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Monday, 20 February 1565

We had the ships all ready to sail. We left Tuesday morning and sailed all day and all night the full length of the island. We sailed south southeast for that is the direction the island goes. By morning, we must have sailed 25 leagues and then we saw at the end of the island and discovered a way along the coast extending 33 leagues. Eight of us sailed on the batel, 25 on the frigate, all of us going north-northwest, south-southwest. As I have said, there are many islands a league or two in size and some reefs rise in between these islands. And we anchored in a bay, which was quite deep and was a haven for the ship. On this bay there is an islet near the shore. Between this islet and the shore it is shallow and further down, there is an inlet of salt water and going upstream they found fresh water. By the inlet’s bank the Indios have a small village. We went on a batel and a frigate with 40 men to explore the coast. We sailed the turn west 4 leagues and inside we found two coves and at the end the water was deep. From there, the coast runs north-northeast, south-southwest; 4 leagues from this coast there are three cliffs. The two are close together and other a little away from them. One of the two is very high and at the base is broken and rough so that it seems to be falling down. The one that is apart from the two is thick and round, full of forests on top. Between these cliffs and the shore any kind of ship could pass for, it has a depth of 20 brazas. Away from these cliffs, one league away, there is a small and low islet located west southwest of the cliffs. It is possible to pass between it and the cliffs. After going 4 leagues up we went to a big bay at a depth of 4 and 5 brazas. The ship and the batel anchored at one braza near a town which is adjacent to the sea. We were not able to disembark because the sea breaks far. We saw many Indios on the seashore.

We sailed one league lower, the coast extended northwest, south south-west all the way down and we got to a small iselt and between this islet and the shore the batels would not pass. We went around it from outside and reached a big bay with a depth of 4 brazas. The coast extended two leagues north north-west, south southwest. There we found some houses standing on a lagoon of fresh water. On the water they had rafts to transport them. We were not able to enter this place, there were Indios, and we threatened them with our harquebuses but then they got on their rafts and came in peace. They brought us sweet potatoes, and bananas. We went along the coast which runs northsouth by northwest southwest. We sailed another league and found two rivers of fresh water which ran into the sea. The bateles could enter. Many Indios who had their villages upriver appeared. We jumped on land at the mouth of one (river), signaling that they come in peace. Around 30 Indios came with their lances, shields and daggers and we made friends with them. We asked them for some pigs, rice and bananas and told them that we would pay for them. They said they would bring these in the morning, We waited for a day but they did not come. We sailed two leagues ahead.

The coast ran northeast, southeast. We entered an inlet which had a river. A big parao came to us which carried around 40 Indios. They wanted our friendship and asked the Captain to make a blood compact with them, The Captain agreed and was going with his soldiers but the Indios said he had to go alone and since the Captain refused to go alone, the parao sailed behind the point, put ashore some Indios whom we did not see. These came unseen through the mountain to where we were with their lances of bamboo with sharp iron tips. They saw a boy of the Captain who had strayed unarmed from his group. Two of them attacked bins, one hit him at the groin and from this wound he died. We rushed to that spot. The Indios fled into the mountain. We boarded our boats and sailed out and we saw the parao picking up the 4 Indios. We pursued them at full speed but their boats are very swift, and entered into one of those rivers. We sailed on to the island ahead by the coast which rune north-northeast, south southeast.

The next day, we went 8 leagues and from there we sailed the coast north northeast, south southwest. After having gone midway, we reached a big bay which was about 3 leagues. At the end of this bay, at the northern band, the whole area is inhabited. And in the middle of said bay, there is an outlet which is narrow and through this, small boats can pass. Afterwards, we returned to our ships. We had spent nine days in all away from them and when we got there we decided to take the ships to this bay that I have cited.

After nine days we anchored inside the bay adjacent to the town. Natives came to the ships in peace. They were given some merchandise that we were bringing and we made friends with them. They said they would bring us many hogs which we said we would pay for. They did not keep their word. Seeing this and the fact that they refused to give us anything by barter or any other way, we decided to go ashore and get them. We got around 30 hogs. Four principales went to the ship and we paid for these hogs that we had gotten. These principales showed us where Masawa, Abuyo and Tandaya are located. We decided to go to Masawa: This island is three leagues away from the end of this island; three leagues from this point going east west. Masawa is a small island of 3 leagues extending north south. Half of the island is higher, and this is a mountain; in the lower portion are plains. At the northern part, no port was found; at the southern part, there is a depth of 20 brazas and up to four ships can anchor there. Water was not available; natives nowhere to be seen; though four houses were sighted. So we did not anchor.

