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Aug. 13, 1912

This morning the stars and stripes are flying everywhere from public and American buildings, and it is a holiday.  Fourteen years ago to-day the Spanish surrendered to Gen . Merritt and the American troops occupied the City of Manila. It is called Occupation Day.  The troops at Palawan Park will have games, speeches, etc. and/end their day with a big barbecue. Just how they will manage since the rain is pouring as usual, the  globe trotter cannot make out.  It seems a big cheeky to make Occupation Day a general holiday, since the natives did not welcome  the Americans.  Mr. Rafael Del Pan, who is a reputable Spaniard here, and whom we met in Java, invited us to join a  company of young people, of whom one was his very pretty daughter, to Pagsanjan (pronounced Packsan-han) one of the show places. We met them at the Paco Station at 3 p.m. Sunday and traveled until  7:20 by train.  It only rained a little and I was very glad to discover that Luzon is as truly tropical when one goes a little  into the Interior, as any of the more Southerly Islands.  We soon passed through groves of beautiful mango trees, then rich corn fields, then crossed bridges over little brooks, bordered by 

Photo Paseo de Maria Cristina, Pagsanghan, Lagua, P.I. 

When the Spaniards departed, they left a Church or a Cathedral in every town. 

Photo Laguna High School, Laguna, P.I. 

When the Americans leave, there will be a school house " on every hill top", and we hope no cock pit, opium den, dance hall, or  saloon in the valley. 

luxuriant graceful bamboo, with cocoanut and bananas in wild profusion.  The hemp looks so much like the banana that the uninitiated cannot detect the difference.  An American occupied the compartment with us and he told us that we must cross a bamboo bridge of some 300 yards length, about 3 ft. wide, with the hand rail broke  in many laces and the woven floor broken in many places also, so there was danger of falling through.  The bridge  was about 20 ft. above the water, but the water was not deep he assured us.  He has so well worked up by the time we arrived. It was as dark as a pocket, and only two lanterns came to meet our party of 8.  We walked on the railroad track, crossed a  railroad bridge, all time dreading the long bamboo bridge. Instead we came to a little ferry composed of two canoes placed side by side and covered with a woven bamboo floor, bamboo side rails and cover and pulled back and forth by a rattan used as a  rope, the natural rattan reaching across the river.  It was a  weird experience in the dark night, only the faint flicker of the  lanterns being visible.  The ferry had o cross twice to carry  us all.  After a few blocks more we arrived  at the Pagsanban Hotel, which was delightfully clean and comfortable.  The food was plentiful, although not skillfully cooked.  Our nets caged  some black mosquitos which registered 31 bites on me during the night.  Otherwise I arose at 6 a.m. refreshed.  At about 7 we made our arrangements to depart for the Gorge.  Clad in a borrowed  raincoat, rubbers and a borrowed strawhat, I joined the others at the back of the hotel, where eight canoes awaited us  each rowed by two boys and carrying one passenger.  We sat comfortable  against a chair back in the bottom, and in a mild rain   

178 - View on the Pasnsanjan River just below the Gorge, island of Luzon, Philippines. This is a typical canoe. 

180 - Upper Falls Pagsanjan, Island of Luzon, Philippines. The Fall at the end of the Gorge that we did not see. 

