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January 3, 1943

We just heard that as a result of the ambush, the Japanese were now scouting the hills in front of our farmhouse in Barotac and are burning nipa houses that they think are hiding places for the Filipino soldiers. Between the Filipino soldiers and the Japanese, there certainly is not very much left for the civilians.

The Filipino soldiers are burning all the towns and large houses along the main roads, and what they don’t burn the Japanese do. The civilians are caught between the two forces. One doesn’t dare express themselves for fear it will be taken the wrong way.

The Japanese have put out a warning and I am quoting it:

“The following persons shall be shot to death:

1. Anyone who blocks the way of the Imperial Japanese Forces by falling trees, destroying bridges, etc.

2. Anyone who acts directly or indirectly in favor of the enemy in whatever form or manner.

3. Anyone who fails to report the presence and activity of the outlaws.

4. Further, all the barrios and municipalities which are being used by the outlaws as base of operations, hiding places and for other purposes, shall be burned and destroyed, including whatever materials used by them, and the properties found in the said barrios or municipalities shall be confiscated. Anyone reporting the presence and activities of the outlaws will be given complete protection as collaborator of the Imperial Japanese forces.”

Commander in Chief

Imperial Japanese Forces

Island of Panay