We saw a big island at the turn to the south a smaller one southwest, and still another southeast. The four natives we had with us said that it was Butuan which was in the island of Mindanao. And the one at the south was where cinnamon could be gotten. We decided to go there.

The natives begged us not to take them along for, the others with whom they were at war, would behead them. So the captain gave them fabrics and gave them many goods we were bringing and they were sent on a canoes and they went back to their land very much contented. We went in search of the island where cinnamon is found at the south, eight leagues away. We anchored there at the western band at the shelter of a shoal which is 1/4 league off the island. We anchored at 15 brazas, the place was deep and clean. We sent a batel of the flagship and the frigate to see the entire island. At the north eastern part there were many plains and there were some houses. We rounded the island but found it without a town and without a port for the ships. It is round and is very high land, in the middle there is a quebrada of two mountains which are very tall and the one at the east is the tallest. This island has a shoal, one league of land at the northeastern band which is visible at daytime. You will see a league of greenish water atop the shoal. I measured the sun in this island at 9 1/4 degrees. We were anchored in this island 4 days and afterwards, we sailed to go to Butuan in the island of Mindanao with a strong breeze. We were not able to get there but we reached another island named Bohol where we anchored. I measured the sun at 9 1/2 degrees longitude.

We saw the whole island full of plains and cultivated fields and we saw a few houses by the sea. We believed that the people were in the interior of the island. The maestre de campo went with 50 soldiers to see the land and to look for a native who could serve as their interpreter. Captain Martin de Goiti went another way on the batel of the flagship to see where he could find a port. On the frigate went Captain de la Ysla also to look for a port. When Captain Martin de Goiti left ship he encountered a parao loaded with rice and coconuts. He fired a shot at them. The natives flung themselves into the sea and swam to the land which was nearby. We got the rice we needed and filled eleven casks with it. The General wanted to pay the natives for the rice taken from them. The maestre de campo went through the land and covered more than three leagues. He did not find a town but only some houses. All the natives fled. He got an Indio and took him to the ship which we had anchored in the island.

Captain Juan de la Ysla brought news about having found a good port five leagues down from where we were. The General decided to go there in order to repair the flagship and from there dispatch it to Nueva Espana. Then he sent the ship San Juan with merchandise with the treasurer and factor on it to the turn of Butuan which was 20 leagues from here. We could not make it there on the big ships as the wind blew down the prow and the currents were very strong thus only the patax San Juan was dispatched. We took the armada to the port found by Juan de la Ysla.

Before we departed from the almiranta a boat coming leeward was sighted. Crossing one island to another on a batel with six soldiers and 10 marines, they caught up with it. It was a small junk of around 20 tons that had 50 to 60 very brave natives aboard with their weapons, small culverins and arrows. It was with these small culverins that they very skillfully shot their arrows which were very small and thin. At the end of the culverin there was a lance tip of iron with which they wounded their adversary. When they ran out of arrows, they brought out lances and shields and two small bronze cannons.

When the batel arrived, the natives were told to lower their sails because they wished to talk with them. Their response was given in broken Spanish and they showed them roasted chicken and arrows and lances. Because those on the batel were a small number they did not go alongside the parao. Two culverins were fired at them by the natives and they countered with theirs. While this was going on, the batel of the flagship arrived with the maestre de campo and Captain Martin de Goiti and 40 men aboard. They distributed themselves on both bateles and the maestre de campo entered the batel of the almiranta and decided to go alongside the parao. The natives had their parao filled with bales of fabrics of the land and fought behind these. There were so many arrows, shots of culverins and lances that many of our men on the bateles were wounded. Finally, the Spaniards boarded the parao prompting many of the natives to jump into the sea. Others escaped in a canoe that they had brought on their boat; some died; taken alive were 10 or 12 and three women. Two of our boys and a soldier were killed; many were wounded.

