the leaders of the Kabataang Makabayan.
I feel that ultimately we must have a confrontation with the communists in this country. And that their eradication as a threat to our free way of life may be one of my main missions. It is true that if we can keep on delaying and delaying their take-off and cut off their momentum we will ultimately win, but it will be a messy and tedious job. Now we have an opportunity – perhaps the only opportunity to liquidate the movement in one clean sweep – if we plan it well enough.
Thus if there is massive sabotage and an attempt against my life, then I might be compelled to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus and arrest all the persons in the list of communists.
This will be the total solution to the ideological impasse!
January 28, 1970 Wednesday 11:50 PM The pattern of subversion is slowly emerging. The danger is now apparent to me but not to most people. The conspiracy to grab power and assassinate me and about a hundred officers. The terrorism in Central Luzon with the HMB’s and the Ma-Mao holding some towns in their power. The repeated cases of liquidation of government sympathizers, informers and agents; the pink intellectuals, writers, professors and students and fellow travelers. Then the time bomb in Jusmag. The riot in Congress last Monday. Now the UP faculty marches to Malacañang tomorrow and denounces police brutality and holds the administration responsible for the “policy of repression” and the “violation of rights”. Then another mass demonstration that may lead to another riot next Friday notwithstanding promises of Gargaritano, the Security officer of the student demonstrators [in the conference this afternoon in the palace] that he will coordinate with MPD chief Tamayo to maintain peace. And I am certain this is just the beginning. The newspapermen I have in my list are busy placing the government in disrepute and holding it in contempt before the people. The sabotage and the killings will continue. The slow chipping at the people’s confidence in government authority. If we do not prepare measures of counter-action, they will not only succeed in assassinating me but in taking over the government. So we must perfect our emergency plan.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
I have several options. One of them is to abort the subversive plan now by the sudden arrest of the plotters. But this would not be accepted by the people. Nor could we get the Huks, their legal cadres and support. Nor the MIM and other subversive [or front] organizations, nor those underground. We could allow the situation to develop naturally then after massive terrorism, wanton killings and an attempt at my assassination and a coup d’etat, then declare martial law or suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus – and arrest all including the legal cadres. Right now I am inclined towards the latter.
Office of the President
of the Philippines
The student demonstrators seem to want a parliamentary form of government. If I want to be perpetuated in power, this is the easier way to it, with a constitutional provision that there shall be no elections unless a majority of all members of a unicameral legislature should adopt a formal resolution asking for such elections – and the powers of the Prime Minister are those of the President now.
[Marginal note: Am still recovering from the symptoms of flu after over-exercise last Wednesday. Sore throat, nasal drip, feverish feeling – general malaise.
But started exercising half my usual morning exercise, then a warm shower.]
January 11, 1970
Our national security –
Our principal problem is still internal subversion not foreign aggression. We are protected by the oceans from the latter. But more than this we are protected by the following set of circumstances.
Red China’s present internal problems of development which occupies her energies, leaders and resources.
The incipient quarrel between Red China and Russia.
Japan’s present allergy to the suggestion to rearm.
The presence of the U.S. in Asia.
The first three circumstances may not be there after a decade. The only deterrent would be the presence of the U.S. through bases in South Korea, South Vietnam, Thailand, southern Japan and the Philippines. This was what Ambassador Byroade must have been referring to in his Rotary Speech last November after the elections.
The ideal situation would be if the U.S. maintains its presence with its nuclear umbrella in Asia, without the indignity of American bases in the Philippines.
In the meantime the American military bases, if they have to stay, must be governed by agreements that should be updated to the level of other countries’ treaties on the same subject – like that of Spain and Thailand.
And now as in the years to come, the Philippines must watch the balance of power in Asia. If Red China has no counterpoise, it may find the time to establish its dream of Asian hegemony. The counterpoise could be Russia which is trying hard to become an Asian power, and Japan which will ultimately rearm.
The ideal is Russia and Red China not settling their quarrel and Red China and Japan not being too friendly to each other.
Whatever the international situation is, we must be prepared to defend our country alone. The classic defenses on the air, the sea and on the beaches must be augmented with the home defense concept of the guerilla which will make any attack (external or internal) of a massive nature too costly to be considered lightly by a potential aggressor.
