We have now finished the schools. With Mr. DeHuff, Superintendent of Manila Schools, we visited about 30 intermediate schools and the High School one morning. Another morning we visited one building of primary schools under Miss Murdock, Supervisor. We visited the Normal School, the Commercial School, the School of Household Arts, the Trade School, etc. I marvel at the thoroughness of the organization. In every primary, intermediate and the High School we found the children engaged in industrial work. In the Normal School occupying a fine new building, there were young men and women, mostly aided to come to School for training as teachers, called pensionados, and there they were learning all the industrial arts in order that they may teach them in their own schools. The University tops off education, and is attended by both sexes, and has three women on the faculty. "Sec. 3. No student shall be denied admission to the university by reason of age, sex, nationality, religious belief, or political affiliation." The Director of Education, Frank W. White, now in the U.S. reports: 8403 Filipino teachers. 683 American " 397 Supervising " 40 Division Superintendents. 4404 Schools. 423,047 Primary school pupils. 20,952 Intermediate " ". 2,890 High School students. 38 High Schools. 245 Intermediate. 4121 Primary schools. 200 Municipal Manual Training Shops. 35 Provincial Trade & Manual Training Schools. 1 School for Deaf and Blind. Insular ( School of Commerce ( Trade School ( Normal ( University ( Household Arts. The cost 10 11 exclusive of special building appropriations, was $3,223,856. He says further: "The U.S. is, in the face of European doubt and ridicule, conducting the hitherto untried and unheard of experience of governing a colony with the idea of preparing its people for ultimate self-government. If failure should be the results of this new experiment, it would occasion no surprise to those European countries, but if success crowns the efforts put forth, the whole world will be ready to praise the work done; and also, will come that which to the U.S. will mean more than praise - the knowledge of a self-imposed duty well accomplished. Already doubt is rapidly changing to an avowal of faith in the work and the former ridicule to praise." The School of Household Arts is something quite apart. Girls or women come to Manila as pensionados, remain six months and learn embroidery and lace making. Their only obligation is to teach what they know to 10 other women at home free. The idea is to provide a kind of employment which will enable the women to support the family when famines caused by locusts, typhoons or draughts come. The practicability remains to be tested. When all the women do hand embroidery as they soon will, can it be possible that a market for their goods will be found. One girl will soon be graduated in the law department of the University; one has been graduated in the Department of Medicine, and more women doctors are coming on. About half of the students of the Pharmacy Department are women. In the Commercial School there are many girls learning stenography, type- writing and bookkeeping. The latter is the more remarkable, since mathematics is the bane of all Malay students. When one considers that all this vast system of schools has been constructed within 10 years, and the course of study fitted to the natives, it becomes an achievement which only hustling Americans could have accomplished. A few buildings existed which had been erected by the Spaniards, and these were taken over. One is occupied by the Manila High School and is excellent. Old Spanish houses have been utilized and the old Spanish barracks where once the walls heard tales of war and heroism, have now become primary schools and little brown boys and girls are being taught the rule of peace through the medium of English. If it is well to turn swords and spears into ploughshares and pruning hooks, isn't it a step higher to turn barracks into schools? At the Department of Education there are many offices, busily humming with typewriters and all sorts of work. Women are in every department. Miss Fee, who wrote "A Woman's Impression of the Philippines" is the head of a Correspondence Department with several women under her. They conduct a correspondence school with the native teachers to perfect their English. In the Spring Vacation, a Vacation Assembly for Teachers is held, and the educational work continued. In fact, the complete American system of education has been transplanted here, but with a much more complete system of industrial training, and therefore much more practical system for the Philippines. At the Trade School which is a technical school for the entire Archipelago, the Director has a Department of Ceramics for the boys (only boys go there), but this was woman's work. He wishes to introduce cooking, and why not? - for boys to do all the cooking for American families, etc. Hatmaking and basketry is being taught boys and girls are all taught embroidery and Photo SECTION OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL GARDEN. Photo GIRLS' BASKETBALL - TENNIS COURT IN BACKGROUND. Photo A BASEBALL TEAM. lace making, which the Americans got from the Spanish Convents, which looks like creating a crowded employment. There are not so many girls in the public schools as boys, but many hundreds of girls are in the Convents and we have visited two. There again they are doing the same work as the schools are teaching. They are trying to teach silk culture to girls, and perhaps later they may be able to diversify the trades of women. However, the best thing from the point of view of the management, is that the industrial department of the entire school system has paid for itself and made a donation to the school fund. After the Schools we went to the Bureau of Science which occupies