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Sunday, July 28, 1912

We have now finished the schools.  With Mr. DeHuff, Superintendent of Manila Schools, we visited about 30 intermediate schools and the High School one morning. Another morning we visited one building of primary schools under Miss Murdock, Supervisor. We visited the Normal School, the Commercial School, the School of Household Arts, the Trade  School, etc.  I marvel at the thoroughness of the organization. In every primary, intermediate and the High School we found the children engaged in industrial work.  In the Normal School occupying a fine new building, there were young men and women, mostly aided to come to School for training as teachers, called pensionados, and there they were learning all the industrial  arts in order that they may teach them in their own schools. The University tops off education, and is attended by both sexes, and has three women on the faculty. 

"Sec. 3. No student shall be denied admission to the university by reason of age, sex, nationality, religious  belief, or political affiliation." 

The Director of Education, Frank W. White, now in the  U.S. reports: 
8403 Filipino teachers. 
683 American " 
397 Supervising " 
40 Division Superintendents. 
4404 Schools. 
423,047 Primary school pupils. 
20,952 Intermediate " ". 
2,890 High School students. 
38 High Schools. 
245 Intermediate. 
4121 Primary schools. 
200 Municipal Manual Training Shops. 
35 Provincial Trade & Manual Training Schools. 
1 School for Deaf and Blind. 

Insular ( School of Commerce             
                   ( Trade School             
                   ( Normal             
                   ( University             
                   ( Household Arts. 

The cost 10 11 exclusive of special building appropriations, was $3,223,856. He says further: 

"The U.S. is, in the face of European doubt and  ridicule, conducting the hitherto untried and unheard of  experience of governing a colony with the idea of preparing  its people for ultimate self-government. If failure  should be the results of this new experiment, it would occasion  no surprise to those European countries, but if success  crowns the efforts put forth, the whole world will be  ready to praise the work done; and also, will come that  which to the U.S. will mean more than praise - the knowledge of a self-imposed duty well accomplished. Already doubt  is rapidly changing to an avowal of faith in the work and  the former ridicule to praise." 

The School of Household Arts is something quite apart. Girls or women come to Manila as pensionados, remain six months  and learn embroidery and lace making. Their only obligation  is to teach what they know to 10 other women at home free.   The idea is to provide a kind of employment which will enable  the women to support the family when famines caused by locusts, typhoons or draughts come. The practicability remains to  be tested. When all the women do hand embroidery as they soon  will, can it be possible that a market for their goods will be  found.  

One girl will soon be graduated in the law department  of the University; one has been graduated in the Department of  Medicine, and more women doctors are coming on. About half of  the students of the Pharmacy Department are women. In the Commercial  School there are many girls learning stenography, type- writing and bookkeeping. The latter is the more remarkable,  since mathematics is the bane of all Malay students.  

When one considers that all this vast system of  schools has been constructed within 10 years, and the course of study fitted to the natives, it becomes an achievement which only hustling Americans could have accomplished. A few buildings  existed which had been erected by the Spaniards, and these were  taken over. One is occupied by the Manila High School and is  excellent. Old Spanish houses have been utilized and the old  Spanish barracks where once the walls heard tales of war and  heroism, have now become primary schools and little brown boys  and girls are being taught the rule of peace through the medium  of English. If it is well to turn swords and spears into ploughshares and pruning hooks, isn't it a step higher to  turn barracks into schools? 

At the Department of Education there are many offices, busily  humming with typewriters and all sorts of work. Women are in  every department. Miss Fee, who wrote "A Woman's Impression  of the Philippines" is the head of a Correspondence Department  with several women under her. They conduct a correspondence  school with the native teachers to perfect their English.  In the Spring Vacation, a Vacation Assembly for Teachers is  held, and the educational work continued. In fact, the complete  American system of education has been transplanted here, but with     a much more complete system of industrial training, and therefore   much more practical system for the Philippines.  

At the Trade School which is a technical school for the entire  Archipelago, the Director has a Department of Ceramics for  the boys (only boys go there), but this was woman's work. He  wishes to introduce cooking, and why not? - for boys to do all the  cooking for American families, etc. Hatmaking and basketry is  being taught boys and girls are all taught embroidery and         




lace making, which the Americans got from the Spanish Convents,  which looks like creating a crowded employment.  

There are not so many girls in the public schools as boys,  but many hundreds of girls are in the Convents and we have  visited two.  There again they are doing the same work as the  schools are teaching.  

They are trying to teach silk culture to girls, and perhaps  later they may be able to diversify the trades of women.  However,  the best thing from the point of view of the management, is that  the industrial department of the entire school system has paid  for itself and made a donation to the school fund.  