After this event, they brought their junk loaded with gold; bales of white material, painted blankets, bronze bells, porcelain, small bowls or pots, copper, iron, tin, and many other goods for barter. They said all of these belonged to the King of Bornei and that with these merchandise they had come to these islands to barter gold. The General did not consent that anything brought on the boat be taken from them. And he found out who had taken gold from them and ordered that it be returned and he gave them back their boat and told them they were free to go where they pleased.

On this boat there was a pilot who was bringing his compass and magnet and made signs by way of telling us that over there, there were many islands and that Borney was at the turn of the west from where we were anchored and that we could get there on our ships in ten days. It probably would take no more than four days because they do not do much sailing because of their poor sails made of mats. This junk had a foremast, main mast and mizzen mast and the rigging of rattan; anchors of wood; had two rudders, a stern. The other had its rigging of bamboo from the prow to the stern….. At this time of the year, the breeze reigns over this place; the land is temperate; it is neither cold nor warm. Every night there is a breeze blowing from the land, and by day at eight or nine the breeze blows east-eastsouthwest; eastnortheast….. From here the General ordered us to see an island that is west southeast. We went on the frigate, fifteen of us, in search of the small island at the turn southwest. We could not land. The night went by and we arrived at an island called Sicoyån. We went by it at the northeastern part and we did not come across any inhabited area by the sea. From here we went to an island named Vinglas, (Dinglas) the island of Negros –from one to the other, five leagues, running eastnortheast west southwest. Between the two islands there is a small high island, Vingla. By the sea the place is full of grasslands spreading out like sheets, one league from the sea; and further out there are very high mountains, at the foot of which are houses. We went to them and in one of them we found an old native with his wife and son and asked them where there were more natives. He said that way up high in the mountain there was a village of twenty houses and he told us that he would let his son take us there. We showed him some goods we had with us and gave him some of them. The boy went with us to the village but when we got there we did not find anyone because everyone had fled to the mountain. They began to call us in their language. We called them but they refused to come. Because it was late and the sun was setting and we were far from sea, we returned and went aboard our ships intending to return to Zubu.

On account of the swift currents and the wind which was blowing from northeast, in four days, we failed to go farther windward; we were forced to anchor leeward of the island….. Going this route, we found a town where the coast was northwest – southeast. The town had had about fifty houses. We went to the shallows. We anchored at the mouth of the river which was near the town. While we were anchored, three canoes loaded with people came; in all three there must have been 150 natives and there were others who came by land. When they saw us they dared not go further and they went ashore, and to their homes. They did nothing but load the canoes with their things. We called to them and told them that we were friends. They refused to come; rather, rather, they fled from us. As we saw this attitude of theirs, we left without having been able to talk to them. Throughout this island there are poor ports but there are plenty of rivers and some bays where we can anchor sheltered with the light breeze. All of this place is uninhabited…. We entered the land a little way to look for something to eat and for water, We got to a small town. The people fled from what might have been 30 houses. We did not get to these houses, nor did we get anything from them so as not to disturb them. We went back and forty natives blocked our way but refused to talk to us and instead threatened us. We got out our harquebuses to scare them; still they came at us and shot stones and arrows at us. We fired an harquebus. And later they ran away. We went back aboard the ship and while we were there around sixty natives appeared in addition to those from the other bay. In spite of this we continued on our way along the coast… all this land is plain, full of grassland and all of it seems to be inhabited. There were always natives on the shores, but whenever we tried to talk to them, they would run away from us. The coast is low: the boat cannot get close to it. No good ports can be found around… along all of this way, we did not see a single town nor any river.

From here we crossed to the island of Cubu and we sailed along its entire coast…eight leagues from there the coast went northnorthwest, we went southsouthwest six leagues and then turned southsouthwest six leagues. We found many villages by the sea; more than six hundred natives gathered on the shore shooting their arrows at us and threatening us with their lances and shields. So we went our way. This island has two outlets or channels of two leagues, between this island and Vinglas, island of Negros. According to the natives there are in Vinglas many Negroes in the mountainous areas of the island, I saw one with them with his lance and shield. From here we returned to the ships.

It took twenty two days to return to our armada, and they had already taken us for dead and drowned. They sent a parao to look for us with some natives who were friends of ours and two soldiers with them. They were told to go all the way to Cubu and they did, but they failed to get any information about us. The soldiers brought news that there was a good town and port there, the general decided to go there to establish a settlement there. Thus, we departed from this island for Cubu.