8th-25th October, 1521

[The expedition passes by Sulu and Taghima (Basilan). Its crewmen marvel at the 47 Ib. pearl in Sulu; head toward the waters of Cauit (now Cawit, Zamboanga City), Subanin (approximately in Zamboanga City, a noted Subanen territory) and Monoripa (now Manalipa Island, Zamboanga City, where they found boathouses). Off these waters, they trade two large knives from Palawan for 17 libras of cinnamon; decide not to anchor so as to take advantage of the favorable wind going southeast. They sight the Maguindanao Sultanate whose capital is described as “a large city” (now Cotabato City) and plan to look for a pilot to help them reach the Maluku. They engage in a sea encounter off Maguindanao and capture a large Malay ship with relatives of the sultan of Maguindanao aboard. A brother of the Maguindanao sultan offers his services to the expedition as pilot. The expedition then reaches Benaian, a cape in Mindanao (approximately Kamanga, Maasim, Sarangani), whose inhabitants are described by Pigafetta as “shaggy men” and “exceedingly great fighters and archers.”]

Siguiendo singlando al este cuarta del noroeste, pasamos a lo largo de dos rancherías llamadas Cavit y Subanín, y cerca de una isla igualmente habitada, llamada Monoripa, a diez leguas de los islotes de que acabo de hablar. Los habitantes de esta isla no tienen casas, viviendo siempre en sus embarcaciones.

Las aldeas de Cavit y Subanín están situadas en las islas de Butuán y Calagán, donde crece la mejor canela. Si hubiéramos podido detenernos allí algún tiempo, habríamos cargado la nave, pero no pudimos hacerlo por aprovechar del viento, porque debíamos doblar una punta y pasar algunas islas que la rodean. De camino, algunos isleños se aproximaron a nosotros y nos dieron diecisiete libras de canela a cambio de dos grandes cuchillos que habíamos tomado al gobernador de Palaoán.

Habiendo visto el canelo, puedo dar su descripción. Tiene de cinco a seis pies de alto y no es más grueso que el dedo. Sus ramas no pasan jamás de tres o cuatro y sus hojas se asemejan a las del laurel: la canela de que hacemos uso es su corteza, la cual se cosecha dos veces por año. La madera misma y las hojas poseen idéntico sabor de la corteza. Se la llama cainmaná (de donde ha venido el nombre de cinnamomum) porque cain significa madera, y maná, dulce.

Habiendo dejado el cabo al nordeste, nos dirigimos a una ciudad llamada Mindanao, situada en la misma isla en que están Butuán y Calagán, para tomar un conocimiento exacto de la posición de las islas Molucas. Habiendo encontrado en nuestro camino un bignaday, embarcación que se asemeja a una piragua, determinamos tomarla: pero como esto no se hizo sin hallar alguna resistencia, matamos a siete de los dieciocho hombres que formaban la tripulación del bignaday, que eran mejor conformados y más robustos que todos los que habíamos visto hasta entonces. Eran jefes de Mindanao, entre los cuales estaba el hermano del rey, quien nos aseguró que conocía perfectamente la situación de las islas Molucas.

En vista de sus datos, cambiamos de dirección, dejando el cabo al sudeste. Nos hallábamos entonces hacia el 6° 7′ de latitud norte y a distancia de treinta leguas de Cavit.

Se nos dijo que en un cabo de esta isla, cerca de un río, hay hombres velludos, grandes guerreros y sobre todo famosos arqueros. Usan dagas de un palmo de largo, y cuando cogen algún enemigo le comen el corazón crudo, sazonándolo con ácido de naranja o de limón. Se les llama benayanos.

[131] Then we laid our course east by north between two settlements called Cavite and Subanin, and an inhabited island called Monoripa, located ten leagues from the reefs. The people of that island make their dwellings in boats and do not live elsewhere. In those two settlements of Cavite and Subanin, which are located in the island of Butuan and Caraga, is found the best cinnamon to be had anywhere. Had we stayed there two days, those people would have laden our ships for us, but as we had a wind favourable for passing a point and certain islets which were near that island, we did not wish to delay; while under sail, we bartered two large knives that we had taken from the governor of Palawan for seventeen pounds [of cinnamon]. The cinnamon tree grows to a height of three or four cubits, and is as thick as the fingers of the hand, and it has but three or four small branches. Its leaves resemble those of the laurel; its bark is the cinnamon. It is gathered twice per year. The wood and leaves give off as strong an aroma as the cinnamon when they are green. Those people call it caiumana: caiu means ‘wood’, and mana, ‘sweet’, hence, ‘sweet wood’.