were rowed down a peaceful river, bordered by gentle hills  covered with cocoanuts and big bamboos bent lovingly over the  banks. Many palms of other varieties, bananas and a wild profusion  of vines trailing from one tree to another, was picturesquely  beautiful on all sides. Soon we came to a bed of big rocks  which made a wild rapids. It looked skittish, but our boys  jumped into the water, and wading through pulled the canoes after them. There was a space of more smooth surface, then a wilder  and deeper rapids; more river and a still wider and deeper  rapids, then more placid water. At the fourth rapids which  looked well nigh impassable, the Dr., Mr. Del Pan and I turned  back, the young people all dressed in bathing costumes went on,  for now the passengers too had to get out and scramble over the  rocks. For some time we had been in the Gorge, a circuitous  split in a mountain, with straight precipitous sides, covered  with moss, vines and small trees and crowned with palms. Sometimes  a sufficient space was allowed for a wide river, sometimes  it was very narrow. Everywhere it was wild, beautiful,  peaceful. Beyond the point where we turned back the Gorge was narrower and at the end was a large waterfall. We saw three of  the falls which fell from the table above. Often the turn in  the Gorge is so abrupt that it seemed as if we were in a Lake.  The return was more enjoyable, since we floated down stream. The  rain ceased, the sun came out and the surface of the water reflected  the trees on its bank. One little view was exquisite.  A woman was kneeling by the river's edge washing white clothes.  She was dressed in a scarlet camisa, and over her like a canopy  hung the feathery branches of a bamboo. The green, the white  and the red were reflected in the water, and would have made an artist snatch his paint box.  

Upon our return we visited a spring where the people come for  drinking water and where a fine spray in a stone bath house permits  a "mandy" or Dutch bath. We visited the market. We always  see new things. Here in the Philippines, they bring Ducks eggs  within about four days of hatching, by burying them in hot rice  which they reheat each day. By this time the duckling is formed,  but has not many feathers nor hard bones. They boil these eggs and they are considered a great luxury. An old woman offered  us one, when we stopped to watch her eat one, but we were not  curious. They also bury ducks eggs, fresh in mud and salt and  after a time the salt percolates through the egg and they are  also a delicacy.  

Then we visited a tumbledown building where we found four  school rooms with some 300 little primary boys and girls under Filipino teachers. There is also a high school in the hills,  but there is not room for these little ones. We saw canoes  rowed by fathers and big brothers carrying these little ones  with their books and slates when we went down the river, for the  schools here begin at 7:30. The banks of the river only rarely  revealed a house, but there are many hidden in the cocoanut  groves. Mr. Del Pan says it is an old saying that the cocoanut  is a coquette, for she only grows where there is a glass in  which to look at herself, which means that the tree grows best  near water.  

The town of Pagsanban is very quaint and picturesque, containing  a stone church of 1690, several stone walls with quaint  gates, grass and moss grown. Upon our return we drove in  carcomettas to the Lake (La Laguna) through Santa Cruz. We found Pagsanban had an imposing cement fate with three entrances,  just as there are in Berlin, where the middle one is for the  Kaiser, the others for the common folk. Long after walls ceased  to be needed by towns, they apparently built gates, a good example  of how the world holds the form of old things long after  the need or the meaning is gone. We found at Santa Cruz a fine  Government Building for the Province of La Laguna. We returned  through the rain without event, arriving at the hotel at 7:30.  It was not a comfortable trip, but one well worth while. We wish  we could have a picture of all the vehicles we have driven in.  The Dr. is small, yet the carometta was so narrow that it made me  black and blue on my hip, and I had to take my hat off.  

The Dr. had a private talk with Mr. DelPam which she took some  satisfaction in repeating to me, although he had begged her not  to hurt my feelings. He says he is not liked by either  Filipinos or Americans because he tells both sides what he thinks.  I believe this, and that he is in general a very fair-minded man,  but naturally with a bias against the American administration and  favorable to the Spanish. He says the Cable News and the Times  say all good things of Americans and all bad things of the  Filipinos, and that the Free Press and the Guardia do the reverse.  The attitude of those four papers are ever widening the  differences between the Filipinos and Americans. I believe this.  He says the Americans spend the money which comes from the  Filipinos on those things which help American property - and on  Bagio which is used by Americans, and that tennis and golf links  have been put up there but only Americans are permitted to  play. That schools are conducted only to introduce English, which     is unpleasing to the old ones who only know Spanish. The Filipinos expect Japan to come and seize them and believe that the U.S.  is too far off to protect them. They think if they had independence  they could get all the other nations aroused to protect  them against Japan upon the claim of a general fear of "the  yellow peril." The plain truth is no nation is good enough to rule another, but this conquering of Asia by Europe is undoubtedly  awaking the sleeping millions into some sense of their backwardness,  and although antagonisms exist everywhere between the natives  and the overlords, which makes life somewhat irritating to those  who live in the midst of it, yet these are growing pains which  will make these children of the race grow into sturdier nations  by and bye. Meanwhile, it should be the aim and never forgotten  object of each European and American nation, to be honest, philanthropic       human guardians or trustees over their respective  charges. These Western nations hold their tenure by military  not ethical titles, and there is a tendency to emphasize the  character of the title. Alas, no man is fit to rule another and  no nation is fit to rule another people.  