After the Schools we went to the Bureau of Science which  occupies a fine large building, and is such a wise first step  in colonizing.  Here a few scientific enthusiasts are doing  wonderful work.  A botanist is engaged in classifying all the  flora of the Islands, and has a herbarium of 100,000 specimens.  A Mineralogist is classifying the minerals and ores.  A scientific  library of 40,000 volumes, one of the best in the world, they  say, is at the disposal of the workers.  A number of chemists  and biologists are working in research to find antitoxins for  tropical diseases.  Here they make the vaccine and other serums.  An Entomologist is classifying insects and studying the pests of  various crops with a view to finding a remedy.  Another is  starting an Aquarium.  Ethnologists are studying the wild  tribes with a view to finding means to convert them to civilization.  In fact original research work, which could this Bureau  have all the skilled workers it could use, would transform a  half known country into one with no more mysteries than Holland  or New York.  There are many medicinal plants, gums, etc. which were known to the natives, "old women?" which are being  tried out with good results, and some valuable additions to the  medicines of the world.  

This bureau is in conjunction with the Philippine General  Hospital, which is constructed on an ideal model for the Tropics  and can accommodate 350 patients. The Morgue is attached to the  Bureau of Science, and all graduated Doctors must serve 6 months as  internes before they get their degrees. Free clinics are connected  with the Hospital and last year 50,000 patients passed  through these clinics. The San Juan Tuberculosis Sanitarium is  outside the City and is connected with the General Hospital.  Also San Lazaro Hospital where contagious diseases are taken.  Especial study is given to Tropical diseases. For instance,  Manila is cleared of cholera, typhoid, smallpox plague, etc., but  many people have dengy fever, bacillary and amoebie dysentery,  sprue, the cause and cure being as yet undetermined.  

The Francascan Nuns run one hospital with a clever dear old  French woman with a heart as big as the moon at its head. She  has lived 19 years in the Tropics and never been away (St. Pauls). The Mary Johnson Hospital is one for women and children, with a  woman doctor at the head. There is a so-called University Hospital  also, the Universities in the U. S. having each contributed  to its support. All of the Hospitals train nurses. Dr. Heiser  of the Health Bureau told us that it was a great feat to have got  Filipino nurses. He knew that if they got their candidates from low or middle class families, others would never enter the profession.  So they worked hard to get a first class of daughters of  good families and at last succeeded, but again and again they were withdrawn - when it was discovered that they must cook, or wash  dishes, or make beds, or wait on men patients, etc., but each time  after much effort and distressing suspense they were brought back,  and at last the class was graduated. Then candidates became plentiful  thereafter, and now they are gradually elevating the standard.  Although there has always been a high birth rate, the race was  standing nearly still owing to the high death rate and especially  infant mortality. Now many women come to the Hospital for confinement,  and four nurses go out regularly, as a sort of district  nursing, and aid in confinements. The Bureau of Health employ a  head nurse.     

The Bilibid Prison also belongs to the system and is the  largest prison in the world, with accommodation for 4500 prisoners.  There is a hospital attachment with tuberculosis patients on the  roof. There is a nurse matron, one of God's few, Miss Little,  who takes especial care of the women but is good to the men. One  would never suspect Bilibid to be a prison at all were there no  people in striped clothes with numbered tags. The guards are few  and inconspicuous. It is a great work shop. Men prisoners are  bakers and cooks, nurses, guards, etc., blacksmiths, wheelwrights,  iron workers, cabinet makers, chair, hat and basket makers. The women are embroiderers and lace makers. The prisoner may  choose the department in which he will work. There he learns a  trade, and they all looked interested. They get good food, sleep  in barracks like soldiers not in cells, and all was clean and  sanitary. The women were delighted with their work. They all  work about 8 hours, and all go to school. The Doctor was amused                 




NOVEMBER 1, 1908  



to see these prisoners being taught in English. The teachers had  all come through the prison school, but the supervisor was a well  educated American man, who went wrong and is probably doing the  best work he ever did. A store room of articles created or made  here is kept where they are sold, and the industrial department  paid for itself including all American supervision, material and  machinery. The schools will soon keep a similar sales place.  Now they hold an annual exhibition for sale of output.  

Twelve hundred men are out in a camp working for the Government.  There is no contract work done for private individuals.  But the most interesting part is this: When a man appears to be  trustworthy, they send him to the Palawan. He is called a  colonist and is taught agriculture. Later, upon good behavior, he  is called a free colonist and may have his family come to him, provided        they are willing, or he may marry a woman colonist if both  are eligible. When his or her time is up as prisoners, they  become settlers and are given land, seed and necessary utensils.  It is claimed that this experiment is a demonstrated success.  