a fine large building, and is such a wise first step in colonizing. Here a few scientific enthusiasts are doing wonderful work. A botanist is engaged in classifying all the flora of the Islands, and has a herbarium of 100,000 specimens. A Mineralogist is classifying the minerals and ores. A scientific library of 40,000 volumes, one of the best in the world, they say, is at the disposal of the workers. A number of chemists and biologists are working in research to find antitoxins for tropical diseases. Here they make the vaccine and other serums. An Entomologist is classifying insects and studying the pests of various crops with a view to finding a remedy. Another is starting an Aquarium. Ethnologists are studying the wild tribes with a view to finding means to convert them to civilization. In fact original research work, which could this Bureau have all the skilled workers it could use, would transform a half known country into one with no more mysteries than Holland or New York. There are many medicinal plants, gums, etc. which were known to the natives, "old women?" which are being tried out with good results, and some valuable additions to the medicines of the world. This bureau is in conjunction with the Philippine General Hospital, which is constructed on an ideal model for the Tropics and can accommodate 350 patients. The Morgue is attached to the Bureau of Science, and all graduated Doctors must serve 6 months as internes before they get their degrees. Free clinics are connected with the Hospital and last year 50,000 patients passed through these clinics. The San Juan Tuberculosis Sanitarium is outside the City and is connected with the General Hospital. Also San Lazaro Hospital where contagious diseases are taken. Especial study is given to Tropical diseases. For instance, Manila is cleared of cholera, typhoid, smallpox plague, etc., but many people have dengy fever, bacillary and amoebie dysentery, sprue, the cause and cure being as yet undetermined. The Francascan Nuns run one hospital with a clever dear old French woman with a heart as big as the moon at its head. She has lived 19 years in the Tropics and never been away (St. Pauls). The Mary Johnson Hospital is one for women and children, with a woman doctor at the head. There is a so-called University Hospital also, the Universities in the U. S. having each contributed to its support. All of the Hospitals train nurses. Dr. Heiser of the Health Bureau told us that it was a great feat to have got Filipino nurses. He knew that if they got their candidates from low or middle class families, others would never enter the profession. So they worked hard to get a first class of daughters of good families and at last succeeded, but again and again they were withdrawn - when it was discovered that they must cook, or wash dishes, or make beds, or wait on men patients, etc., but each time after much effort and distressing suspense they were brought back, and at last the class was graduated. Then candidates became plentiful thereafter, and now they are gradually elevating the standard. Although there has always been a high birth rate, the race was standing nearly still owing to the high death rate and especially infant mortality. Now many women come to the Hospital for confinement, and four nurses go out regularly, as a sort of district nursing, and aid in confinements. The Bureau of Health employ a head nurse. The Bilibid Prison also belongs to the system and is the largest prison in the world, with accommodation for 4500 prisoners. There is a hospital attachment with tuberculosis patients on the roof. There is a nurse matron, one of God's few, Miss Little, who takes especial care of the women but is good to the men. One would never suspect Bilibid to be a prison at all were there no people in striped clothes with numbered tags. The guards are few and inconspicuous. It is a great work shop. Men prisoners are bakers and cooks, nurses, guards, etc., blacksmiths, wheelwrights, iron workers, cabinet makers, chair, hat and basket makers. The women are embroiderers and lace makers. The prisoner may choose the department in which he will work. There he learns a trade, and they all looked interested. They get good food, sleep in barracks like soldiers not in cells, and all was clean and sanitary. The women were delighted with their work. They all work about 8 hours, and all go to school. The Doctor was amused GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION BUREAU OF PRISONS ENTRANCE TO THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE BUREAU OF PRISONS. THE ENTRANCE TO BILIBID PRISON IS THE THIRD GATE FROM THE STREET. NOVEMBER 1, 1908 MANILA BUREAU OF PRINTING 1908 [*75402*] to see these prisoners being taught in English. The teachers had all come through the prison school, but the supervisor was a well educated American man, who went wrong and is probably doing the best work he ever did. A store room of articles created or made here is kept where they are sold, and the industrial department paid for itself including all American supervision, material and machinery. The schools will soon keep a similar sales place. Now they hold an annual exhibition for sale of output. Twelve hundred men are out in a camp working for the Government. There is no contract work done for private individuals. But the most interesting part is this: When a man appears to be trustworthy, they send him to the Palawan. He is called a colonist and is taught agriculture. Later, upon good behavior, he is called a free colonist and may have his family come to him, provided they are willing, or he may marry a woman colonist if both are eligible. When his or her time is up as prisoners, they become settlers and are given land, seed and necessary utensils. It is claimed that this experiment is a demonstrated success. Another interesting experiment