August 9th, 1912

I have been to the Dormitory where the girls from the  University and Normal Schools are boarded, and where Mrs. Burton, a  graduate of DePauw is matron.  I spoke 3/4 of an hour. Before I  had addressed the Filipino women at the Club Nacionalista, Miss  Marques, a Filipino University student presided, and I spoke to an  audience of beautiful young women in gay attire.  We have dined  with Judge and Mrs. Lobingier, and got home just before a typhoon  which flooded the city.  Some of the guests got caught in it  and the water came in upon the floor of their carriages.  We had  to stay in a great deal last week as typhoons were frequent and rain continuous.  We spent the time reading reports.  I went to the Bureau of Science four mornings, where I went over pictures of  the Philippines.  The Government has 100,000. I have now arranged  for 89 slides to be sent me later.  We have been to the  opera one night as guests of the "Company," and I had them all for  dinner the same night.  The guests were Mr. and Mrs. Quinan, 

[*267*] 
SANITATION IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
SINCE AMERICAN OCCUPATION, 
WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO REDUCTION IN MORTALITY 
BY ELIMINATION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES, 
ESPECIALLY UNCINARIA 

VICTOR G. HEISER, M.D. 
Passed Assistant Surgeon, Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service; 
Chief Quarantine Officer and Director of Health for 
the Philippine Islands and Professor of Hygiene, 
Philippine Medical School 
MANILA, P.I. 

In response to the kind invitation of the Association 
to prepare a paper on tropical sanitation, it was not considered 
amiss to give a brief description of the work 
which has been done in the Philippine Islands, in order 
that the profession at home may be in a position to judge 
whether the same high standard achieved in Cuba and 
Panama and other American tropical possessions nearer 
home has been reached there. 

The Philippine Islands are so far away from the 
United States and it so frequently happens that conditions 
there are not known that I will take the liberty 
of giving a brief description of the islands as they appeared 
at the time the United States took possession of 
them.                       

GEOGRAPHY OF THE ISLANDS 

The group is composed of about three thousand  
islands and extends from 21º 25' latitude to 4º 45' latitude,  
and from 116º to 127º longitude, has an area 
greater that the states of Pennsylvania, New York, New 
Jersey and Maryland, and has a coast line equal to that 
of the United States.  There are two prevailing winds 
during the year, one known as the northeast monsoon, 
which blows almost continuously from November to 
April, and the other known as the southwest monsoon, 
which blows from April to November, the latter being  
the period during which the destructive typhoons occur. 
These conditions produce a climate which varies greatly

Miss Jessie Quinan, Mr. and Mrs. Peacock, Mr. and Mrs. Thornton.  Hartzell and Howard Quinan and Mr. Linnell. We had Miss Amanda  Little, Matron of Bilibid Prison one night. She is a grand woman.  We also went one night at 7:30 to Bilibid to see "Retreat." At  that hour the men march out into the yard and have a fine gymnastic  training while the band plays. The prison was built by the  spaniards and is in the shape of a wheel. In the center, the hub  is a tower. From the front gate, visitors (with permits) may go  up some winding stairs to a bridge about 2-ft. wide which leads  to the tower. At that elevation one may see into all the yards at  once, although the prisoners cannot see out of the yard they occupy.  The detention prisoners were in grey. Those condemned in black and white stripes. Those promoted for good conduct wear brown  (khaki). The next promotion is blue and to the 1st class. Fully  90% were first class. Then, they may go to the Penal Colony at Palawan, where they are called colonists; they are promoted to be  free colonists and when time is up or they are pardoned, they may  get ground of their own. That prison is a wonder. A good looking  woman called and wanted to marry a prisoner. Upon looking the  matter up, they found he was soon to be sent to Palawan and later  his family could join him.  

The women were exercising at the same time the men were.  Every prisoner entered the yard and took his place with his tin plate and spoon in one hand. When they were formed in line, the  band played the "Star Spangled Banner," and Old Glory was slowly  hauled down the staff while these men stood with uncovered heads.  It was so quiet and done in such a solemn way that it was thrilling  and impressive, but this manner of "making Americans" has an amusing  side, which the Dr. saw of course. 

From Report Philippine Commission 1909.  
Penal Colony Palawan.  
50,000 cocoanuts planted.  
Schools conducted - nightschools adults and dayschools for 
children. 
6 barrios or villaged. 
Self-government - "850 men convicted of all sorts of crime 
unguarded, conducting a little community with its own government,  
officers and police over whom is a life sentence prisoner,  
convicted of murder. The prisoners have their own tribunals,  
elected officers and assess their own penalties for infraction  
of rules. The power of the superintendent is absolute, as he  
can disapprove the findings of the court, all elections, all appointments,  
all judgments, but the cases where interference is  
necessary are few. Founded upon principle of George Junior  
Republic. Incentive is present. There is always a grade before  
them which they can reach by industry and diligence.  
Skilled laborers may wear straw hats, and the colonists take  
pride in earning the right to wear the garb of civilian and  
graduate from the clothes that resemble the prison uniform. 
The more advanced grades have their own farms which they work  
on a profit sharing basis with the government and their own  
families. The highest grade receive pay.  