[132] Laying our course toward the north-east, and going to a large city called Magindanao, which is located in the island of Butuan and Caraga, so that we might gather information concerning Molucca, we captured by force a biguiday (a vessel resembling a prau) and killed seven men. It contained only eighteen men, who were as well built as any whom we had seen in those regions, and all of them were chiefs of Magindanao Among them was one who told us that he was a brother of the king of Magindanao, and that he knew the location of Molucca. Following his directions we discontinued our course toward the north-east, and took that toward the south-east.

At a cape of that island of Butuan and Caraga, and near a river, are found hairy men who are very great fighters and archers. They use swords one span in width, and eat only raw human hearts with the juice of oranges or lemons; those people are called Benaian, ‘the hairy’. When we took our course toward the south-east, we lay in a latitude of six degrees and seven minutes toward the Arctic Pole, and thirty leagues from Cavite.

[Chart XIII appears here in original.]

Pagkatapos ay tinahak namin ang landas pasilangan sa hilaga sa gitna ng dalawang pamayanang tinatawag na Cavit at Subanin, at isang maytáong islang tinatawag na Monoripa, na matatagpuan 10 liga mula sa mga tangrib. Ang mga tao ng islang iyon ay nakatirá sa mga bangka at hindi namumuhay sa ibáng paraan. Matatagpuan sa naturang dalawang pamayanan ng Cavit at Subanin, na nása isla ng Butuan at Calaghan, ang pinakamainam na tumutubong sinamomo. Kung namalagi kami doon nang dalawang araw, pinunô sana ng mga táong iyon para sa amin ang mga barko namin, subalit dahil mayroon kaming magandang hangin upang daanan ang isang punto at ilang maliliit na isla malápit sa islang iyon, hindi na namin ninais na maantala. Hábang naglalayag, nakipagpalit kami ng dalawang malalakíng kutsilyo na kinuha namin mula sa gobernador ng Pulaoan para sa labinpitong pound [ng sinamomo]. Lumalaki ang punò ng sinamomo sa taas na tatlo o apat na kubito, at singkapal ng mga daliri ng kamay. Mayroon lámang itong tatlo o apat na maliliit na sanga at kahawig ng mga dahon nitó ang dahon ng lawrel. Ang balakbak nitó ang sinamomo, at tinitipon ito dalawang beses sa isang taon. Sintibay ng kahoy at mga dahon ang sinamomo kapag lunti silá. Tinatawag itong caiu mana ng mga táong iyon. Kahoy ang ibig sabihin ng caiu, at matamis ang mana, sa gayon, “matamis na kahoy.”

Pagtahak ng landas patúngong hilagang-silangan, at pagpunta sa isang malaking lungsod na tinatawag na Magindanao, na matatagpuan sa isla ng Butuan at Calaghan, puwersahan naming dinakip ang isang bigniday, isang sasakyang kahawig ng prau, upang maaari kaming makatipon ng kaalaman ukol sa Maluco, at nakapaslang ng pitóng tao. Mayroon lámang iyong labinwalong tao, at singganda ang kaniláng pangangatawan ng kahit sinumang nakita namin sa mga rehiyong iyon. Lahat silá ay mga pinunò ng Magindanao, at isa sa kanilá ang nagsabi sa aming kapatid siyá ng hari ng Magindanao, at na alam niya ang lokasyon ng Maluco. Gámit ang kaniyang mga direksiyon, hindi namin ipinagpatuloy ang aming landas patúngong hilagang-silangan, at kinuha iyong patúngong timog-silangan. Matatagpuan sa isang tangos ng naturang isla ng Butuan at Calaghan, malápit sa isang ilog, ang mga mabubuhok na tao na napakahuhusay na mandirigma at tagapana. Gumagamit silá ng mga espadang may habàng isang palad, at kumakain lámang ng mga hilaw na puso ng tao kasáma ang katas ng mga kahel o limon. Tinatawag na Benaian35 ang mabubuhok na táong iyon. Noong tinahak namin ang aming landas patimog-silangan, naroon kami sa latitud na anim na digri at pitóng minuto patúngong Polong Arctico, at tatlumpung liga mula sa Cavit.

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