is the Leper Colony. An Island was reserved, nice buildings, gardens were erected, while an education was going on to get the people to give up their lepers. They gathered 6000 and put them on the Island. In order to keep them alert, they proposed self-government. The men held an election and elected the officers recommended. When next Dr. Heiser went there, four or five hundred women came to him and told him the men elected were "no good," and that they wanted to vote. So he wiped out all that had been done and women and men voted for a new set which was better. They have a mayor, and attend to all the duties to keep their settlement in order. Now so many have died there are but 2800 left. The Doctor (Prest. of Board of Health) says they take much interest and considering that they are sick people, some very sick, they do well. The Story of Sanitation is wonderful. To-day we drove out to the Reservoir, a big concrete basin full of good water. Ice is made only of distilled water. Those who cannot have waterclosets connected with the sewer may have night pails at 2 1/2 pesos per month if they can afford it. If not, there are public closes at little distances apart, provided with these pails. They are provided with covers and are collected every day, a clean one replacing the one removed. These are emptied out at sea and the pails thoroughly cleaned. -------------- From 11th Annual Report Director of Education, Aug. 10, 1911. Annual enrollment for 1910-11 reached 610,490, plus 5302 of the Moro Province, 4404 schools in operation. 9086 teachers are employed. School population 1,215,666 - 8403 of the teachers are Filipino. Arbor Day is held annually - Last year 600,000 trees were planted. Postal Savings Banks are in operation and pupils encouraged to deposit. All work done out of school is paid for and money may be deposited. A contest was held in 1911 and 13,728 pupils deposited money. This was done to introduce the system. Agricultural College is at Las Banos for boys. 180 THE SURVEY November 6 by multiplying the fixed population along their lines, would be easy to realize. In the case of St. Helena, the company is a link in a chain of interests which include railroads, car lines, water-power plants and banking. That the scheme must actually be profitable, evidently others also have thought, since another company is about to engage in a similar work in the same state, near the Virginia line. A New York city minister, pastor of a Dutch Reformed church, is actively interested in the plan, in which Italian help will also probably be used. Through the influence of the New York Labor Information Office for Italians, two landed proprietors, one in Tennessee and another in Jonnesboro, Ark., have been induced to try the St. Helena scheme in their neighborhoods. The St. Helena company itself is planning to bring up the number of its colonists to thousands in the near future. In conclusion, the colony of St. Helena is a new device for solving a vexed and long-standing problem. It has a philanthropic phase, but rests on a solid business foundation. It is not the fancy of a dreamer; it contains, therefore, the elements of wide practical success, and like all enterprises soundly based, it is equally advantageous to the benefited, to the benefactors, and to the community at large. Photo LOAD OF ST. HELENA STRAWBERRIES NORTHWARD BOUND. SANITATION IN THE PHILIPPINES VICTOR G. HEISER, M.D. DIRECTOR OF HEALTH, U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH AND MARINE HOSPITAL SERVICE In presenting a sanitary review of the Philippine Islands it is convenient to consider the conditions as they were at the time of American occupation and the conditions as they are at present: The defense and capitulation of Manila and its suburbs occurred on August 13, 1898. The lieutenant-general of the army in commenting on the health conditions of the city at that time said: No sanitary service worthy of the name appears to have been maintained by the former city government. The budget for 1897-98 contained items for appropriation amounting to 9,600 pesos for municipal physicians and medicines for the poor. There was also a budget allowance of about 4,000 pesos for a municipal laboratory, but when the Americans assumed control and General McArthur called on the city authorities to turn over the sanitary service, there appears to have been nothing taken over. All had to be organized de novo. Photographs loaned by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The majority of the towns in the Philippines are along the coast, on low land at the junction of a river. Ready means of transportation probably determined the selection of these most insanitary sites. Manila, for instance, is a tidal flat intersected by the mouth of the Pasig River and numerous esteros or canals. That portion of Manila north of the Pasig River has an elevation above mean high tide of from one to five feet, the portion south of the river an elevation of from one to nine feet. With this extremely low level it will readily be understood that sanitation would be a hard problem even under the best conditions. Considering those which really exist, the Says Mary H. Fee: To the land holding aristocrat our Government says: "Come out and aid us to help thy brother, that he may some day rob thee of thy prerogatives" and to the peasant who is utterly unable to extricate himself from the necessity of working for a pittance for the aristocratic class, "O thou cock-fighting, fiesta harboring son of idleness and good nature, wake up, struggle, toil, take thy share of what lies buried in thy soil and waves upon thy mountain side and be as they brother, yonder." Nor is my picture complete if I do not add that, under his breath both peasant and aristocrat reply 'Fool for what? That I may pick thy chestnuts out of the fire.'" Very good!