Mr. Del Pan, who is exceedingly well informed and well read,  told us it is an old saying of the Filipino that the monkey knows  very well how to talk, but he never speaks in the presence of  man, for if he did he would have a tax on his head. (The cedula  (or poll tax) was an old device of the Spaniards and has continued  under the Americans.) 

He told us that Rizal, who was called the elder brother of  the Malay race, and who did write some very fine philosophy concerning  the needs of these people, and for his talents was hung  by the spaniards, had one Spanish and one Chinese ancestor. He  claims that the Filipinos are a much more mixed people than is usually supposed because for 300 years there have been constant  migrations of young men from Spain, Mexico, China, Japan, England,  France, etc., and now America.  These men never brought their  wives but found them here.  Mr. D. P. puts it well.  "These men  had no race prejudices in matters of love and marriage."  A few  nights ago we saw a sample.  We went in an auto at 9 p.m. with  Mr. Rice and Mrs. MacVeagh of our hotel to the Santa Ana dance  hall.  This is one of many in Manila and the provinces.  They  are now controlled somewhat, but are an inherited institution from  old times.  Men sit on one side and women on the other.  The men  are mainly soldiers, the women young girls.  A band plays four  minutes and rests one.  When it begins as many men as wish to  dance, cross the women and select partners.  Each girl carries a  palm lead fan which she puts between her and the man.  Whether  this protects her modesty or allows the man to get near enough to keep the fan from dropping, I do not know.  When the music stops, the man pays the girl 20 centavos, or 10 cts., and she  walks to the cashier who takes 10 centavos for the hall and gives  her 10.  A girl makes from 1 to 3 pesos (50 cts. to 1.50) per  evening, and she can only make 1 peso in a week by embroidery I think.  Everything was respectable in appearance.  The hall  closes at 12 m.  On the man's side are tables and when not  dancing most men are drinking and all smoking.  At midnight, what  happens?  It is not difficult to conjecture!  We attempted to go  to another dance hall.  We never arrived, and we did get back to  the hotel in two calesos at midnight, having escaped in a man's  arms from am auto stuck in the mud by means of a carometta, a  wait under a dripping cave, with curious natives looking on, and 

First Woman Pleader in  
the Philippines.  
For the first time in the history  
of the Supreme Court of the Philippine  
islands, a woman has appeared  
before that body to plead her own  
case.  This was August 1 when the  
case of Simona Samaniego against  
Vivencia Casiano was heard.  The  
case had been originally heard before  
Judge Crossfield, and was appealed  
to the higher court. 
 It is one in which the plaintiff,   
Simona Samaniego, is suing her  
stepmother, Vivencia Casiano, for  
an accounting of the property left  
the former by her father.  The  
plaintiff was an infant at the  
time of the death of her father,  
and claims that the stepmother  
refuses to turn over the property  
left her.  The estate involved  
amounts to about 15,000 pesos, and  
consists of residences and real estate  
in Ermita and Malate.  
It seems that the defendant, Vivencia,  
has no faith in lawyers, and  
preferred to make her own defences  
and arguments.  She accomplished  
this in a very creditable manner,  
being entirely unabashed in appearing  
before the august body.  She  
spoke for a long time, and her arguments  
were clear and well delivered.  
The hearing attracted considerable  
attention in the Supreme Court  
building.  The case has not yet been  
decided by the court, but decision  
will be handed down shortly. -  
"Manila Times." 


