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August 24, 1899

Slept nearly all day when I was not eating. Country around here a vast marsh of rice fields. The town is about a mile away. The bridge (railroad) across the Rio Grande (the largest river in Luzon) at Calumpit has a caisson 120 feet down. It cost the company one-half a million dollars. Rebel trenches at Calumpit very strong, faced with iron one-half an inch thick. If the niggers had any sand could never have been dislodged. The bridge was saved from destruction by the persuasion of an Englishman resident in the town who owned stock in the railroad. Gen. Luna, who commanded the niggers, having collected dynamite to destroy the bridge felt he must use it, so blew up the church in lieu of something better. Out once in the night, 10-12.