I must establish communications in the barrios covered by the Barrio Home Defense Force. Sitio San Juan, Barrio Moriones, Tarlac, Tarlac, was raided yesterday morning (after midnight) by possibly Huks out to terrorize the Barrio Home Defense Forces there which fought back for 20 minutes. If there had been an alarm system, helicopters could have brought succor. Flashlight battery run and cheap and simple – buzzer coded system.
One woman was killed and five men wounded.
Two helicopters helped capture in Barrio Patling, Capas, Tarlac, Huk Commander Rody Dizon alias Rody and four companions. Dizon was still carrying the Armalite of S/St. Nestor M. Mariano of the 511 PC Ranger Company. The name of Mariano was still on the butt of the Armalite.
We will use the helicopters more and more. One should be based at II PC Zone HQ. and three at Basa Airfield on alert.
According to the men in the field, the Huks are in dreadful fear of the helicopters.
Everybody in the city speaks of the “monkees” when they were ordered disbanded a long time ago.
On foreign exchange earnings, we can offer the products of our parks, forest resources and even the ores to be mined from our mineral reserves with govt. doing the work – provided the buyers now advance a few hundred million dollars. Am looking into this possibility.
As well as selling our old coins and minting new ones – of gold.
[Marginal note: This is the day of many decisions.]
[Marginal note: Laurel is beginning to buy votes for the speakership. He has called a caucus on Monday for this purpose.]
[Marginal note: Why did I write October 10th – this is Betty Campos’ birthday; she is with us in the family dining room with Joe for dinner – as I write this at 11:00 PM]
October January 10, 1970
I have enclosed the study of the nullification of the congressional elections in Batanes so I can call a special election but the Comelec (Ferrer, Miraflor and Patajo) says they think there is a hiatus in the law and that their power to nullify is in grave doubt. So I have suggested that they pass a resolution that no one has been elected because in the five towns only in one (the capital of Basco) has there been peaceful and free elections. The Speaker of the House would then be compelled to certify to a vacancy in Batanes. Then I would call a special election.
Have ordered that Commodore Cabal, the commander of the South West Command, and who is from Batanes, — go to Batanes with a squad of marines to give protection to the people there.
The groups supporting Ex-Speaker Villareal for speakership have asked me to remain neutral in the speakership fight and will take this stand in the caucus next Tuesday. The reasons they (Yñiguez who has withdrawn at my promptings, Niling Espinosa, Joe Alberto, Floring Crisologo) give for opposing Laurel is that Banjo Laurel, mayor of Tanauan and son of the Speaker, has been withdrawing funds from the House, signed by Eucinas, chairman of the Committee on accounts and monopolizes all contracts of the House.
Have ordered a tariff and tax free zone to be established in the Nayon Pilipino at MIA; the release of P2.2 million for the new finger terminal at MIA and the preparation of the runway for the Jumbo Jets. We need to add two inches on the surface. Conferred with Sec. Leo Virata, CAA Administrator Federico Ablan and MIA Airport Manager Luis Tabuena.
Boni reports a new assassination plot by the same group masterminded by Terry Adevoso. Malacañang is under sector Noth Manila leadership of which was offered to Joe Maristela, former CIS head, now our informant.
Everybody is suggesting that Imelda take over the efforts at improving tourism. 800,000 to one million tourists visit Hongkong yearly, 400,000 to Bangkok – but only 120,000 to Manila.
So I have asked that all airlines, new and old, be allowed to land in the Philippines without limit at least for one year – the year of Expo-70. We should known then how this will affect our domestic airlines. My feeling is this will build up so much traffic that they will have their share of the increase.
The Chief of Police of Angeles City (a Sumanlan) and a relative of Gov. Nepomuceno, more accurately Mrs. Nepomuceno (who is a Sumanlan) has just been killed. The PC surmise that a man of Mayor Suarez did it as Nepomuceno is feuding with Commander Sumulong, who is in partnership with Mayor Suarez. Nepomuceno is in turn in partnership with Commander Dante.
So I will let them finish off each other in the meantime. But we have got to get in and finish all of them before they wreck the entire government.
I feel, however, that the Barrio Home Defense force of 5 or ten men per barrio is the answer to the Huk movement.
I have ordered a study in depth of all our efforts of counter-insurgency, economic development, social reform as well as military action.