Another interesting experiment is the Leper Colony. An  Island was reserved, nice buildings, gardens were erected, while an education was going on to get the people to give up their  lepers. They gathered 6000 and put them on the Island. In order  to keep them alert, they proposed self-government. The men held an election and elected the officers recommended. When next Dr.  Heiser went there, four or five hundred women came to him and told him the men elected were "no good," and that they wanted to vote.  So he wiped out all that had been done and women and men voted for  a new set which was better. They have a mayor, and attend to all the duties to keep their settlement in order.  Now so many have  died there are but 2800 left. The Doctor (Prest. of Board of  Health) says they take much interest and considering that they  are sick people, some very sick, they do well.  

The Story of Sanitation is wonderful.  To-day we drove out  to the Reservoir, a big concrete basin full of good water.  Ice is  made only of distilled water.  Those who cannot have waterclosets  connected with the sewer may have night pails at 2 1/2 pesos per  month if they can afford it.  If not, there are public closes  at little distances apart, provided with these pails.  They are  provided with covers and are collected every day, a clean one  replacing the one removed.  These are emptied out at sea and the  pails thoroughly cleaned.    

From 11th Annual Report Director of Education, Aug. 10, 1911.  
Annual enrollment for 1910-11 reached 610,490, plus  
5302 of the Moro Province, 4404 schools in operation.  
9086 teachers are employed.  School population 1,215,666 - 
8403 of the teachers are Filipino.  

Arbor Day is held annually - Last year 600,000 trees were  planted.  

Postal Savings Banks are in operation and pupils encouraged  to deposit.  All work done out of school is paid for and  money may be deposited.  A contest was held in 1911 and  13,728 pupils deposited money.  This was done to introduce the  system.  

Agricultural College is at Las Banos for boys. 

November 6 

by multiplying the fixed population along 
their lines, would be easy to realize.  In 
the case of St. Helena, the company is a  
link in a chain of interests which include 
railroads, car lines, water-power plants 
and banking.  That the scheme must 
actually be profitable, evidently others 
also have thought, since another company 
is about to engage in a similar 
work in the same state, near the Virginia 
line.  A New York city minister, pastor 
of a Dutch Reformed church, is actively  
interested in the plan, in which Italian 
help will also probably be used.  Through 
the influence of the New York Labor 
Information Office for Italians, two 
landed proprietors, one in Tennessee 
and another in Jonnesboro, Ark., have 
been induced to try the St. Helena 
scheme in their neighborhoods.  The 
St. Helena company itself is planning to 
bring up the number of its colonists to 
thousands in the near future. 

In conclusion, the colony of St. Helena 
is a new device for solving a vexed 
and long-standing problem.  It has a 
philanthropic phase, but rests on a solid 
business foundation.  It is not the fancy  
of a dreamer; it contains, therefore, the 
elements of wide practical success, and 
like all enterprises soundly based, it is 
equally advantageous to the benefited, to 
the benefactors, and to the community at large. 



In presenting a sanitary review of the 
Philippine Islands it is convenient to 
consider the conditions as they were at 
the time of American occupation and the 
conditions as they are at present: 

The defense and capitulation of Manila 
and its suburbs occurred on August 13, 
1898.  The lieutenant-general of the 
army in commenting on the health conditions 
of the city at that time said: 
No sanitary service worthy of the name 
appears to have been maintained by the
former city government.  The budget for 
1897-98 contained items for appropriation 
amounting to 9,600 pesos for municipal 
physicians and medicines for the poor. 
There was also a budget allowance of about  
4,000 pesos for a municipal laboratory, but 
when the Americans assumed control and 
General McArthur called on the city authorities 
to turn over the sanitary service, there appears to have been nothing taken over.   
All had to be organized de novo. 

Photographs loaned by the Board of Foreign 
Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The majority of the towns in the Philippines  
are along the coast, on low land 
at the junction of a river.  Ready means 
of transportation probably determined 
the selection of these most insanitary 
sites.  Manila, for instance, is a tidal flat 
intersected by the mouth of the Pasig 
River and numerous esteros or canals. 
That portion of Manila north of the 
Pasig River has an elevation above mean 
high tide of from one to five feet, the 
portion south of the river an elevation of 
from one to nine feet.  With this extremely 
low level it will readily be understood 
that sanitation would be a hard 
problem even under the best conditions. 
Considering those which really exist, the 

Says Mary H. Fee: To the land holding aristocrat our Government  says: "Come out and aid us to help thy brother, that he may some  day rob thee of thy prerogatives" and to the peasant who is utterly unable to extricate himself from the necessity of working for  a pittance for the aristocratic class, "O thou cock-fighting,  fiesta harboring son of idleness and good nature, wake up, struggle,  toil, take thy share of what lies buried in thy soil and waves upon  thy mountain side and be as they brother, yonder."  Nor is my  picture complete if I do not add that, under his breath both peasant  and aristocrat reply 'Fool for what? That I may pick thy chestnuts out of the fire.'" Very good!