Writes to Merchants' Association 
about Plans for Tourists 

Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, the 
noted suffragist, put most of her 
time to forwarding the votes for  
women case among the Filipinos 
but she found time to do a little 
sight-seeing and among other places 
visited Pagsanjan. Mrs. Catt wrote 
the following letter to the publicity 
committee of the Manila merchants'  
association before departing 
on the Sigismund, and in the letter 
states that she was disappointed  
in Manila on arriving, as it was not 
 as tropical as she expected, but that 
the gorge in Pagsanjan had tropical 
foliage enough and to spare. Mrs. 
Catt makes a suggestion regarding 
the arrangement of a trip to both 
Pagsanjan and Taal volcano, returning 
to Manila by boat from the 
latter place. Her letter follows: 
"You will be surprised to know  
that we have been to Pagsanjan. 
We joined a part and although 
it rained all the time, we think 
the gorge is well worth the trouble 
and discomfort. The chief satisfaction, 
however was in the discovery 
that the interior is really tropical. 
Manila is a disappointment in  
that particular and one gets no idea 
at all of the islands from a stay  
here. The usual American globe 
trotter does not get into the tropics 
at all, and I agree with you that a  
very important education for tourists 
and especially Americans could be 
prepared by a little perseverance. 
" A trip to Pagsanjan by train, 
remaining over night and visiting  
the gorge in the morning and the 
falls, which I understand are only 
about four miles away, in the afternoon 
by good arrangements could  
be made to visit the lakes and  
volcano and return by boat in the 
afternoon, there would be a delightful  
day. In India and Java there are 
government rest houses for such places." 


"Dr Aletta Jacobs, the companion 
of Mrs. C.C. Catt and herself a 
noted women's suffrage champion 
in her native country of Holland, 
left yesterday on the Prinz Sigismund 
for Hongkong. She will 
remain with Mrs. Catt through 
China and Japan, parting from her 
American friend at Yokohama, the 
latter connecting with a liner for the  
States while Dr. Jacobs will repair 
to her homeland and take up her 
work there. 
Speaking of her impressions of 
the Philippines and conditions here 
Dr. Jacobs said yesterday to a  
TIMES man:-"I think the Philippines  
are a delightful place. That  
is, I think that Manila is, for that 
is all, owing to the weather, that 
we have been able to see of the  
islands. We have been treated excellently 
well by the people here 
and I shall have nothing but the 
most pleasant recollections when 
I leave and get back to Holland. 
"I have visited your hospitals and 
your other institutions and am personally 
of the opinion that you are  
governing excellently well. Perhaps 
a little too much freedom and exercise 
of the power of government is 
given the natives but time will tell 
if it is justified or not. They themselves 
will be the ones to decide if 
it has been well to give all those 
things to them. We do not do it 
in Java, Sumatra and the other colonies 
of my country. Each village, 
to be sure, runs itself and has its 
own say in its municipal affairs, 
but there is always a Dutchman who 
is the head of all and the final arbiter. 
We think it is best to do things that way. 
"Give the Philippines Independence?  
I don't think that would 
be wise or beneficial at this time 
and not for years to come. I am 
sure that the people here are not 
ready for it yet and that it would 
be a big mistake." 
Dr. Jacobs is the first and was 
for years the only woman physician 
in Holland. She first took up 
general practice but when she married 
became a specialist in women's 
diseases. She is an ardent women's 
suffrage champion, and president of 
the association in Holland. 