The civilian agents must be disbanded but the Barrio Home Defense Force should be strengthened to stop the expansion of the Huks and the New People’s Army.
Emergency plan by phases – compartmentalized, in the event of massive sabotage, terrorism and infiltration. Counter-action by pre-assigned units and officers and men.
Lifted the limitation of flights of foreign carriers from Japan for one year – but Pan Am must spend $1 million to promote the route and build its own terminal.
No more need for transit visas.
Development of the Manila Tourist belt (Central Bank P200,000), police security for tourists including certification of taxicab companies, Tagaytay, Corregidor, Bataan, Pagsanjan – Navy hydrofoil to Corregidor & Bataan run.
Will ask the tourist & business community to talk to the publishers to tone down on crime.
As of today loans will again be allowed for mining and new export industries.
Speaker Laurel and Sen. Pres. Puyat ask for support for their respective candidacies.
The Lopezes as I predicted are starting to plot against me. Iñing Lopez has recovered enough from hypoglycemia to order their Manila Chronicle to attack me and the Marcos Foundation.
Taruc and Alejandrino, the two communists or ex-communits and Hukbulahaps, were notified yesterday that they were leaving for Manila today. This morning they left by plane. We noticed that they left with a heavy heart and we felt exactly the same. Those two men have won the friendship and admiration of all of us. As friends and comrades they are as good as anybody can be. The impression they left is just the reverse of what they were pictured to us before. They were not quarrelsome, cruel and bloodthirsty as they were reputed to be. On the contrary, they are suave in manner, sociable and know how to get along with others. We do not know whether they have modified their views, but several interviews with them have convinced us that they are not the radical men who would forcibly deprive all the citizens of their right over their property. They harbor no ill-feeling or prejudice against the capitalists. They only insist that the masses be given such social protection and opportunity to enable them to live decently. They hate a dictatorial government; they will die for democracy. They are highly patriotic; they love their country above everything. They assured us that there would be no compromise as regards Philippine independence. They will fight even the Americans if they deny us our right to freedom. They are very willing to join hands with us in everything that would help our country and our people. They do not know what is in store for them. We hope that they will be released outright. They are not so optimistic, however. They fear that they will again be requested to surrender their arms numbering about 20,000 rifles and other arms. They were requested to donate these weapons to the Philippine Army for the reason that our Army had no money to buy arms. They refused. Before leaving they told us that they would not compel their men to turn in their arms. Let them do so on their own free will. They will remain in prison if necessary to uphold their views. Or they may be tried for some other cause. They are not collaborationists in the sense that they served or in any way were connected with the Japanese for the truth was that they fought the Japanese. They, therefore, should not have been placed among us. Perhaps the Americans prefer to dispose of their cases before the government is turned over completely to the Commonwealth.
Taruc and Alejandrino returned as they were not able to catch the plane this morning. They are scheduled to leave tomorrow.
Tonight the Class B quarters were inspected and searched. The Lieutenant found clothes supposed to have been stolen from the Supply Office. Some internees are implicated. They did not search the Class A quarters. Had they done so, they would have a large quantity of clothes, shoes, etc. which belong to the Army. These were acquired through donation or purchase. The Captain and the Lieutenant asked us to cooperate with them. I suppose what they were really saying was that they expect us not to receive or buy hereafter. They happened to see the Navy shoes of Arsenio Luz. They confiscated the shoes.
Recto is found to be positive for malaria. We are all scared as so many of us are already suffering from that sickness, we fear that if we remain here for a few weeks more we will all contract the disease.
My son Tony tried to land a job. He failed. He could not find a job — in some places, the employers expressed fear when they found out he bears my name. The Spaniards say, “No hay hien que formal no venga,” meaning that sometimes some good comes out of evil. Not being able to find employment, Tony was compelled to engage in business and he is quite successful. He makes enough money to support my family. He has already proven that he is an able merchant since during the Japanese regime he was also quite successful in business. After all, I am very happy that he did not become an employee. During inflation one of the worst sufferers are those with fixed income like the employees. But even under normal conditions I do not wish my sons to be employed, especially in the government service. There is too much injustice and disappointment. I have seen enough to dislike the public service. Furthermore, there is no future in government employment unless one is very lucky, as in my case. In so far as civic spirit is concerned, a person can also serve his country outside the public service. A merchant or a farmer serves his country just as much as politician, a government official or employee.