1910 - 973 colonists - 34 of whom had their wives with them.  
360 square miles is reserved for Colony.  

No fire arms are permitted on the reservation, nor are 
there guards, jails, prisons, yet peace and order are maintained 
as satisfactorily as in any ordinary community.  
80% were convicted of brigangage, homicide, robbery and murder  
are controlled by 5 Americans and 8 Filipinos.  With one exception 
the Filipinos are ex-colonists.  The Colony is expected  
to become self-supporting.  
The commission urged the passage by Congress of a law which  
will have the effect of providing for the taking out of naturalization  
papers for citizenship in the P. I. by aliens resident  
here.  It now happens that many of the more desirable class of  
citizens can in no way obtain the civil rights of the government,  
no matter how large their interests, or how permanent their residence,  
or how closely indemnified their interests may be with the  
future of islands.  It is recommended that Congress either pass a  
law which in itself will give the power of naturalization and define  
the rules and regulations to be adopted, or empower the  
Philippine Legislature to do so."  Poor men, no vote.  The Commission  would thrust it upon them.  
----------      
"There were charges against 310 municipal officials and  
justices of the peace, of whom 223 were found guilty." 

I have seen several convictions in the papers while  here of municipal officers.  One mayor in Cebu and one treasurer  were convicted for stealing horses belonging to the city.  The  A. G. & P. have a contract within motor distance from Manila, and  young Foy is in charge.  One day he sent three workers to change an anchor?  They had done so before and knew how.  Through their  carelessness they tipped over their boat and one who couldn't  swim was drowned.  About a week after he was buried, the Headman  of the village had Foy arrested.  They (he and his officers) tried to blackmail the company, but when the Company talked Yankee to them and told them they should be reported, they quickly released  him.  An Englishman said, "Well you got him out of jail  this time, but you won't next time.  Serves you bally well right  for sending em to school."  These things operate against self-government. On the other hand, the officers of a small town, gave  up their salaries in order to contribute the amount to the building  of a necessary road.  

1909 Report.  
"Death rate among troops in U. S. was for 1908 5.63, in the  
P. I. 6.82 and in Porto Rico 14.18" 
For 5 years statistics show 4 suicides per year to each  
100,000 in P. I. as against 14 to each 100,000 in U. S.  
March 1, 1908, the importation of opium was prohibited except  
for purely medicinal purposes, and the smoking of opium was  
likewise prohibited.  

Scholarships in P. I. Normal School established from money derived  
from funds "accumulated under opium act." 

Assembly passed compulsory education bill, vetoed by Commission  as no money to provide schools at once. 

Report 1910, Concerning Tribes. 
 "It is true the Filipino, the Igorot and the Moro are of common  
racial origin, but so are the Anglo-Saxon peoples, and there  
exists between the Filipinos on the one side and the Igorots and  
Moros on the other far greater differences than those which distinguished  
the German, the English and the Americans.  Indeed,  
the width of the gap between the Filipino, whose Malayan blood  
has been profoundly modified by intermarriage with people of other 
races, and who has attained to a degree of civilization far above  
that ever reached by any other Malayan people, and the wild man of  
the Luzon mountains, with his pure blood, his magnificent physical  
development and his primitive customs and instincts is very great." 

Report 1910.  
"Filipinos assured some tribes that American control would  
be only temporary and threatened them with future punishment when  
it should terminate." 

Miss Mabel E. McCalmont, was made Supt. of Philippine General Hospital in order to straighten out a "dissension among nurses" and discover leakage in money. She did both, saved the reputation  of the hospital, saved $12,000. per year in cost of running  the hospital and now has charge of plans and equipment of new  hospitals chiefly for the province.  

Miss Morilla M. Norton sent me a booklet she had written on  Charity in the Philippines?.  Convents and Convent hospitals built  by efforts of Spanish women; Bazars held by them in the middle  of last century for this purpose.  A Filipino nun founded the  Loobau orphan asylum with her own money, and she herself took 

Photo 
Door of the Pagsanghan Town, Laguna, P. I. 

Photo Magdapio Waterfall, Pagsanghan, Laguna, P. I. 

Photo  Pagsanghan River, Laguna, P. I. 

charge.  It now receives a small subsidy from the American Government.  These Convents supplied homes for orphans girls, taught girls all the education they had and introduced the beautiful  handiwork which now brings good prices in the market  Whatever  may be said about the inhumanity of the Friars, only good is spoken of the nuns.  We have visited some of these convents and found sweet faced, executive women as Mother Superiors. Tuesday, 
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