9 December 1519

Friday 9 of said month, I measured the sun at 88o with a declination of 23o 31’, and our distance from the Equinox Line for the Southern part was 21o 31’, and the course was South-Southwest. We awoke to the right of Santo Tomé, with a large mount and stones of a certain length of coast on the South-Southwest part, and on this coast, 4 leagues out to see, we measured sea depth of 25 fathoms, clean, and the mounts are pointy with many reefs around them. In the aforementioned Brazil and San Tomé, there are many rivers and ports, and 6 leagues along the coast, there are many shallows  2 leagues from land, and a 12-fathom depth, and 10 and 8, while the cost runs Northeast Southwest, to Cabo Frio, with many islands and rivers, and in Cabo Frio there is a very large river, and Northeast of it, 9 leagues away, there is a very high mountain peak and 3 islands. The cape is at 23o, and in said cape there are 9 islands, left on the outside. Entering in said cape, there is a very large bay and the mouth has a very low island, and inside it is very large [Isla Grande, Large Island], with many ports, and as it is elevated, it is 2 leagues from the (vessel) called the Bay of Saint Lucía [between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo], and if you wish to enter, the island is to the left side, and is very narrow, yet there is a 7-fathom depth, and it is dirty, while outside there is a 20 and 25-fathom depth, and inside, , there are 18 fathoms. In said bay, there are a great deal of good people, and they are nude, and seek with hooks, mirrors and bells things to eat, and there is much brazilwood [tree used to dye flesh colour, amongst other uses] (…)

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