Manila Times, Aug 16, 1912 
Mrs. Catt Organizes Local 
Women for Work 

Manila is to have an active, fully 
organized woman's suffrage society 
or club. The organization of this 
association was perfected yesterday 
at the Manila hotel by Mrs. Carrie 
Chapman Catt, at a meeting held 
with several of the more prominent 
American and Filipino women of 
the city. The association is to 
be known as the Society of 
the Advancement of Women 
and it has four American and 
four Filipino lady officials. They 
are: president, Mrs. C.S. Lobingier;  
vide president, Senora Victorino  
Mapa. The minutes of the  
meetings are to be kept in two languages, 
Spanish and English. Mrs. 
Calderon will act as Spanish secretary 
nd Mrs. Saleeby will be the 
English secretary. Mrs. Goodale 
is treasurer of the society and there 
is an advisory committee composed 
of the following well known 
ladies: Senora Teodoro Kalaw, Senorita 
Lopez and Mrs. Quinan. 
The first meeting of the society 
will be held on August 29th, at 
the home of Mrs. Logingier on 
Calle San Marcelino. 
In speaking of the society and its 
formation yesterday Mrs. Catt said 
to a TIMES man this morning: "The 
society will, of course take up whatever 
work it desires, but its first  
object will be to study the women's 
suffrage movement. The society 
already has quite a number of 
members and they are the most prominent 
and best women in the city. 
I feel sure that the organization of  
this society here will do an immense 
amount of good in more ways than 
Asked regarding her impressions 
of the Philippines and the conditions 
here, Mrs. Catt, who leaves 
this evening on the Prinz Sigismund 
for Hongkong, said: "I feel that 
I have been here such a short  
time that I do not fully understand 
conditions as I should like to and 
for that reason am thinking of  
returning again next year. Personally, 
I found things very interesting 
here. Results are being wrought 
out here which are going to tell for 
the hindrance or benefit of every 
Asiatic country. If the Filipinos 
are really benefited by the broad 
system of education which has been 
inculcated here, if they become 
imbued with ideas of business honesty, 
if they become able to handle 
the large commercial problems and 
can be trusted with the responsibilities 
of government, it will have 
an immense effect on other adjacent 
"I have heard from several sources 
that candidates for political 
preferment in the provinces have 
used money and that other corrupt 
practices have crept in. If such bad 
customs are kept up, England, 
France, Germany and the Netherlands 
will point to that as the final 
condemnation of the Asiatic countries 
to govern themselves, and it is 
of the upmost importance that the 
voters of the islands be made to  
see that and combine in condemning 
such practices. 
"For this reason I think it would 
be a wise step if the women 
of the country were given the right 
to vote for all agree that the women 
of the islands are more upright 
and honorable than the men and 
they would make the men be honest, 
Asked what she thought of the 
immediate independence idea, Mrs. 
Catt said: -"The people of the 
islands are much better off under the 
liberal policy of the United States 
than if they were given independence 
and all its attendant dangers. 
The United States hold the Philippines 
by as fair a title as 
any colonies are held by foreign 
countries; they came to us by 
the fortunes of war and to give  
them up would be an act of philanthropy 
and independence should 
not be given the islands until 
all the people are educated and 
their men are more fitted to cope 
with the political and commercial 
problems which now beset the archipelago. 
Independence, moreover, 
could not be given the islands at 
this time unless all the nations 
entered into an agreement to keep 
hands off under all circumstances 
and I feel sure that the various nations 
would not enter into such a  
covenant. Personally, I should 
like to see the islands converted  
into a territory and afterwards into 
a state, a part of the United States. 
I think that would be for their best 

then a calesa with a driver who wore a raincoat made of palm  leaves. The details are not likely to be forgotten by the  participants, and need no recording.  

I have had a meeting of American women and one of  Filipinos to talk over organization. It is plain the American  women are afraid of the question lest it hurts them with the men,  and the Filipinos are afraid of the ridicule of men - both  rather weak fiber.